MUCH ADO ABOUT MY NOTHINGS: MOB WIVES FIGHTING VERSUS BASKETBALL WIVES WHO WOULD YOU BET ON?

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The reality show housewives franchises are ratings bonanzas for the cable networks, populated with over the top, sassy, mouthy, often washed up/carved up has been beauties and stressed out firecrackers.  Everyone knows Nene Leakes from The Real Housewives of Atlanta, Time Bomb Tammy and Evelyn from Basketball Wives Miami, Gloria, Loud Mouth Laura Govin, Malaysia, and Whacky Jackie from LA Basketball Wives and of course, those tough broads from Staten Island, the Mob Wives, Renee, Drita, Carla, Karen.  Don’t get me wrong, the drama can be intoxicating.  After watching Mob Wives, I got to wondering, who would win in a boxing match? Oooo, maybe that’s new reality show!  Reality Wives Boxing Champ….Anyhoo, it’s fun to speculate…

FIRST ROUND: BOSS LADY VERSUS BOSS LADY

SHAUNIE O’NEAL v.s.  RENEE GRAZIONO

SCRAPPY versus SCRAPPY

DRITA v.s. EVELYN

TAMMY vs. KAREN

CARLA vs. GLORIA

EIGHTH WONDER THE NOVEL EXCERPT SIGNING, RENTON WA (Thomas Bethune, Autism, Autistic Savant)

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THANK YOU, Seattle!

The turnout at the newly remodeled Renton Holiday Inn was absolutely incredible at the premier of “I Will Never Breath The Same As Yesterday,” the self-published novel of first-time author Stacey Willis, where I was invited as the celebrity guest speaker.  I shared my writing experiences as a former L.A. Times journalist, my experiences in Hollywood, getting my start by Producing B-movies to writing for Tyler Perry’s House of Payne  and “Meet the Browns,” as well as my upcoming t.v. shows “A Different Kind of Family” and the one hour drama “Boyz N Blue.”  In addition, I explained how I came to discover the genius slave prodigy and classical pianist Thomas Bethune while researching prodigies for my thesis in graduate school.

 

I signed stacks upon stacks of excerpts of EIGHTH WONDER.  The hotel room was packed to capacity!  The photo below was taken before the start.

Daria, sissy, Cal set up and manned the table.

The greatest part was seeing a room filled with many familiar faces from as far back as elementary school! More Pictures and video from the event will be forthcoming!

I want to thank you Stacy Willis for inviting me out to speak.  Thank you to Eugene Sarigumba, the cinematographer for the event. Thank you to the WONDERFULmusicians, led by Eldgridge.  It was an extremely classy and wonderful affair.

A great launching pad for the novel EIGHTH WONDER. I will be attending additional excerpt signings in the Seattle area, at bookstores, the Fairmont hotel downtown, and a few coffee shops over the next few months. I am grateful to my birth city for all your support!

A.M. Calberg

Here’s the trailer from my first and last mutlimillion dollar scary movie as a Producer.

index.jsp?oid=113748

Meet the Browns (film)

Image via Wikipedia

CHANGING HORSES IN THE 19th Century

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Sorry I’ve been away so long.  I’m still working on EIGHTH WONDER.  Thank you to all who are interested in my book, I’m truly humbled by the responses I’ve received from a work that is not completed yet.  I’m so excited about my progress and truly appreciate all the support and inquiries about when this book will be finished.

This book has been five years in the making.  I finally had time to take some invaluable writing classes.  My first was from L.A. Workshops this past year with Adam Cushman.  I also learned a great deal about the craft from taking editing classes from another teacher, which gave me my lightbulb moment on novel writing.  The classes have given me the tools I need to rewrite my novel with skill and confidence.  I’m 3/4 of the way through the manuscript!  It actually reads and feels like a real, well-crafted novel.  (In my humble opinion.)

While working on rewriting PART ONE of my book, I had to do some research about how people traveled in the past and came across this great blog from the twonerdyhistorygirls hosted by talented historical romance authors: Lauretta Chase and Susan Holloway Scott.

See below:

 

The Runaway Coach

According to Cecil Aldin’s The Romance of the Road, “The more wealthy sent on relays of horses for the shorter journeys, or might hire post-horses where necessary.” Gentlemen who constantly traveled the same route might have their own teams stabled along the way.  A good alternative is to hire horses from the outset.  In the case you describe, while it’s possible that a gentleman would use his fine carriage horses for the first stage of a long journey, it’s equally possible he preferred to use hired animals.

I invite our horse and carriage experts to weigh in on this interesting topic!

Illustration credits
Above left: James Pollard, Mail Changing Horses at the Falcon Inn, Waltham Cross, courtesy Wikipedia.  Below right: Thomas Rowlandson, The Runaway Coach, courtesy Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection.

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EIGHTH WONDER: THE THOMAS BETHUNE STORY

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Where have I been the past two years?  I’ve been writing.  I finally took a workshop for EIGHTH WONDER last March (2013) and I’m currently workshopping with the wonderful Susan Wyler (author of SOLSBURY HILL).  It’s a great, tough, fulfilling, lengthy journey, this debut novel of mine, however, I’m hoping it will be worth it.  So for those asking, the goal is to have EIGHTH WONDER completed before I start my doctoral program.  Yes, I’m going to be Dr. Cal in a few years. 

I already know my second novel, however, getting EIGHTH WONDER finished is a priority.  This will be year 5.  It MUST get done.  Thank you for your interest and your support.  It’s been overwhelming!

 

Stay tuned!Image

19th Century Theater Stage Lighting, History

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A Brief Outline
of the
History of Stage Lighting

Reference:
Bel Geddes, Norman. Miracle in the Evening. Garden City, NY: Double Day and Co., Inc. 1960
Bergman, Gosta Mauri. Lighting in the Theatre. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 1977
Fuchs, Theodore. Stage Lighting. New York: B. Blum. 1963 (1929)
Hartman, Louis. Theatre Lighting: A Manual of the Stage Switchboard. New York: DBS Publications. 1970 (1930)
Owen, Bobbi. Lighting Designers on Broadway: 1915-1990. New York: Greenwood Press. 1991.
Owens, Bobbi. Scene Designers on Broadway. New York: Greenwood Press. 1991.
Pendleton, Ralph. The Theatre of Robert Edmond Jones. Middletown, CT. Wesleyan University Press. 1958

On the Internet:
Kliegl Bros.Collector’s Society


Lighting EquipmentLighting DesignersLighting EducatorsTime Line: 1880…Lighting Equipment

General Illumination: Candle – Oil Lamp – Gas – ElectricSpecific Illumination: Lime Light – Arc Light – Electric Spotlight

General Illumination
General illumination provides a diffuse, shadow less, wash of light over the entire stage space.

  • Candle
    • Italy – 1580-1618: Candles are introduced in both the academic (Teatro Olimpico) and court (Teatro Farnese) theatres.
    • England – 1600s: Used in the private (indoor) theatres and Ingo Jones’ (1573-1652) Court Masques .
    • 1660s: Reintroduced during the English Restoration.
    • Mounting Positions: Chandeliers over both the stage and the house, Front edge of the stage (footlights), and “Ladders” between each pair of side wings.
  • Oil Lamp
    • 1780s: Swiss chemist Aime Argand develops the modern oil lamp which soon replaces the candle as the primary light source.
    • Mounting Positions: The same as with candles–Chandeliers, Foot lights, and Ladders in the wings.
  • Gas
    • 1816: The world’s first gas stage-lighting system is installed at the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia.
    • 1817: Gas-lighting systems are installed in London’s two legitimate houses: Drury Lane and Covent Garden.
    • 1820s: Gas light is in experimental use in most countries of the Western World.
    • 1840s: Gas lighting is widely adapted and the gas table (control board) makes its appearance.
    • 1880s: The incandescent mantle (the Auer burner) is introduced producing a much brighter and safer light.
    • Mounting Positions: Footlights, Border Lights (horizontal “strip lights” hung between each pair of scenic borders), and Wing Lights (vertical “strip lights” between each pair of scenic wings). For example in the late 1850s, the stage of the Royal Theatrein Stockholm was illuminated with 562 burners:
      • 66 in the Foot Lights,
      • 8 sets of Wing Lights with 9 gas jets each, and
      • 8 Border Lights with 44 burners per position.
  • Electric
    • 1878: British inventor Joseph Wilson Swan (1829-1914) patents the worlds first incandescent electric lamp.
    • 1879: Thomas Edison (1847-1931) receives the American patent for his incandescent lamp.
    • 1881: London’s Savoy Theatre (the home of the Gilbert and Sullivan Operettas) installs the world’s first electric lighting system– 824- 16 candle power Swan lamps were used to light the stage and an additional 334 lights illuminated the auditorium. As Savoyproducer, Richard D’Oyly Carte, explained…

      The greatest drawbacks to the enjoyment of the theatrical performances are, undoubtedly, the foul air and heat which pervade all theatres. As everyone knows, each gas-burner consumes as much oxygen as many people, and causes great heat beside. The incandescent lamps consume no oxygen, and cause no perceptible heat.

    • 1882: The first American installation of electric lights is at Boston’s Bijou’s Theatre.
    • 1890s: By the end of the 19th century most “modern” theatres have switched from gas lights to the much safer electric lights.
    • 1903: Kliegl Brothers installs an electrical lighting system with 96 resistance dimmers (and 20 additional dimmers for house lights) at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. See the illustration below.
    • Mounting Positions: The same as with gas-lighting: Footlights, Borderlights and Winglights. When the new Stockholm Opera House opened in 1898, the stage was illuminated with a three color (white, red, and green) lighting system using 544- 25 candle power lamps per color– a total of 1632 lights.
      • 40 lamps per color in the Foot Lights,
      • 9 Border Lights with 40 lamps per color.
      • 9 sets of Wing Lights with 8 lamps per color, and

 

The Metropolitan Opera House, New York City
(1903)

The above illustration of the “new” electrical system at the Metropolitan Opera House is from a 1913 Kliegl Brothers catalogue. Note the eight set of border lights above. the four sets of wing lights on the sides of the stage, the seven bunch lights mostly up stage, the switch board in the basement and the electrician standing in the “prompter’s box.”Specific Illumination
Specific illumination, introduced by the lime light in the middle of the 19th century, provides a sharp, highly controlled shaft of light. These shafts were used to highlight a small area of the stage, a principle actor, or create the illusion of sunlight (or moonlight). These units were typically placed in the balconies of the auditorium or the galleries on the sides of the stage house. The 1903 electrical installation at New York’s Metropolitan Opera included 14 lens boxes (spotlights), 12 powerful open faced carbon arc flood lights and 12- 12-lamp bunch lights (floodlights) in addition to the four color (white – amber – red – blue) foot lights, proscenium lights, and the eight sets of border lights.

  • Lime Light
    • 1816: The calcium light (also known as a limelight or Drummond light) is demonstrated by Thomas Drummond, it’s inventor.
    • 1837: English actor-manager Charles Macready uses a limelight at London’s Covent Garden.
    • 1870s-1880s: The limelight is in general use in “modern” theatres. By the end of the 1880s as many as eleven units were used in productions at Stockholm’s Royal Theatre .
    • 1890s: The limelight is beginning to be replaced by the newer and brighter carbon arc lamp.
  • Arc Lamp

    Kliegl No 5
    5″ 25 amp
    spotlight
    • 1807: Sir Humphry Davy demonstrates a carbon arc lamp powered by a 2,000 cell battery. Further development is halted by the lack of a readily available power supply.
    • 1832: Hippolyte Pixii, a French instrument maker, builds an experimental direct current dynamo (generator).
    • 1849: An arc lamp is used to create a sunrise effect at the Paris Opera’s production of Meyerbeer’s Le Prophete.
    • 1878: Charles Brush develops a practical dynamo making the carbon arc lamp a workable light source.
    • 1890s: The carbon arc lamp begins to replace the calcium light in the “modern” theatre. The illustration on the left is a Kliegl No. 5, a 5″ Lens Box with a 25 amp (2750 watt) carbon arc burner (1913).
    • 1920s: The newer and safer incandescent spotlight, using a modern 1000 watt lamp, begins to replace the carbon arc for general theatrical use.
    • 1990s: Carbon arc lamps continue to be used as a follow spot until the end of the 20th century.
    • 2000s: The high intensity discharge lamp (HID) replace the carbon arc burner in most modern follow spots.
  • Electric Spotlight

    Kliegl No. 5N
    5″ 1000 watt spotlight

    Klieglight
    8″ 1000 watt spotligiht 1936
    • 1904: Louis Hartmann builds a small (5″ lens) spotlight, a baby lens, which used a 50 candle power (approximately 50 watt) lamp for David Belasco’s production of The Music Teacher.
    • 1906: Hartman uses 4– 250 watt baby lenses (in addition to 31– 1,5000 watt carbon-arc spots) in Belasco’s The Rose of Ranchero.
    • 1907: Edison General Electric introduces the 500 watt lamp.
    • 1911: Edison General Electric introduces a “concentrated filament” lamp for use in a lens hood (spotlight).
    • 1913: Kliegl Brothers markets the No. 60, a 5″ Baby Spot built around a 100 candle power lamp. According to the catalogue, the unit provided a “mild ray of light.”
    • 1913: The 1000 watt lamp becomes available.
    • 1916: Designer Norman Bel Geddes replaces the carbon arc lamp in a lens box with a 1000w incandecent lamp.
    • 1920s: 5″, 6″ and 8″ PlanoConvex spotlights (lens hoods), using a 1000 watt lamp, begin replacing the Lime Light and Carbon Arc lamp.The illustration on the left is of a Kliegl No. 5N, a 5″ Lens Box with a 1000 watt lamp (1926). Note the similarity between the No 5 and the No 5N.
    • 1929: Kliegl Brothers introduces the Fresnel lens spotlight.
    • 1933: Both Kliegl Brothers (Klieglight) and Century (LekoLight) introduce the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight.
    • 1971: Altman Lighting introduces the 360Q axial ellipsoidal.
    • 1992: ETC introduces the Source4® ellipsoidal reflector spotlight

Lighting Designers

Adolphia Appia – Normon Bel Geddes – Robert Edmond Jones
Abe Feder – Jean Rosenthal – Peggy Clark
Tharon Musser – Jules Fisher – Jennifer Tipton
Beverly Emmons – Ken Billington

  • Adolphia Appia (1862-1928)
    Swiss writer/designer, Adolph Appiawas one of the leading visionary of the late 19th century. Many believe that the modern concept of lighting design began with his writings.In Die Musik und die Inszenierung (Music and Staging) (1899) he distinguished three kinds of stage light.

    1. Helligkeit, the “diffused light” which illuminated the general acting space,
    2. Gestaltendes Licht, the “creative light” which creates the highlights and shadows, revealing the three dimensional world, and
    3. Painted Light, the highlight and shadows painted on the scenery by the scenic artist. This static, painted light, was not a part of Appia’s vision.

     


    Tristan and Isolde

    Appia’s sketches indicate a plastic, three dimensional set (steps, columns, ramps, platforms) revealed in directional light. He believed that shifting light should create an inner drama which flows and changes with the texture of the music; that the intensity, color and direction of the light should reflect the changing atmosphere or mood of the work. Perhaps the best illustration of this concept is Appia’s mise-en-scene for Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde

    “The terrace in front of Tristan’s castle is modeled in light and shadows as a dream vision, in dazzling sunlight when Tistan sinks into unconsciousness, in the blood-red light of sunset fading into twilight and, finally, into a hazy darkness around the lonely, white figure of Isolde.” (Bergman. p327-328)

    Appia suggests four different lighting looks or cues:

    1. starting with (Q1) “dazzling sunlight”
    2. x-fading into (Q2) “blood-red light of sunset”
    3. fading into (Q3) “twilight” and
    4. finally (Q4) “hazy darkness.”

    This was difficult in 1899 when the primary lighting equipment consisted of foot lights, rows of border lights and perhaps a dozen lime lights (or arc lamps). 

  • Maude Adams (1872-1953)
    Maude Adams is best remembered today as the American actress who created the role of Peter Pan in James Barrie’s most famous play. According to a feature story in the January 5, 1908 issue of the New York Times, producer Charles Frohman decided, after three successive years on stage with The Little Minister, that his star needed a hobby. “‘Lights,’ thought Mr. Frohman ‘…I’ll set her to playing at light effects; the very thing for adding a new interest to this third year in one play.’” After a number of experiments, Miss Adams decided that the footlights were more of an impediment than a help. According to the Times story: “Nothing had as yet suggested itself in place of footlights. But the problem had reduced itself to the question of counteracting the force of the footlights. It must be a powerful sun-like light from above, Miss Adams knew. She saw proof of this at the Comedie Francaise one night when, lighted only by the great chandelier from above, the faces of Mounet Sully and the company grouped for the curtain call, were illumined in a finer manner than when all the border lights and footlights were in full operation.” In 1908 Miss Adams installed a 2′ deep by 32′ wide light bridge on the stage of Frohman’s Empire Theatre. The bridge would hold seven operators who could focus and refocus the seven incandescant spotlights which produced the “equivalent of 8000 candles.” The new light bridge was believed to be the “longest step yet taken toward the end so many are striving for–lighting the stage, not theatrically, but as nature lights her landscapes.” 

  • Norman Bel Geddes (1893-1958)
    Norman Bel Geddes, an American theatrical (and industrial) designer, was born in Adrian, Michigan, briefly attended the Cleveland Institute of Art and the Art Institute of Chicago and was an illustrator in a Detroit advertising agency. In the evenings he built a model theatre complete with a model electric lighting system. He used this model to experiment with “modern” staging. As he writes in his autobiography, Miracle in the Evening(1960), these experiments…

    made it clear that the first row of overhead lamps should be in front of the proscenium instead of behind it. Overhead lamps located at a forty-five-degree angle in front of the curtain line produced modeling in facial features, and life to the eyes, which neither border nor footlights could achieve. They were equally favorable for the figures and clothing of the players and, owing to the concentrated beam, did not strike the scenery. (p.136)

    In 1916, at the age of 23, he left the Detroit advertising world to became the resident designer for Aline Barnsdall’s short lived Little Theatre of Los Angeles. The company leased the 450 seat theatre at the Egan Dramatic School and Bel Geddes, with the aid of the company’s electrician, built a dozen spotlights by installing new 1000 watt lamps in twelve old carbon arc lamp lens hoods. According to his autobiography…

    I placed lights in the auditorium chandeliers, on the sides of the balcony rail, and put a whole line of them behind the proscenium. This was as they had been in my Detroit model. The system replaced the theater stage lighting equipment of low intensity flood lighting from foots, borders, and bunch lamps. The new method provided high intensity individual lamps, which could be focused on any area of the stage floor or scenery, in any color, with a variable amount of light due to individual dimmer control. All were operated from the stage switchboard by a single electrician. This installation, at the Little Theatre of Los Angeles in 1916, was the first use of focus lamps as the sole means of lighting the stage. Two years later I made the first installation in New York…Today [in the mid 50s] the system is in universal use. (p. 161)

    Two years later in 1918 he (1) presented a successful lighting demonstration to Broadway producer Winthrop Ames, (2) was contracted to redesign the lighting system, using new 1000 watt spotlights, for both the Little Theatre (now the Helen Hayes) and the Booth Theatre on 45th Street, (3) lit, with 18- 1000 watt spotlights, a six show, summer stock season, at the Pabst Theatre in Milwaukee, (Sets designed by 31 year old Robert Edmond Jones), and (4) received his first New York design credit.

    Today he is primarily remembered for his massive theatrical designs, especially those for Austrian director: Max Reinhardt (1873-1943). Like most designers of the period, he created both the scenic environment and the lighting design.

     


    The Divine Comedy
    Probably his most famous theatrical creation was the monumental 1921 design for Dante Alagherii’s The Divine Comedy. The set for this unproduced project was 124′ wide and 148′ deep. The two massive side towers which framed the pit were each 59 feet tall. This imaginative theatrical concept exists today as a notated “script”, sketches, a scaled ground plan and front elevation, and a number of photographs taken on an 8′ by 8′ model.

    He designed two massive productions for Max Reinhardt– The Miracle in 1924 and The Eternal Road in 1937. For the New York production of Karl Vollmoeller’s word-less Biblical pageant: The Miracle, Bel Geddes converted the 2000+ seat Century Theatre into a realistic 15th century cathedral. In 1937, for The Eternal Road, an Old Testement spectacle by Kurt Weill (score) and Franz Werfel (text), he created, on the huge stage of Oscar Hammerstein’s Manhatten Opera House, a winding road which reached from the front edge of the orchestra to the “Promised Paradise.” This four hour production which had a cast of hundreds and tons of solidly-built scenery was a critical success but a commercial failure. 

    In the fall of 1931, Bel Geddes designed and staged a three act, two hour fifteen minute melodramatic interpretation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The production starring Raymond Massy ran for 28 performances at the Broadhurst Theatre. The thirteen scenes were presented on a single architectural set containing a flat neutral playing area, four large raised platforms, a series of steps, four huge towers, and a wrap-around cyc. There were ten hidden entrances into the acting space. Like other Bel Geddes designs, the set broke the proscenium line thrusting the action of the play twenty feet into the auditorium. Locations within the unit set were established through the choice of specific props and the careful focus of the beams of light.

    Six years earlier in a French production of Jeanne D’Arc, on a very similar architectural set, Bel Geddes used only 3 sections of border lights, 24- 1000 watt 6 inch “focusing” spot lights, 3- 400 watt “baby” spots and 18- 1000 watt cyclorama floods. His autobiography, Miracle in the Evening was published in 1960, two years after his death (Garden City, NY: Double Day and Co., Inc). Link to Norman Bel Geddes’ production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

     

  • Robert Edmond Jones (1887-1954)
    Robert Edmond Jones is considered the father of American scene design. He graduated from Harvard in 1910, traveled to Europe to study the “New StageCraft” and returned to America at the beginning of World War I. He shocked American audiences in 1915 with his simple presentational set for Arthur Hopkin’s production of The Man Who Married a Dumb Wife(directed by Granville Barker).

    Macbeth
    The Banquet Scene – Act III, Scene iv

    Today he is primarily remembered for the staging of Eugene O’Neill’s Desire Under the Elms (1924) and his vivid dramatic lighting for Arthur Hopkins’ three Shakespearean productions: Richard III (1920) with John Barrymore, Macbeth (1921) with Lionel Barrymore, and Hamlet (1922) with John Barrymore. The expressionistic production of Macbeth was performed on a bare stage under the constant gaze of three gigantic, moveable, witches masks. The primary acting areas were isolated in carefully focused shafts of light.

    For this production of Macbeth, Jones used 14- Spotlights on the First Electric, 5- Spotlights on each of the two Torm positions and 4 Baby Spots (focused on the three masks) in the foot light trough. Six lamps were used to light the Banquet Scene (III,iv) illustrated above– two down lights center, one side light from stage left and the three baby spots focused on the masks. Link to Robert Edmond Jones‘ production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database(www.ibdb.com). 

    The First Generation of Lighting Designers: Abe Feder, Jean Rosenthal and Peggy Clark 

  • Abe Feder (1909-1997)
    Abe Feder, who liked to refer to himself as a “worker in light” invented the position of Lighting Designer. After studying engineering and theatre technology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University) in Pittsburgh he went to the Goodman Theatre in Chicago and then on to New York City where he began a fifty year career in Light. Over three hundred Broadway shows including Nazimova’s productions of Ghosts (1935) and Hedda Gabler (1936), I’d Rather be Right (1937), Inherit the Wind (1955), My Fair Lady (1956), and Camelot (1960) carry the “Lighting by Feder” credit. Between 1935 and 1939 he lit more than 200 projects for the WPA Federal Theatre. Included in this extensive list is T.S. Elliot’s Murder in the Cathedral (1936), the Living Newspaper’s presentations of Power (1937) and One Third of a Nation (1938) and Orson Welles’ famous productions of a “vodoo” Macbeth (1936) set on a West Indies island, Dr. Faustus (1937) staged on a bare stage surrounded by black drapes, and The Cradle Will Rock (1938) which was locked out of its theatre by the government and forced to give an “outlaw” performance in the Venice Theatre. Link to the FTP Production Notebooks (prompt scripts) for Dr. Faustus (Light plot: Image #10; Focus charts: Images #12 to #39), Macbeth. (Focus notes and equipment lists: Images #9 to #16) and Power(Light plot Image #33).In addition to design, he wrote the unit on stage lighting in John Gassner’s Producing the Play (1940). He used his lighting design for Nazimova’s production of Ibsen’s Ghosts (1935) at the Empire Theatre to illustrate typical practice in the mid-1930s. The layout, which he considered “necessary for general lighting of this type of production” included..

    • 6– 500 watt 6″ Ellipsoidals on the balcony rail
    • 22– 400 watt 6″ Fresnels on the First Pipe,
    • 4– 400 watt 6″ Fresnels on the First Torm left and right
    • 2– Sections of 200 watt strip lights on the First Pipe, and,
    • 2– Sections of 60 watt foot lights.

    In addition to the general light, Feder used 2– 250 watt baby spots, 5– 1000 watt 16″ Beam Projectors, 2– 1000 watt flood lights and 7– R-40 strip lights to light the backings of Stewart Chaney’s set. In contrast he used 78 units (including 7 front-of-house) for Welles’ Macbeth and 114 (with 22 front-of-house) lamps on Dr. Faustus.Building on his theatrical experience, Feder created a second career as an architectural lighting designer. Structures which carry the Lighting by Feder credit include New York’s RCA/GE building in Rockefeller Center, the Empire State building and the United Nations building. When comparing his two professions as a theatrical and architectural lighting designer, he commented: “How can you get excited about a 50-foot stage after you’ve lit a 50 storey building?”

    In 1993 Abe Feder was the first to be honored as a USITT Distinguished Lighting Designer. His theatrical designs have been archived at the Springer Opera House in Columbus, GA. Digital copies of a number of his drawings (including light plots for My Fair Lady, Camelot and On A Clear Day…) can be viewed at Abe Feder / Springer Opera House : Lighting Design Collection

    Link to Abe Feder‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

     

  • Jean Rosenthal (1912-1969)
    Today, over forty years after her death, Jean Rosenthal is primarily remembered as the Lighting Designer for some of the great musicals of the nineteen-fifties and sixties and the early comedies of Neil Simon. This list of Broadway shows includes West Side Story (1957), The Sound of Music (1959), Barefoot in the Park (1963), Fiddler on the Roof (1964), Hello, Dolly! (1964), The Odd Couple (1965), Cabaret (1966), and Plaza Suite(1968).After briefly studying acting and dance at New York’s Neighborhood Playhouse and three years at Yale University she arrived in New York and became a technical assistant with the WPA Federal Theatre, Project 891. John Houseman was the producer, Orson Welles the director, Nat Carson the scene designer, and Abe Feder the lighting designer. When Houseman took a leave of absence in the fall of 1936 to stage Leslie Howard in Shakespeare’s Hamlet at the Imperial Theatre, he brought Rosenthal along as the assistant stage manager in charge of lighting. When the man from the rental house, who was to install the electrical system became ill, Rosenthal suddenly became the “worker in light.” I assume the lighting system she designed was similar to the layout created by Abe Feder for Welles’ Elizabethan productions at the Federal Theatre. This was, perhaps, her earliest lighting credit.

    Following the outlaw performance of The Cradle Will Rock, John Houseman was fired and Orson Welles resigned from the Federal Theatre. These two men joined forces and created the legendary Mercury Theatre. Jean Rosenthal became their production and lighting manager. Although credited as the “Production Manager,” it is believed that she designed the lighting for the eight productions staged by the company.

    Probably her most influencial work was with the Martha Graham Dance Company (1934-1969) and the New York City Ballet (1948-1957). Her imprint on the world of dance is huge. Echoing a comment by dance designer Thomas Skelton, “Jeannie Rosenthal invented dance lighting.”

    Rosenthal’s paper work, including light plot, hookup chart, focus sheets and cue sheets for Martha Graham’s “Errand Into the Maze” (1947) and “Night Journey” (1948, revised 1960) can be viewed at TheLightingArchive.Org. (Go to TheLightingArchive.Org > Archive > Rosenthal > Martha Graham…)

    Link to Jean Rosenthal‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com). For more information on Miss Rosenthal, link to my Jean Rosenthal page.

     

  • Peggy Clark (1915-1996 )
    Peggy Clark‘s fascination with theatre began at an early age. She created her first “stage show” when she was only five. After seeing a performance by “America’s Puppet Master,” Tony Sarg, she built a marionette theatre from a cardboard box, a ball of string and her collection of dolls. Her original goal was to become an actress, but by the time she finished high school her interests had shifted to scene design. She graduated from Smith College with a BA in the “dramatic arts” in 1935, and an MFA in production design from Yale University three years later in 1938. Her thesis project was the scenic and lighting design for a production of Owen Dodson’s adaption of The Divine Comedy


    Wonderful Town (1953)

    After arriving in New York in 1938 she began assisting a number of prominent scene designers — Stewart Cheney, Donald Oenslager, Howard Bay, Raoul Pene du Bois and Oliver Smith. Her first Broadway design credit was for the costumes for The Girl from Wyoming which opened its 86 performance run on October 29, 1938. Three years later, in March 1941, she would design the sets for Gabrielle, an adaption of Tristan which saw a two performance run on the stage of the Maxine Elliot Theatre. Her first lighting credit was for the Beggar’s Holiday, Duke Ellington’s adaption of John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera which starred Alfred Drake (as Macheath) and Zero Mostel (as Peachum) and opened a 111 performance run at the Broadway Theatre on December 26, 1946. Sets for Beggar’s Holiday were designed by Oliver Smith. Peggy Clark and Smith would work together on 43 Broadway productions. Her most famous Broadway lighting designs include Brigadoon (1947), Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1949), Paint Your Wagon (1951), Wonderful Town (1953), Peter Pan (1954), Auntie Mame (1956), Bells Are Ringing (1956), Flower Drum Song (1958), Bye Bye Birdie (1960), and The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1960). Her last Broadway lighting credit was Musical Chairsin 1980. 

    During World War II she was co-designer of the Stage Door Canteen, technical director of American Theatre Wing’s Lunch Time Follies, and developed “blue prints” for overseas USO camp shows.

    In 1968 she was elected president of Local 829 of the United Scenic Artists. She was the first woman to hold this position. She also taught lighting design at both Smith College (1967-1969) and Yale University (1969-1970). One of her MFA students at Smith College, H. Lang Reynolds, was one of my mentors at Southern Illinois University in the mid 70s. Her papers have been donated to the Library of Congress in Washington DC.

    Link to Peggy Clark‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

     

  • Tharon Musser (1925-2009)
    Tharon Musser was generally considered the Dean of American Lighting Designers. She graduated from Berea College in 1946 and like Rosenthal, attended Yale University (MFA: 1950) before moving to New York. Her first Broadway lighting credit was Jose Quintero’s staging of Eugene O’Neill’s Long Days Journey into Night(1956) at the original Helen Hayes Theatre.Among the many musicals she designed are two of the longest running Broadway shows: Michael Bennett’s A Chorus Line (1975 to 1990), which introduced a computer controled lighting system to the Broadway theatre, and Gower Champion’s 42nd Street (1980 to 1988). Her dramatic credits include Neil Simon’s autobiographical trilogy: Brighton Beach Memoirs (1983), Beloxi Blues (1985), and Broadway Bound (1987). She has worked with the Jose Limon Dance Company, the American Ballet Theatre, and the Dallas and Miami Opera Companies.

    In 1972 she won her first Tony Award for Michael Bennett’s Follies which was followed by Tony’s for Michael Bennett’s A Chorus Line (1976) and his Dreamgirls (1982). In the mid-1990s she was diagnosed with “early-onset Alzheimer’s” which made it more difficult for her to focus on the project at hand. Her last “new” Broadway credit was The Lonsome West which opened at the Lyceum Theatre in April 1999. She was honored as a USITT Distinguished Lighting Designer in 1996.

    In 2006, her Tony award winning design for A Chorus Line was re-created by Natasha Katz for the “30th” anniversary revival at the Schoenfeld Theatre.

    Virtual copies of the paper work (including light plot, hook up chart, magic sheet, focus charts, equipment list, follow spot cues, and tracking sheets for the 134 cues) for the original 1975 production of A Chorus Line is archived at the Theatrical Lighting Database. The database also includes virtual copies of the paper work for Fall River Legend (Tom Skelton, 1991), Hair (Jules Fisher, 1968) and Sunday in the Park with George (Richard Nelson, 1984).

    She died peacefully in the company of her long-time partner and assistant, Marilyn Rennagel, on April 19, 2009.

    Link to Tharon Musser‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

     

  • Jules Fisher (1937- )
    In his 40+ year career, Jules Fisher, a graduate of Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon) (1960), has lit over 150 Broadway and off-Broadway shows, as well as film, dance, opera, television, and rock-and-roll concert tours. His first Broadway credit was Spoon River Anthology which opened at the Booth Theatre in September 1963. He has received 18 Tony nominations and has won 8 Tony awards, a record in the lighting category, for Pippin (1973), Ulysses in Nighttown (1974), Dancin’ (1978), Grand Hotel (1990), The Will Rogers Follies (1991), Jelly’s Last Jam (1992), Bring in ‘da Noise, Bring in ‘da Funk (with Peggy Eisenhauer, 1996) and Assassins (with Peggy Eisenhauer, 2004). In addition to his eight Tony awards, Fisher has been honored twice, in 1987 and again in 1995, by the USITT.He designed the lighting for Kevin Kline’s “Great Performances” production of Hamlet (1990) for PBS, and has lit productions of Porgy and Bess and A Midsummer Night’s Dream for the New York City Opera company.


    Bring in ‘da Noise,
    Bring in ‘da Funk
    (1996)

     

    He was production supervisor (and lighting designer) for tours of the Rolling Stones (for which he won a 1976 IES Lumen Award), KISS, David Bowie, and the rock concert version of The Who’s Tommy.

    He has designed the lighting for the Radio City Music Hall presentation of The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, the 1977 Academy Awards Show, Quincy Jones’ Reunion on the Mall concert for President Bill Clinton’s inaugural, America’s Millennium Live All-Star Concert New Year’s Eve 2000 and the concert segments of Barbra Streisand’s 1976 film: A Star is Born and the theatrical segments of Chicago: The Musical (2002), The Producers (2005) and Dreamgirls (2006).

    In 1993 he began the Broadway Lighting Master Class, a four day seminar conducted by major New York lighting designers.

    Virtual copies of his paper work (including light plot, hook-up chart, cue synopsis, cue sheets, follow spot cues, focus charts, equipment list,) for the 1968 production of Hair is archived at the Theatrical Lighting Database.

    Link to Jules Fisher‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

     

  • Jennifer Tipton (1937- )
    Jennifer Tipton (1937- ), the principal lighting designer for the Paul Taylor Dance Company, was born in Columbus, Ohio, the daughter of two science professors. She developed her love of dance and theatre long before college. During the summer of 1953, between her junior and senior year in high school, she studied at the American Dance Festivalat Connecticut College in New London and was permitted by her parents, to travel alone to New York, during the Christmas break of her senior year, to participate in Martha Graham’s “Christmas Course.” Although she had been dancing since the age of twelve, her goal at the end of high school was to become an astrophysicist- to become the “first woman in space.” She began her studies at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, with a major in physics and graduated in 1958 with a degree in English.After graduation she moved to New York to continue her studies in dance and began performing with the Merry-Go-Rounders, a touring company which performed primarily for children. She became the troupe’s “rehearsal mistress” (touring director) which required her to watch the performance from the front. She began to look at the larger picture, and that larger picture was determined and controlled by the light. “I fell in love with light,” she told Linda Winer in an October 2003 interview, “and have been in love with it ever since.” The following summer she returned to the American Dance Festival and took a class in dance lighting from Thomas Skelton. She became his assistant, and as the stage manager, was soon recreating his designs on the road for the Paul Taylor Dance Company. Her first lighting design credit for Paul Taylor was Orbs (1966), a two-act dance set to the music of Beethoven. Her first Broadway lighting credit was for a production of Our Town at the ANTA Theatre (now the Virginia Theatre) in 1969.

    It was her design for Jerome Robbins’ Celebrations: The Art of the Pas de Deux (1973) at the Spoleto Festival (Italy), which brought her to the attention of the theatrical world. By the mid-1970s her work was regularly being seen on the off-Broadway stages of New York’s Public Theatre, the home of Joseph Papp’s New York Shakespeare Festival as well as the stages of numerous Broadway houses. By the 1980s she was regarded as one of dance’s most versatile lighting designers. Her achievements range from the “forceful, sculpted effects” in Twyla Tharp’s Fait Accompli (1983) to the “subtle, shimmering vision” for Jerome Robbins’ In Memory Of… (1985). Her work in opera includes productions of Wagner’s Parsifal at the Houston Grand Opera, Tannhauser for the Chicago Light Opera and Martin David Levy’s Mourning Becomes Electra at the Seattle Opera.

    Tipton’s lighting has won a Drama Desk Award for Ntosake Shange’s For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow is Enuf (1976); a Joseph Jefferson Award for John Guare’s The Landscape of the Body (1976); a Drama Desk and Tony Award for The Cherry Orchard (1977); a second Tony Award for Jerome Robbin’s Broadway (1989) and an Obie for Sustained Excellence at the New York Shakespeare Festival (1979).

    Beginning in 1981 Tipton has been a professor of design at the Yale School of Drama where she advises her graduate lighting students to “use what you have, …use it well and imaginatively.”

    According to Chris Davis, the Associate Lighting Supervisor at Queens Theatre In The Park in Queens, New York– “Jennifer Tipton is primarily a dance LD. She tends to work within a confined pallette, no color and a little color correction in either direction. Her work is all about angle, shape, and intensity, and she’s a master at it.”

    Link to Jennifer Tipton‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

     

  • Beverly Emmons (1943- )
    Beverly Emmons has designed the lighting for numerous productions in Broadway, Off-Broadway, and Regional Theatres. She is a 1965 graduate of Sarah Lawrence College and assisted Jules Fisher after her arrival in New York. She began working Off-Broadway in 1970. The show was Sensations at Theatre Four on West 55th Street. Her first Broadway lighting credit was A Letter for Queen Victoria which opened at the ANTA Theatre (now the August Wilson Theatre) in 1975. In the early 1980s she adapted, to Broadway, the lighting design for two London West End productions: Amadeus (1980) and The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (1981). Her Broadway credits include a revival of Annie Get Your Gun (1999) starring Bernadette Peters, Jekyll & Hyde (1997), The Heiress (1995), Stephen Sondheim’s Passion (1994), Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1993), The Elephant Man (1983), Doonesbury (1983), A Day In Hollywood / A Night in the Ukraine (1980), The Dresser (1981), and Piaf(1981).The Lortel Off-Broadway Archives list 45 Off-Broadway productions designed by Emmons between 1970 and 2005. Included are The Vagina Monologues (1996), The Elephant Man (1979), and Sam Shepard’s True West (1980). For director Robert Wilson she has designed lighting for Phillip Glass’ Einstein on the Beach (NYC, Metropolitan Opera House, 1976) and the CIVIL warS, Act V (Minneapolis, 1984). She has designed regional productions at Washington’s Kennedy Center, the Ally Theatre (Houston), the Guthrie, the Arena Stage (Washington DC) and the Children’s Theatre of Minneapolis. She has taught at Barnard College, Parsons School of Design and New York University and has guest designed at numerous colleges and universities. She has designed lighting for the Trisha Brown, Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham dance companies.

    She has had six Tony Award nominations, and won the 1976 IES Lumen Award, the 1984 and 1986 Bessie Awards (for “Sustained Achievement” in dance lighting), and a 1979-1980 Obie (Off-Broadway theatre award) for Distinguished Lighting Design. She has also won five Hewes Design Awards presented by the American Theater Wing.

    In the late 1980s she became the lighting supervisor for the Martha Graham Dance Company. In this position she began recreating Jean Rosenthal’s original lighting designs when the early works (1936-1969) of the Graham company were revived. During the past 20+ years she has strived to make these early design documents more easily available to student and scholars. In the fall of 2009 she created The Lighting Archive web site. The first documents to be posted were Rosenthal’s design for Martha Graham’s Errand into the Maze (1948). Emmons states “All the information to light Martha Graham’s Errand Into The Maze is contained in these 4 documents [light plot, hook-up chart, focus chart, cue sheet]. I know because I have reproduced these cues. They are just not in the formats we use today.” In the spring of 2010 she added design documents for Graham’s Night Journey (1948, revised 1960).

    Link to Beverly Emmons‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).

 

  • Ken Billington (1946- )
    Ken Billington is probably the most successful “young” lighting designer. After graduating from high school, he went directly to New York City where he studied at Lester Polakov’s Studio and Forum of Stage Design and “apprenticed” with Peggy Clark and Tharon Musser. As he has said, “If I’m a good designer today it’s because I learned so much from Tharon — I always say I went to Musser U.” He began as a “go for” and worked his way up to “assistant.” He observed Tharon at work and used her techniques in small off-Broadway venues. After receiving his first New York lighting credit, an off-Broadway production: Fortune and Men’s Eyes and supervising several non-union designers in Broadway houses, he got his big chance. In the fall of 1973 he received (what I believe was) his first Broadway credit for the three show season of the New Pheonix Repertory Theatre at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre. One of the three productions, a revival of Dürrenmatt’s The Visit, was nominated for a Tony. 


    Velma’s entrance in “All That Jazz”
    Chicago (1996)

    Billington has designed over 75 Broadway shows, 50 off-Broadway productions, 60 operas for companies like the Houston Grand Opera, the Chicago Lyric Opera, the New York City Opera, the Christmas and Easter Show for Radio City Music Hall and Las Vegas acts for performers like Ann-Margaret, Shirley MacLaine and Liberace. He has developed a reputation for lighting big production: Sweeny Todd (1979), Discover Card’s Stars on Ice, Riverdance, and Footloose (1998); and especially star driven revivals of classic American musicals: My Fair Lady (1981) with Rex Harrison, Fiddler on the Roof (1990-2010) with Topol. and Hello, Dolly!(1995) with Carol Channing, 

    In 1997 he won the Tony for the Broadway revival of Bob Fosse’s Chicago and was honored as a USITT Distinguished Lighting Designer in 1996. In March 2010, I attended a two day USITT “Broadway Lighting Designers Seminar” presented by Ken Billington and Natasha Katz, the lighting designer for Disney’s Beauty and the Beast. Billington is presently an Adjunct Professor of Drama at Carnegie-Mellon University.

    The paper work, including light plots, for the Broadway, London, National Tour, and Bus-and-Truck productions of Sweeny Todd (1979) are archived at TheLightingArchive.org (Go to TheLightingArchive.Org > Archive > Billington > Sweeny Todd) The light plot and hook-up chart for Sweeny Todd were published on pages 159-160 of Leland Watson’s Lighting Design Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

    Link to Ken Billington‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).


    Lighting Educators

    Stanley McCandless — Theodore Fuchs — Gilbert V. Hemsley, Jr — John Gleason 

  • Stanley McCandless (1897-1967)
    Stanley McCandless, architect, designer, author, illumination consultant and lighting professor at Yale University from 1925 to 1964, was probably the most influencial teacher in the field of theatrical lighting.After graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1920, Mac received a Master of Arts degree in architecture from Harvard University (1923). He worked several years as an architect before becoming a lighting consultant in the late 1920s. He used an ellipsoidal reflector in the house light fixtures he designed for the Center Theatre in New York’s Radio City (1932). These units were the prototype for the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight he created for Ed Kook and Chuck Levy’s Century Lighting– The Leko.

    In 1925, he and George Pierce Baker (1866-1935), who he had met at Harvard, created Yale University’s School of Drama. The following year, 1926, he offered the first academic class in Stage Lighting. During his 39 year tenure at Yale he would teach some of America’s most important lighting designers including both Jean Rosenthal and Tharon Musser. A Glossary of Stage Lighting was published in 1926, this was followed by A Syllabus of Stage Lighting, first published in 1927, and A Method of Lighting the Stage (1932). McCandless’ method is still the basic foundation of modern stage lighting.

    He retired from teaching in 1964 and died three years later at the age of 70. His professional papers are archived at Yale University.

     

    • Theodore Fuchs (1904-1995)
      Theodore Fuchs, an author, teacher, and theatre consultant, graduated from high school at the age of 15 and had earned a bachelor’s degree in both Chemical and Electrical Engineering by the time he was 19. According to one source, he was a lighting design student of Stanley McCandless, before joining the staff of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. He retired from Northwestern, after 42 years of service, at the end of the 1969-1970 academic year.His most significant work, Stage Lighting, was published by Little Brown and Company in 1929, making it one of the earliest theatrical lighting texts. Ten years later in 1939, Samuel French published Home-Built Lighting Equipment for the Small Stage, an expansion of Chapter Seven from his 1929 work. In the early 1950s he self published, through Northwestern University, several “books” on suggested layouts of stage lighting equipment for the school and college auditorium.

      One of his major contributions as a consultant, especially in educational theatres in the midwest, was the Plaster Cyc — replacing the traditional Sky Drop with a permanent, off-white, sand-blasted plastered rear wall.

      He was presented the USITT Award for his “lifetime contribution to the performing arts community” at the 1980 Kansas City Conference. His professional papers have been archived in the Theodore Fuchs Collection on Theatre Technology in the Lee Library on campus of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah.

       

    • Gilbert V. Hemsley, Jr (1936-1983)
      Gilbert Hemsley was born in Bridgeport CN in 1936 and developed an interest in technical theatre while an undergraduate history major at Yale. He continued into graduate school and received his MFA, also from Yale, in 1960. His master’s thesis was A History of Stage Lighting in America, 1879-1917. After graduation he became the lighting designer and production manager at Princeton University before joining Jean Rosenthal’s studio as an assistant. His first Broadway credit was for a revival of Richard Sheridan’s School for Scandal presented by the APA-Phoenix Repertory Company at the Lyceum Theatre in November 1966. Paper work from this five show repertory was published in the second edition (1968) of Parker and Smith’s Scene Design and Stage Lighting.Much of his design work was created for the theatre of opera and dance– companies like the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Opera (for which he designed 36 productions and was appointed production supervisor in 1981), the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Martha Graham Dance Company, the Alvin Ailey Dance Company and the New York City Ballet. In September 1971 Hemsley was production manager and lighting designer for Leonard Bernstein’s MASS: A Theatre Piece for Singers, Players, and Dancers, a work commissioned by Jacqueline Kennedy for the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. He was the lighting designer/production manager of the US tour of the Performing Art’s Company of the People’s Republic of China in 1978 and the gala inaugural celebrations of Presidents Nixon and Carter. He was nominated for two Drama Desk awards: for Porgy and Bess (1977) and The Mighty Gents (1978).

      In 1970 he joined the theatre design faculty of the University of Wisconsin where he soon became one of the most popular and respected professors on campus. He continued to design, often using his students, known as “Gilbert’s kids,” as assistants, giving many of them their first experience in the real world of the theatre. Shortly after his death in 1983, the Gilbert V. Hemsley, Jr Internship in Lighting with the New York City Ballet, the New York City Opera, and the Lincoln Center Festival was established. The selected student spends nine months, June to February, working with these three Lincoln Center based companies. Probably his major legacy is the love, passion and professionalism he instilled into his students, many of whom work in the Minneapolis area. His papers, both designs and teaching documents, are archived at the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theatre Research on the Madison campus of the University of Wisconsin.

      Link to Gilbert V. Hemsley, Jr‘ s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com)

       

    • John Gleason (1941-2003)
      John Gleason was born in Brooklyn, NY in 1941 and began lighting shows as a student at the prestigious Stuyvesant High. He lit 75 shows while majoring in zoology and chemistry at Hunter College, a campus of the City University of New York. He passed the union exam during his junior year at Hunter. His committee included Jean Rosenthal, Peggy Clark and Tharon Musser. After graduation, designer David Hays hired him to assist on a production of The Changeling for the Repertory Theatre of Lincoln Center which was then in residence at the now-departed ANTA-Washington Square Theatre. His first design credit was for a revival of Moliere’s Tartuffe presented by the Repertory Theatrein 1965. Two years later he was named their resident lighting designer.In 1971 he joined the theatre faculty of New York University, a position he held until his retirement 26 years later in 1997. “Teaching…made me a better designer,” he told Theatre Crafts International, “I always allow my students to ask any questions they want about my work, and so I have to be prepared to answer….When I began to teach, I also started to think about what I liked about lighting….The fact that I don’t hold a nine-to-five job, that’s pretty terrific. Sometimes I get asked by my students ‘Why do you still do it?’ And I’ll laugh and say, ‘Well, think about it: where else can you get paid by someone to spend their money to fulfill your fantasies?’”

      Lloyd Burlingame, Chair Emeritus of the Department of Design at NYU said “It was our great good fortune that he came to join us and worked his magic as a master teacher of lighting for a quarter of a century…Like the great lighting artists of our time, he understood all facets of what went into making the stew of a play, dance, or opera. His critiques on scenery and costumes were often deeply penetrating. He always insisted on his students understanding the heart of a play or opera. His light labs were famous for demonstrating the importance of lighting cues in relationship to music. If I were forced to choose one aspect of his art that made him unique in his generation, it would be his sense of color. He never put a foot wrong in his imaginative color choices.”

      Costume designer Carrie Robbins spoke about their collaboration on a Broadway show which had a short run or a week or two– “I had an idea of creating a tintype / old-photo kind of look for a flashback sequence. I used a range of sepia stuff, of course, and hoped it wouldn’t be too bland or too obvious. John worked his usual color magic, which I had come to count on, and the scene came alive, chirascuro’d in rich tones of gold to deep shadowy umber. I asked him what in the world did that. ‘It’s just the right color of gel,’ he said. ‘What do they call it?’ I asked. ‘Chocolate, of course.’ Now there’s an apt name. I still to this day don’t know if he was kidding me or if there really is a chocolate gel.” (Yes, there is a chocolate gel. It was Brigham 70 and is Roscolux 99 or Lee 156.)

      Link to John Gleason‘s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com)

       

      A Few Contemporary Lighting Educators 

    • William Warfel
      Professor Emeritus of Lighting Design at Yale University. He earned his MFA from Yale in 1957 (Thesis: Theatre fire prevention laws in model building codes) and is the author of The Handbook of Stage Lighting Graphics (1974), Color Science for Lighting the Stage (1982) and The New Handbook of Stage Lighting Graphics(1990). He is a frequent presenter at USITT Conferences. 
    • J. Michael Gillette
      Professor Emeritus of Lighting Design at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. He is the author of Designing with Light (1978 – 2007) and Theatrical Design and Production(1987 – 2004) 
    • Linda Essig
      Chairman and Artistic Director of Theatre at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. She was the Professor of Lighting at the University of Wisconsin – Madison from 1988 to 2004 She has designed lighting for professional theatres throughout the country and is the author of Lighting and the Design Idea (1997 – 2004) and The Speed of Light(2002). She is a frequent presenter at USITT Conferences. 
    • Ann Archbold
      Professor of lighting at University of Wisconsin – Madison. Before moving to Wisconsin she was the director of the MFA Lighting Design program at Florida State in Tallahassee. She is a member of the United Scenic Artists (#829-IATSE) and has lit approximately 400 productions of theatre, music, dance, opera, and industrials. She holds degrees from the University of Michigan and San Diego State University. She is a frequent presenter at USITT Conferences. 
    • Cindy Limauro
      Professor of Lighting at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA. She designs nationally and internationally for theatre, opera, dance and architecture. Professor Limauro is a member of the United Scenic Artists (#829-IATSE), the International Association of Lighting Designers and was named a Fellow of the Institute by USITT in 2000 for Outstanding Contribution to the Theatre. She is a frequent presenter at USITT Conferences. She holds a BA (1974) from the University of Michigan and an MFA (1978) from Florida State University. Link to Cindy Limauro’s on-line portfolio(a PowerPoint presentation). 
    • Mark Stanley
      Professor of Lighting at Boston University. Mark Stanley, a member of United Scenic Artists (#829-IATSE) is the resident lighting designer for the New York City Ballet, a position he has held since 1986. He has also designed for the San Francisco Ballet, the Pennsylvania Ballet, the Goodspeed Opera House in East Haddam, Connecticut, the Ordway in Minneapolis, and the New York City Opera for which he was the resident designer from 1983 to 1986. He is the author of Rosco’s Color of Light Workbook (1987) and is on the board of directors of the Gilbert V. Hemsley Jr Internship in Lighting. He hold a BA (1978) from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia and an MFA (1986) from the University of Wisconsin – Madison. He is a frequent presenter at USITT Conferences.

     


    Time Line: 1877…
    The first reference to a designer is high lighted.

    • 1877- Brigham introduces Gel (color media) to the theatre world
    • 1878- Joseph Swan “invents” the incandescent lamp
    • 1879- Thomas Edison “invents” the incandescent lamp
      1880′s
    • 1881- London’s Savoy Theatre installs the first theatrical electrical lighting system

      1890′s

    • 1899- Appia’s Music and Staging is published

      1900′s

    • 1900- Lamp dip is introduced to color the bulbs used in the border and foot lights
    • 1903- Kliegl Brothers installs a 96 dimmer stage lighting system at the Metropolitan Opera House
    • 1904- Louis Hartmann uses a “baby len” in Belasco’s The Music Teacher
    • 1908- Maude Adams installs a 2′ deep by 32′ wide light bridge in Charles Frohman’s Empire Theatre.
    • 1908- RoscoGel is introduced

      1910′s

    • 1915-Robert Edmond Jones designs The Man Who Married a Dumb Wife
    • 1916- Norman Bel Geddes builds a 1000 watt Spotlight from a carbon arc lens box.
    • 1916- Bel Geddes lights the Little Theatre of Los Angles entirely with 1000 watt Spotlights.
    • 1918- Jones and Bel Geddes work together at the Pabst Theatre in Milwaukee

      1920′s

    • 1921- Robert Edmond Jones designs Macbeth
    • 1921- Norman BelGeddes designs The Divine Comedy
    • 1924- Norman BelGeddes designs The Miracle
    • 1925- Stanley McCandless offers the first Stage Lighting course at Yale University
    • 1929- Theodore FuchsStage Lighting is published
    • 1929- Kliegl Brothers introduces the Fresnel Lens spotlight

      1930′s

    • 1932- Stanley McCandless’ A Method of Lighting the Stage is published
    • 1933- Century (Leko) and Kliegl (Klieglight) introduce the Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight
    • 1935- Roscolene color media is introduced in America
    • 1935- Abe Feder designs the lighting for Ghosts
    • 1936- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for Hamlet staring Leslie Howard
    • 1937- Norman BelGeddes designs The Eternal Road
    • 1937- Abe Feder designs the lighting for the Federal Theatre’s production of Dr. Faustus
    • 1938- Cinemoid color media is introduced in England

      1940′s

    • 1940 – Abe Feder’s approach to lighting is published in Gassner’s Producing the Play
    • 1943- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for Richard III
    • 1946- Peggy Clark designs the lighting for Beggar’s Holiday

      1950′s

    • 1954- Peggy Clark designs the lighting for Peter Pan
    • 1956- Tharon Musser designs the lighting for Long Day’s Journey into Night
    • 1956- Abe Feder designs the lighting for My Fair Lady
    • 1957- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for West Side Story
    • 1959- Century introduces the 10 scene preset lighting console

      1960′s

    • 1960- Peggy Clark designs the lighting for Bye Bye Birdie
    • 1960- Abe Feder designs the lighting for Camelot
    • 1963- Jules Fisher designs the lighting for Spoon River Anthology
    • 1963- A 12 channel, 2 scene preset lighting console is installed in Shrycok Auditorium, SIU, Carbondale, IL
    • 1964- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for Hello, Dolly!
    • 1965- John Gleason designs the lighting for Tartuffe
    • 1966- Gilbert Hemsley designs the lighting for School for Scandal
    • 1966- Jennifer Tipton designs the lighting for Paul Taylor’s Orbs
    • 1966- Metropolitan Opera House installs a 228 channel, 10 scene preset console
    • 1968- Jules Fisher designs the lighting for Hair
    • 1969- Jean Rosenthal’s last Broadway design credit: Dear World

      1970′s

    • 1970- Gilbert Hemsley joins the faculty of the University of Wisconsin – Madison
    • 1970- Lee color media is introduced
    • 1971- Altman Lighting introduces the 360Q axial ellipsoidal.
    • 1971- John Gleason joins the faculty of New York University
    • 1972- Tharon Musser wins a Tony for her lighting design for Follies
    • 1973- Ken Billington designs the lighting for The Visit
    • 1973- Jules Fisher wins a Tony for his lighting design for Pippin
    • 1975- Tharon Musser introduces the computer-assisted memory lighting system to the Broadway theatre, the show was Chorus Line at the Shubert Theatre
    • 1975- Tharon Musser wins a Tony for her lighting design for Chorus Line
    • 1975- Beverly Emmons designs the lighting for A Letter for Queen Victoria
    • 1976- Roscolux color media is introduced
    • 1977- Jennifer Tipton wins a Tony for her lighting design for The Cherry Orchard
    • 1979- Ken Billington designs the lighting for Sweeny Todd
    • 1979- Abe Feder’s last Broadway design credit: Carmelina

      1980′s

    • 1980- Peggy Clark’s last Broadway design credit: Musical Chairs
    • 1981- Wybron introduces the ColorMax color scroller
    • 1982- Tharon Musser wins a Tony for her lighting design for Dreamgirls
    • 1983- Beverly Emmons designs the lighting for Elephant Man
    • 1984- GamColor is introduced
    • 1986- USITT establishes the DMX-512 dimmer protocol standard
    • 1989- Jennifer Tipton wins a Tony for her lighting design for Jerome Robbin’s Broadway
    • 1989- David Hersey uses 19 Vari*Lites (automated fixtures) in Miss Siagon

      1990′s

    • 1992- ETC introduces the Soure4® Ellipsoidal
    • 1992- ETC introduces the Obsession control board
    • 1993- Jules Fisher begins the Broadway Lighting Master Classes
    • 1995- ETC introduces the Express control board
    • 1997- Ken Billington wins a Tony for his lighting design for Chicago

    E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at wildl@northern.edu.
    Revised: June 12, 2011
    Copyright © 2001 – 2011 by Larry Wild, Northern State University, Aberdeen, SD 57401

19th century prostitution

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19th century

In the 19th century, parlor house brothels catered to upper class clientele, while bawdy houses catered to the lower class. At concert saloons, men could eat, listen to music, watch a fight, or pay women for sex. Over 200 brothels existed in lower Manhattan. Prostitution was illegal under the vagrancy laws, but was not well-enforced by police and city officials, who were bribed by brothel owners and madams. Attempts to regulate prostitution were struck down on grounds that it is against the public good. Seventy-five percent of New York men had some type of sexually transmitted disease.[1]

Fannie Porter was a well-known madam in San Antonio, Texas.

The gold rush profits of the 1840s to 1900 attracted gambling, crime, saloons, and prostitution to the mining towns of the wild west. Widespread media coverage of prostitution occurred in 1836, when famous courtesan Helen Jewett was murdered, allegedly by one of her customers. The Lorette ordinance of 1857 prohibited prostitution on the first floor of buildings in New Orleans.[citation needed] Nevertheless, prostitution continued to grow rapidly in the US, becoming a 6.3 million-dollar business in 1858, more than the shipping and brewing industries combined.

This area of Pennsylvania Avenue was known from the mid-1800s to the 1920s as “Murder Bay,” home to numerous brothels. The youth on the left was a “procurer”.

By the US Civil War, Pennsylvania Avenue had become a disreputable slum known as Murder Bay, home to an extensive criminal underclass and numerous brothels. So many prostitutes took up residence there to serve the needs of General Joseph Hooker‘s Army of the Potomac that the area became known as “Hooker’s Division.” Two blocks between Pennsylvania and Missouri Avenues became home to such expensive brothels that it was known as “Marble Alley.”[2]

In 1873, Anthony Comstock created the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, an institution dedicated to supervising the morality of the public. Comstock successfully influenced the United States Congress to pass the Comstock Law, which made illegal the delivery or transport of “obscene, lewd, or lascivious” material and birth control information. In 1875, Congress passed the Page Act of 1875 that made it illegal to transport women into the nation to be used as prostitutes.[citation needed]

In 1881, the Bird Cage Theatre opened in Tombstone, Arizona. It included a brothel in the basement and 14 cribs suspended from the ceiling, called cages. Famous men such as Doc Holliday, Bat Masterson, Diamond Jim Brady, and George Hearst frequented the establishment.

In the late 19th century, newspapers reported that 65,000 white slaves existed. Around 1890, the term “red-light district” was first recorded in the United States. From 1890 to 1982, the Dumas Brothel in Montana was America’s longest-running house of prostitution.

New Orleans city alderman Sidney Story wrote an ordinance in 1897 to regulate and limit prostitution to one small area of the city, “The District”, where all prostitutes in New Orleans must live and work. The District, or Storyville, became the most famous area for prostitution in the nation. Storyville at its peak had some 1500 prostitutes and 200 brothels.

19th century prostitution

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How 19th Century Prostitutes Were Among the Freest, Wealthiest, Most Educated Women of Their Time

Russell’s new ‘Renegade History of the United States’ recounts how prostitutes won virtually all the freedoms that were denied to women but are now taken for granted.
September 27, 2010  |  from alternet.org
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The following is an excerpt from Thaddeus Russell’s new book, “A Renegade History of the United States” (Free Press/Simon & Schuster, 2010):

In the nineteenth century, a woman who owned property, made high wages, had sex outside of marriage, performed or received oral sex, used birth control, consorted with men of other races, danced, drank, or walked alone in public, wore makeup, perfume, or stylish clothes — and was not ashamed — was probably a whore.

In fact, prostitutes won virtually all the freedoms that were denied to women but are now taken for granted. Prostitutes were especially successful in the wild, lawless, thoroughly renegade boomtowns of the West. When women were barred from most jobs and wives had no legal right to own property, madams in the West owned large tracts of land and prized real estate. Prostitutes made, by far, the highest wages of all American women. Several madams were so wealthy that they funded irrigation and road-building projects that laid the foundation for the New West. Decades before American employers offered health insurance to their workers, madams across the West provided their employees with free health care. While women were told that they could not and should not protect themselves from violence, and wives had no legal recourse against being raped by their husbands, police officers were employed by madams to protect the women who worked for them, and many madams owned and knew how to use guns.

While feminists were seeking to free women from the “slavery” of patriarchal marriage, prostitutes married later in life and divorced more frequently than other American women. At a time when birth control was effectively banned, prostitutes provided a market for contraceptives that made possible their production and distribution. While women were taught that they belonged in the “private sphere,” prostitutes traveled extensively, often by themselves, and were brazenly “public women.” Long before social dancing in public was considered acceptable for women, prostitutes invented many of the steps that would become all the rage during the dance craze of the 1910s and 1920s. When gambling and public drinking were forbidden for most women, prostitutes were fixtures in western saloons, and they became some of the most successful gamblers in the nation. Most ironically, the makeup, clothing, and hairstyles of prostitutes, which were maligned for their overt sexuality (lipstick was “the scarlet shame of streetwalkers”), became widely fashionable among American women and are now so respectable that even First Ladies wear them.

Women who wished to escape the restrictions of Victorian America had no better place to go than the so-called frontier, where a particular combination of economic and demographic forces gave renegade women many unusual advantages.

Boom

Between 1870 and 1900, the number of farms in the United States doubled, and more land was brought under cultivation than in the previous two and half centuries. Most of this newly cultivated land was in the Great Plains and the Southwest. In addition to all of this farming, other industries developed rapidly in the West during the second half of the nineteenth century.

The largest of these were metal and coal mining in California, the Rockies, and parts of the Southwest; cattle ranching on the Plains; lumber in the Pacific Northwest; large-scale fruit and vegetable agriculture in the inland valleys of California; and oil in Texas, Oklahoma, and Southern California. Connecting these industries to one another and to eastern U.S. and European markets were railroads, which crisscrossed the West by the end of the nineteenth century. The federal government contributed to this explosive growth with massive expenditures for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad, which ran from the Pacific Ocean to the Missouri River, but also to the building of roads, dams, and vast irrigation systems without which the West as we know it could never have been created.

Towns were created virtually overnight in mountains where precious metal was discovered, in deserts near oil strikes, along cattle trails and around railroad stations, and in forests next to lumber mills and logging stands. Some boomtowns grew into the major urban hubs of San Francisco, Los Angeles, Denver, and Seattle. The people who filled those towns were overwhelmingly male, since the labor that brought them there was brutal, physically onerous, and almost universally considered to be men’s work. The non-Indian population of California in 1850 was 93 percent male. In the mining towns along the Comstock Silver Lode in Nevada, a census taker in 1860 counted 2,306 men and 30 women. These were men without families, without land, without property, and without a stake in any one community. They moved from town to town in search of money. And, since most of the towns they lived and worked in were brand new, the legal apparatus was usually very weak. These were exactly the conditions that bred bad people.

The Whorearchy

With good reason, the keepers of American morality in the nineteenth century were terribly worried about all the single men in the West. One Protestant minister wrote, “Left by themselves, men degenerate rapidly and become rough, harsh, slovenly — almost brutish.” He was correct. Ironically, most of these men were white and full American citizens. But they cared little for the restrictions and responsibilities of citizenship. One moral reformer in Montana reported this about life in a mining town: “Men without the restraint of law, indifferent to public opinion, and unburdened by families, drink whenever they feel like it, whenever they have the money to pay for it, and whenever there is nothing else to do. … Bad manners follow, profanity becomes a matter of course …. Excitability and nervousness brought on by rum help these tendencies along, and then to correct this state of things the pistol comes into play.” In the silver mining boomtown of Leadville, Colorado, in 1879 there were 120 saloons, 19 beer halls, 188 gambling houses, and only 4 churches.

Into this world stepped legions of women who understood something about supply and demand. A U.S. Department of Labor study in 1916 found that in the major legitimate occupations for women — department store clerking and light manufacturing — the average weekly wage was $6.67, which at the time represented a subsistence standard of living. In such industries, jobs were few, and due to the ban on women’s labor in most of the economy, the number of available workers in the industries that allowed women was great. This oversupply of labor pushed wages down to the minimum. By contrast, women who chose prostitution enjoyed a highly favorable market for their labor. Demand was enormous and constant, especially in the West, and the pool of available labor was kept relatively small by the great number of women who internalized or feared the stigma attached to prostitution. According to historian Ruth Rosen, who pioneered the social history of prostitution in the United States, “The average brothel inmate or streetwalker” — the lowest positions in the trade — “received from one to five dollars a ‘trick,’ earning in one evening what other working women made in a week.” Prostitutes in a 1916 study reported earnings between $30 to $50 per week, at a time when skilled male trade union members averaged roughly $20 per week. In their study of Virginia City, Nevada, George M. Blackburn and Sherman L. Ricards found that prostitutes in that 1860s boomtown, unlike the stereotype of the innocent, young “white slave,” were actually considerably older on average than women of the western mining states Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada. “From the age data on prostitutes, it is clear that they were old enough to realize the nature of their behavior and also old enough to have married had they so desired, for this was an area with many unattached men. Thus we conclude that these were professional women intent on economic success.” After working as a domestic in El Paso, Texas, for $3 per week, a Mexican-born woman quit her job and “decided to become a puta” for the extra money. She later recalled, “It took me a long time to get used to having men intimately explore my body… Of course, I had guilt feelings at the beginning, but they soon disappeared when I saw my savings begin mounting up.”

Even in the tighter markets of the East, prostitutes were extraordinarily well paid. In New York City, according to historian Timothy Gilfoyle, “an affluent, but migratory, class of prostitutes flourished.” Low wages “in the factory and the household made prostitutes the best-paid women workers in the nineteenth-century city.” In studies conducted in New York during the 1900s and 1910s, 11 percent of prostitutes listed coercion as the reason for entering the trade, but almost 28 percent named the money they could earn. Members of the Vice Commission of Chicago, like many anti-prostitution reformers, faced the hard truth of the wealth being accrued by prostitutes with a bitter question: “Is it any wonder that a tempted girl who receives only six dollars per week working with her hands sells her body for twenty-five dollars per week when she learns there is a demand for it and men are willing to pay the price?” One Chicago prostitute who supported her family with her wages had an answer. She told an interviewer, “Do you suppose I am going back to earn five or six dollars a week in a factory, and at that, never have a cent of it to spend for myself, when I can earn that amount any night, and often much more?” Historian Ruth Rosen was “struck again and again by most prostitutes’ view of their work as ‘easier’ and less oppressive than other survival strategies they might have chosen.”

Prostitutes were the first women to break free of what early American feminists described as a system of female servitude. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, one of the leading feminist intellectuals at the turn of the twentieth century, noted that human beings were the only species in which “an entire sex lives in a relation of economic dependence upon the other sex.” Since wages in respectable occupations were so low, the only culturally sanctioned means for a woman to attain wealth was through a rich husband. And since states in the nineteenth century granted few or no property rights to married women, even women who “married well” owned little or nothing of their own. But women who chose to be bad could live well on their own.

Prostitutes who rose to the top of the industry to become “madams” owned more wealth than any other women in the United States. Indeed, they were among the wealthiest people in the country, and especially in the West. “Diamond Jessie” Hayman began work as a prostitute in the gold country of the Sierra Nevada foothills in the 1880s, then moved to San Francisco to become one of the most successful prostitutes in the city’s history. Hayman’s three-story brothel in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco included three fireplaces, a saloon, a champagne cellar, and fifteen suites filled with imported furniture. She provided each of her employees with a $6,000 wardrobe that included a fox fur coat, four tailored suits, eight hats, two dress coats, twelve pairs of shoes, twelve pairs of gloves, seven evening gowns, and seven negligees. Hayman earned enough money from her business to buy several parcels of land in the city. After the 1906 earthquake that destroyed much of San Francisco, Hayman and other madams provided food and clothing to the thousands left homeless. She died in 1923 with an estate worth $116,000.

Jennie Rogers, the “Queen of the Colorado Underworld,” owned several opulent brothels in Denver that featured ceiling-to-floor mirrors, crystal chandeliers, oriental rugs, marble tables, and grand pianos. Rogers provided her prostitutes with personal hairstylists and dressmakers, ensuring that they were among the most stylish women in the world. Her profits were so great that she was able to purchase large tracts of Denver’s most valuable land as well as several shares of an irrigation and reservoir project that not only provided the city with much of its water but also paid Rogers sizable dividends. Rogers’s major competitor was Mattie Silks, who had risen from the ranks of streetwalkers in Abilene, Texas, and Dodge City, Kansas, to become a brothel owner by the age of nineteen. Soon after moving to Denver in 1876, she purchased a three-story mansion with twenty-seven rooms, then outfitted it with the finest furnishings available.

Visitors to the Silks brothel were greeted by a symphony orchestra in the main parlor. Silks eventually opened three other brothels and purchased a stable of race horses. After her retirement from the trade, she told a newspaper, “I went into the sporting life for business reasons and for no other. It was a way for a woman in those days to make money, and I made it. I considered myself then and I do now — as a businesswoman.” Her employees, who were among the highest paid women in the United States, “came to me for the same reasons that I hired them. Because there was money in it for all of us.”

Other madams ruled major portions of the West. Eleanora Dumont purchased real estate in gold and silver boomtowns all over the Rockies and Sierra Nevada, where she established lucrative brothels, saloons, and gambling houses. Josephine “Chicago Joe” Airey used the proceeds from her brothels to purchase a sizable portion of Helena, Montana’s, real estate in the 1870s and 1880s. Lou Graham was not only early Seattle’s most prominent madam, she was also one of its wealthiest residents. Graham arrived in Seattle in 1888 and soon opened an immaculately appointed brothel in the Pioneer Square area. To advertise her business, she paraded with her employees on carriages through the city streets. Graham invested heavily in the stock market and in real estate, becoming, according to one historian, “one of the largest landholders in the Pacific Northwest.” The “Queen of the Lava Beds” also contributed enormous sums to help establish the Seattle public school system and saved many of the city’s elite families from bankruptcy after the panic of 1893. Anna Wilson, the “Queen of the Omaha Underworld,” owned a substantial portion of the city’s real estate. Toward the end of her life she bequeathed to the city her twenty-five room mansion, which became Omaha’s first modern emergency hospital and a communicable-disease treatment center.

It is unlikely that there were more wealthy or powerful black women in nineteenth-century America than Mary Ellen “Mammy” Pleasant and Sarah B. “Babe” Connors. Pleasant was born a slave but became one of the most influential women in early San Francisco. She operated boardinghouses in which wealthy businessmen were paired with prostitutes. With the revenue from her primary business, she invested in mining stock and made high-interest loans to the San Francisco elite. Pleasant also filed suit to desegregate the city’s streetcars, making her “the mother of the civil rights movement” in California. Connors’s brothels in St. Louis were among the most popular in the Midwest. Known as “the Castle” and “the Palace,” they featured luxurious rugs, tapestries, art work, and crystal chandeliers. The parlor of the Palace was famous for its floor, which was made entirely of mirrored glass. Connors herself was always elegantly appointed with drapes of jewelry on her body and gold and diamonds embedded in her teeth. Many of the most famous songs of the ragtime genre — the principal precursor to jazz — were invented by Letitia Lulu Agatha “Mama Lou” Fontaine, who performed as the house act at Connors’s brothels.

High-end madams were not the only prostitutes who acquired substantial wealth. A middle-class reformer in Virginia City, Nevada, noted with disdain that local prostitutes were “always dressed the richest.” The historians Blackburn and Ricards concluded that while prostitutes in Virginia City were not the richest people in town, they “did amass more wealth than most of their customers. In addition, compared with other women of the city, the white prostitutes were well-to-do. This was because virtually none of the married women and very few unmarried women had any money at all. If the prostitutes came West to compete economically with others of their sex, they were successful.”

Similarly, historian Paula Petrik found that approximately 60 percent of the prostitutes who worked in Helena, Montana, between 1865 and 1870 “reported either personal wealth or property or both.” The town’s “fancy ladies” also made 44 percent of the property transactions undertaken by women and acquired all twenty mortgages that were given to women during the period. Most impressive of all were Helena prostitutes’ wages compared to male workers in the town. Petrik estimates that the average monthly income of “a fancy lady plying her trade along Wood Street” was $233. By contrast, bricklayers, stone masons, and carpenters earned between $90 and $100, and even bank clerks made only $125 per month. Moreover, “[c]ompared with the $65 monthly wage the highest paid saleswomen received, prostitutes’ compensation was royal.” At a time when leading feminists were demanding an end to women’s economic dependence, the red-light district in Helena was, in Petrik’s words, “women’s business grounded in women’s property and capital.”

Today’s women attorneys might also find their earliest ancestors among western madams, who regularly appeared in court on their own behalf and won quite frequently. Petrik found a large number of court cases in Helena in which prostitutes brought suit against one another to “settle petty squabbles among them that could not be resolved by the Tenderloin’s leaders” or to “challenge men who assaulted, robbed, or threatened them.” In half of the cases involving a prostitute’s complaint against a man, “the judge or jury found for the female complainants.” Petrik discovered in Helena “a singular lack of legal and judicial concern with sexual commerce” before the influx of moral reformers. “[O]fficers of the law arrested no women for prostitution or keeping a disorderly house before 1886, even though the police court was located in the red-light district” and prostitution had been a central part of the town’s economy for two decades. The era of legal tolerance coincided with a period in which Helena’s prostitutes suffered very little of the self-destructiveness assumed to be common among sex workers. “Not one whore in Helena died by her own hand before 1883,” and though the town’s prostitutes were “rampant users of alcohol and drugs,” there were “no reports of prostitutes dying of alcoholism or drug overdose between 1865 and 1883 in Helena.”

Some madams abused their employees or placed them in peonage, but these tended to be the less successful brothel keepers. To attract women in the highly competitive markets of western boomtowns, where red-light districts nearly always included several brothels, most madams not only paid their employees far higher wages than they would find in any other employment, they also provided free birth control, health care, legal assistance, housing, and meals for their employees. Few American workers of either sex in the nineteenth century enjoyed such benefits.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, the wealth, power, and ubiquity of prostitutes caused several urban reformers to warn of a “whorearchy” that threatened to undermine the virtues of the nation. Madams led an “under-ground universe” with “a regularly organized community of thieves, who have their laws and regulations,” as George Foster put it in his 1850 novel Celio: or, New York Above-ground and Under-ground. In George Ellington’s 1869 journalistic account, The Women of New York: or, the Underworld of the Great City, madams were “female fiends of the worst kind, who seem to have lost all the better qualities of human nature.” Worse still, they had “entree to the good society of the metropolis” with “the friends and chosen companions of some of the wealthiest and most intellectual men of the city.”

Excerpted from A Renegade History of the United States, by Thaddeus Russell, Copyright © 2010 Thaddeus Russell.  Excerpted with permission by Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.

19th Century, Queen Charlotte’s Court and Mad King George III

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Full text of “Courtand private life in the time of Queen Charlotte : being the journals of Mrs. Papendiek, assistant keeper of the wardrobe and reader to Her Majesty

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LONDON : RICHATlD PENTLEY & SON, \EW r>( RLiNOTON
STREET. PUBLISHERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJK^TV
THE QUEEN 

M D C C C L X X X V : I 

COUET AND PRIVATE LIFE IN THE
TIME OF QUEEN CHAELOTTE :
BEING THE JOUENALS OF MRS PAPENDIEK,
ASSISTANT KEEPER OF THE WARDROBE
AND READER TO HER MAJESTY. EDITED
BY HER GRAND-DAUGHTER, MRS VERNON
DELVES BROUGHTON 

VOLUME II. 

LONDON: BICHABD BEMTLET & SON, NEW BURLINGTON
STBEET, PUBLISHEBS IN OBDINABT TO HEB MAJESTY
THE QUEEN 

CONTENTS 

OF 

THE SECOND VOLUMK 

■^ 

CHAPTER Xni. 

^ Mrs Roach's school — ^The children's winter clothes— They all visit
\ the Queen — Miss Sandys — Miss Rumey and Miss Planta —
N Discussions and discontent — ^New arrangements at Windsor —
S^ Consultation on the King's state— A time of general anxiety
^^ and wretchedness — Arrangements for the safety of the King's
\ person — Return of the Duke of York from Hanover — ^The
King gets rapidly worse — ^The pages in attendance — No fire in
^the King's room — ^The King's journal — Mr. Papendiek under-
takes to shave the King — Pitiahle condition of the Queen —
Silence and gloom terrible — ^Public prayers throughout the
land — Heartless conduct of the Prince of Wales — Injudicious
conduct of the Lady Charlotte Finch — ^The Cabinet Ministers —
The King talks continually — He aaks who called to inquire —
Sad event on Christmas Day — Mr. Papendiek lifts his Majesty —
Dr. Willis brought by Mr. Pitt to Windsor — He has hopes of a
cure — ^All the physicians jealous of the new comer — Arrange-
ments at Kew for the King's comfort — Privy Council to
sanction the King's removal to Kew — Fortnum — The King is
taken to Kew — Expresses pleasure at seeing a fire — Discre-
pancies between Mrs. Papendiek's and Miss Bumey's account —
A more hopeful feeling 

VI CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME 

CHAPTER XIV. 

PAOI 

Madame Schwellenberg again — ^Political intrigaes — Pitt stands
firm — Unusually severe winter — Remedies for chillblains — ^Mrs.
JervoiB — Mrs. Stowe — Mrs. Roach — ^The baby fails in health
— Mr. Meyer — ^The Forrests — ^The window for St. G^eo^ge*8
Chapel — ^Mrs. Papendiek yisits her aunt at Kew — John Cramer
and other composers — ^Mrs. Meyer — The Meyer fitmily — ^Return
home to AVindsor — Dinners ; turtle, fish, meat, puddings, and
beverages — Domestic arrangements — ^Knives and forks — Mr.
Papendiek*s short visit — Distress from the intense cold — ^Peiv
sonal sorrow for the King and Queen — Serious illness of little
(George — Death of Mr. Meyer — Mrs. Willis — ^The Royal patient
— ^The Regency Bill — Deputation to the Queen — Convalescence
of the King — Lord Mulgrave's speech — ^Dr. Doran's review of
the state of affidrs . • 82 

CHAPTER XV. 

The King absolutely refuses to see the Queen — Some dajs later
he agrees to see her — ' Queen Esther ' — The King walks with
the Queen and the Princesses — ^Want of filial afiection of the
Prince of Wales and the Duke of York — ^Thurlow — Mr. Papen*
diek sends for his wife to Eew to attend the rejoicings — A
prayer of thanksgiving — General illuminations — ^The Bank most
splendid — Cort^e of the Queen and Princesses — The King
receives the Queen on her return to Eew — ^He conducts her to
the 8upper*room — ^Verses on the entrance gates — Dluminationa
kept up for three nights — Mra. Zoffanj's house — Mrs. Roach —
Frederick's sixpence — Baron Dillon — A subscription ball at
Windsor — The King receives an address from the Lords and
Commons — ^The Queen holds a drawing-room during March —
Mrs. Papendiek goes to London— The proceeaon for the public
thanksgiving — The King attends the service in St. Paul's Cathe-
dral — A new dress introduced — ^Freeh difficulties about Dr.
Willis's men—' Not full page '—The Royal Family return to
Windsor — ^Mr. Papendiek returns to his home fatigued and
disappointed • 62 

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME vU 

CHAPTER XVI. 

PAGE 

Concert at the Palace — ^Madame Mara — The organist for Windsor
— Mr. Forrest — Picture by St. Mark — ^The Queen's present to
Mrs. Tunstall — Ball and supper at Windsor — The Prince of
Wales in a fume — ^The Duke of York and Colonel Lennox —
Supper in St. George's Hall — The duel referred to by Dr.
Doran — Entertainments given by the French and Spanish
Ambassadors — Drawing-room on the King's birthday — Mr.
Delavaux and Mr. Burgess— Death of Mr. Thrale— Mrs. Thrale
marries Mr. Piozzi— Mrs. Parsloe and Mr. Sykes— Party at Dr.
Aylward's — A great success — The Royal Family leave W^ind-
sor for Lyndhuret — Ceremony on entering the Nevir Forest —
Serious illness of Mr. Papendiek — Arrival at Weymouth —
Their Majesties make several excursions — ^The bathing women
— The Royal Family go to Saltram — Visit Plymouth — Return
to Weymouth and Windsor — Theodore Smith — Charlotte has
music lessons — ^Illness of Eliza — Frederick goes to school —
Frederick's pin — Mr. Papendiek returns home — Looking much
altered — Changes in the Royal attendants — The brothers
Hawkins — Mrs. Papendiek visits the Queen — Mrs. Papendiek
stays with her father in London, and then returns home . . 95 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Preparations for the winter — Memorial from the King's band —
Nephews of Dr. Herschel — Ball at the Castle — Discomfiture
of Mr. Kamus — Present from the King of Naples — King Ponia-
towski — Mr. Papendiek accomplished in Polish music and
dancing — Sir Thomas Lawrence — His youthful days — Portraits
of Lady Oremome and others — Introduced to the Queen —
Portrait of the Queen — Difficulties — Bridgetower — Mr.
Jervois — Misunderstandings — Mr. Zofiany on his return from
India — Mrs. Stowe and the Carbonels — Concerted music — Duet
with Rodgers — Mrs. Papendiek's remark on seeing the Queen s
picture — The Queen refuses to give Lawrence another sitting —
Lawrence was not paid — The portrait sold after his death —
Miss Folstone, afterwards Mrs. Mee — Her history — Pleasant
little coterie — Lawrence takes Mrs. Papendiek 's portrait —
Dinner at the Herschels — Unpleasant walk — Dr. Lind, Mrs. 

VOL. n. a 

viil CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME 

PAOB 

Liud — Mrs. Delany — J^rincess Elizi^beth copies her drawings —
Charlotte shows talent for music, Elizabeth for drawing —
History of Dr. Thackaray — His death — The Queen assists Mrs.
Thackaray — Mrs. Papendiek goes to town- Difficulties with
Bridgetower 124 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Christmas party — Dr. Fryer — George Papendiek 's play — MisH
Catley — Various marriages — Children's ball at Windsor — Kind-
ness of the Princess Hoyal — Mr. Papendiek and the band —
Mrs. Papendiek to town to ' make her courtesy ' — The Draw-
ing-room very splendid — ^Footmen — Scholars of Christ's Hos-
pital — Lawrence — Fuseli — Story of Lawrence and Fuseli — The
Tuesday's stag-hunt — Frederick's precocity — Mr. Brown's ball —
Son of the hairdresser Mori — Cousin Charlotte — Mrs. Siddons
— Burning of the Opera House — Magnificence of the New
Opera House — The stag-hunt at Windsor — ZofTany's portrait
of Miss Farren — The Blagroves — Bridgetower and his son —
Young Bridgetower and the Prince of Wales -Mrs. Siddons
and her daughter 166 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Troubles in France — The new star, Dussek — His performance
and appearance — The Bishop of London — The French Revo-
lution — Graciousness of the Queen — Music masters for the
Princesses — Clementi — The Queen's dislike to Louis Albert —
Horn — Dr. Parsons — General Rooke — Mr. Albert breaks his
arm — ^Planchd — ^Mr. Keate and Mr. Griffiths — Mr. Keate and
the Queen — Mr. Keate and the Prince of Wales — Surgeon
to the forces — ^Mrs. Papendiek goes to London — Meets Charles
Papendiek — ^Visits I^awrence at his studio — Lawrence and Lord
Derby — The Stowes leave Windsor — Gascoigne*s house in the
Home Park — Mrs. Papendiek goes to London — Abbey concert
— Excellent performance — The Royal Academy— Cecilia Zof-
fany, afterwards Mrs. Thomas Horn Her sisters, Mrs. Beach-
croft and Mrs. Oliver — Mrs. Papendiek, as usual, takes the
children to the Queen and Princesses — Baron Dillon — Ball-
room tickets— Prince Ferdinand of Wiirtemborg— The Stowe
family — Charles Papendiek's outfit 18.'J 

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME IX 

CHAPTER XX. 

PAGK 

Death of the Governor of the Round Tower — Mrs. Meyer and her
sons — John Meyer — Charlotte's music — ^Their Majesties propose
visiting Weymouth — Shavir House — ^The doctors and the King
— Double carriages with cane bodies — ^The Princesses — The
Princess Royal and her mother — The Papendiek girls constantly
at the Lodge — John Meyer taken ill — Sixpenny schoolmistress
— ^First ' Royal mail ' to Weymouth — Princess Amelia at
Eastbourne — ^The King benefited by the sea air — Charlotte
visits her grandmother — Dissolution of Parliament — Mr. Papen-
diek becomes a * Denizen ' — ^The Queen's punctiliousness — ^Mr.
Montagu — Mrs. Papendiek's last visit to Kensington — Dr.
Majendie — ^Mrs. Trimmer — Mrs. Majendie — Domestic distur-
bances — ^Terrific wind — Frightful storm at the end of November
— The chimney falla — Great damage done generally — Frederick
breeched — The joke falls flat — The Blagroves — Mrs. Meyer
and her son — Rebecca, the artist — Amusing talent — Coloured
sands — Hawes — Miss Miers, a violin player — Famous breakfast
rolls — The Widow Hodgson — Death of notable personages . 211 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Evening entertainment given by Lady Charlotte Finch to the
younger Princesses — Monetary difficulties — Frederick goes as
a day scholar — George at last walks — ^Anatomical fever — John
Meyer turns out badly — He dies on his way to India — ^Mrs.
Blagrove and Mr. Papendiek — ^The servant Milly — Mrs. Papen-
diek losing health — Mrs. Papendiek goes to London — ^The
Royal Academy — ^Lawrence's picture — Artistes from Paris —
Madame Krumpholtus — More Abbey concert-s — The Papendiek
boys visit the King — David — Mrs. Roach and Miss Albert —
Regret at leaving the house at Windsor — Miss Knissel — Mr.
Cumberland — Miss Frederica Mackenthum — Dismissal of Miss
Bumey — Violent storm — Sad death of Mrs. Pick — The Papen-
dieks take a house in Dean's Yard — They settle down — Difficul-
ties with Delavaux — The Queen's observations . . . 240 

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME 

CHAPTER XXII. 

PAGE 

Mrs. Deluc, Miss Jacobi, and Miss Winkelmann — Madame Schwel-
lenberg makes difEculties — Palsa and Thurschmid — Luncli at
the Herschels' and music — Quartett party — Description of Miss
Winkelmann — House-warming — Nomination of the parish
organist — Marriage of the Duke of York — The Duchess's
household — Description of the Duchess — Invitation to Windsor
for Christmas — Miss Tilderley — Considerable public anxiety —
Incendiary fires — Wyatt — Riots in Birmingham— Deaths of
notable personages — Soliloquy — Education — Female and house-
hold duties — Close of the year 1791 — D^but of Princess Mary—
Drawing-room dresses — Court days — Interesting ballets —
Serious accident — The Haymarket Theatre — Great cold —
Arrival of Haydn — Eliza's illness — Early history of Haydn —
Tom Pmuo — Pernicious eifects of his works — The Bench of
Bishops — The militia embodied — Dress — Games at cards — Salo-
mon's concerts — Salomon's kindness — Arrangement of the
performers — Reflections on the English public — Haydn's first
public appearance — Great enthusiasm — Haydn's talent — Sedi-
tious meetings at Windsor — ' Duty ' — Death of Mrs. Papendiek 2G7 

CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

Further records of Mrs. Papendiek's life — Her appointments at the
Court of Queen Charlotte as ' Assistant Keeper of the Ward-
robe,' and Reader — Outline of the history of her daughter, Mrs.
Oom, afterwards Mrs. Planta — Of Adolphus Kent Oom — Of
Mrs. Papendiek's other children — Mr. George Arbuthnot — Mar-
riage of the Prince of Wales — Birth of Princess Charlotte of
Wales — Temporary unpopularity of the King — Marriage of the
Princess Royal — Mr. Papendiek transferred to the Queen's own
household — Character of Mr. Papendiek — His death — ^The
King's health, mental and bodily — His failing sight, and subse-
quent blindness — ^The regency established — The King's piety and
resignation — The Queen — ^Her sad position — Death of Princess
Charlotte of Wales — The Queen's declining health — Her suffer-
ing — Her patience — Her death and burial — Mrs. Papendiek's
affection for her Royal mistress — ^The remainder of her life
passed in retirement — Her death 300 

THE SON AND DAUGHTERS OF M" PAPENDIEK 

OF QUEEN ChARLOTTE ' 

 II 

COURT AND PRIVATE UFE 

IK THE 

TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 

CHAPTER Xni.
Mrs. Roach's school — ^The children's winter clothes — They all visit the
Queen — Miss Sandys — Miss Barney and Miss Planta — Discussions
and discontent — New arrangements at Windsor — Consultation on
the King's state — A time of general anxiety and wretchedness —
Arrangements for the safety of the King's person — Return of the
Duke of York from Hanover — The King gets rapidly worse — ^The
pages in attendance — No lire in the King's room — The King's journal
— Mr. Papendiek undertakes to shave the King — Pitiable condition
of the Queen — Silence and gloom terrible — Public prayers throughout
the land — Heartless conduct of the Prince of Wales — ^Injudicious
conduct of the Lady Charlotte Finch— The Cabinet Ministers — ^The
King talks continually — He asks who called to inquire — Sad event
on Christmas Day — ^Mr. Papendiek lifts his Majesty — Dr. Willis
brought by Mr. Pitt to Windsor — ^He has hopes of a cure — All the
physicians jealous of the new comer — Arrangements at Kew for the
King's comfort — ^Privy Council to sanction the King's removal to
Kew — ^Fortnum — The King is taken to Kew — Expresses pleasure at
seeing a fire — Discrepancies between Mrs. Papendiek's and Miss
Burney's account — A more hopeful feeling. 

It was now getting on in October, and the winter
threatened to be severe. We had the pianoforte
placed in the parlour, as a more convenient situation
for the cold weather. 

VOL. II. B 

2 COURT AND PRIVATE LITE IN 

Charlotte returned from a visit to Mrs. Roach's
well and happy, and having fallen in with Theodore
Smith, she had imbibed something like a little feehng
for music. I continued paying to Mrs. Roach the
yearly fee for one day scholar, four guineas, so I
could send one or even two of the children, when
fine or convenient to me, without difficulty. The
reading and spelling continued either at home or at
school as before, so there was Uttle or no interrup-
tion in the plan. 

We now clothed the children for winter, and by
contrivance got four blue greatcoats. Frederick's
blue beaver was dyed black ; I got a quilted black hat
for Georgey, and lined the girls' summer straws with
the same colour as the coats, garter blue, and trimmed
them with sarsnet ribbon without bows. I also pro-
vided worsted stockings for the three elder children,
chamois shoes for Charlotte, the only one of the four
with chilblains, sealskin for Eliza, and Frederick's
walking shoes, boots not then being known, kid for
their best, and the house. For the three elder, dark
cotton frocks, each two, and stuff petticoats of a
material not glazed on either side, which prevented
its creasing so much. Is. Id. a. yard ; long gloves tied
over the elbows, with the fingers cut off* so that they
were always on, and other Kttle etceteras. We went
to the Lodge to show ourselves, and to make inquiries,
wlien the Queen said, ' You always make out some- 

THE IIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 3 

thing pretty. That colour is so becoming to those
children, and their hats so neat/ The Princesses
were affectionate, but all looked downhearted, and
the gloom was perceptible generally. This year I
finished my white cloak, fur, and muff, with a black
bonnet, newly done up. 

Miss Sandys about this time represented to the
Queen that the situation she had undertaken did not
in the least suit her. She was losing her health,
her spirits, and her power of improvement ; she had
never been accustomed to live in one room, to sleep,
to breakfast and tea, that room being also the ward-
robe of the Queen ; and she could not stand the
confinement. She represented that the head servants
in noblemen's famihes met in the steward's room,
and had some change and variety in their lives. 

The Queen answered that she thought the whole
had been properly explained to her, but that she
would inquire into it. 

This affair ought properly to have been discussed
with Miss Burney, but the Queen never asked her
advice, and in the absence of Madame Schwellenberg,
she consulted Miss Planta, who, though she confirmed
every word of Miss Sandys, saying that there was
no exaggeration in her statement, agreed that any
amendment was difficult. 

All male appointments in the Eoyal household
were held by men of a rank that could not associate 

B 2 

4 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

with the dressers of the Queen and Princesses, and
the dinner and supper-room being in the other wing,
it would be inconvenient for them to be so far re-
moved from call. These things were represented to
Miss Sandys, but a great deal of trouble ensued about
the arrangements of meals, the allowances, the treat-
ment of those holding lower appointments, the ar-
rangements necessary to be made for the maids and
attendants of ladies visiting at the Lodge, and so
forth. 

This untoward business lowered these places once
more. Miss Sandys was only * assistant dresser,' the
others * dressers,' and to put the question of rank and
equality on a better footing, the Queen desired that
henceforth the title should be * wardrobe maids,' and
an order was sent to the page of presence to have
them so inserted in the Eed Book in November. 

The Queen now felt her error in having taken
about her people of the class of servants, and found
out too late the race of people she had to deal with.
Poor Mackenthum was quite in despair, and seldom
would join in the new arrangements. She, no doubt
imperceptibly, drew Grieswell to her room constantly,
which was not considered quite decorous. 

Miss Burney called upon me, as she promised she
would do, but brought Miss Planta with her, who, she
said, should relate all this disagreeable business to
me, as she had been the principal mover in all the 

THE TLME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 5 

changes and new arrangements that had been made.
Miss Burney added that the Queen had said that
' slie would not keep her from her writing/ and so
had sent for Miss Planta to assist her in settling the
unpleasant affair. Miss Burney thought that the
honour of the house ought to have been kept up, and
that the waiting women should certainly have been
provided for separate from the Royal attendants, for
many reasons. She knew the world, and the Queen
knew that her propositions would have been those of
a lady who well understood the position of people of
all ranks, and who possessed a mind liberal, magna-
nimous, and totally devoid of prejudice. The Queen's
judgment, combined with the amiable feelings of her
dresser, might have laid down rules for the comfort
and respect of every individual, to the honour of
such an establishment, and for the happiness of those
dependent on it. But now, alas ! there was much
inconvenience, and many discussions, and a good deal
of discontent had arisen. 

Miss Planta also told me that Sonardi had de-
manded for the summer attendance 200/., but the
Queen would not enter into any agreement with him
further than by paying him at that rate for any
time that her Majesty might require his assistance. 

Arrangements were now being made at the Lodge
which surprised some and distressed others. 

The three rooms at the end of the long passage, 

6 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

looking over the Castle, and a small side room adjoin-
ing the Royal house door and staircase down to the
porter's room, were now fitted up as three bedrooms
and a sitting-room. In one of them, Mrs. Theilcke,
who had suddenly been sent for on November 1, was
placed ; in another, Miss Goldsworthy, with her maid
in the same room on a folding couch ; and in the
third, my father. Madame Schwellenberg and her
servants, six in number, were ordered down for the
winter; and Lady Charlotte Finch was commanded
to establish herself in her house in Sheet Street until
further orders, to attend the school hours of the
younger Princesses, and to dine with them in the
absence of Miss Goldsworthy ; and other new
arrangements among the attendants were made,
showing that some urgent necessity was likely to
arise for their being, so to speak, condensed^ and pre-
pared for sudden or unexpected emergencies. 

The King's health for some time past had been a
subject of great anxiety to all who saw him daily,
and his condition both of body and mind had now
become very critical. Every method and medicine
that had been tried since the return from Chelten-
ham had failed, and it became evident that something
serious was to be expected. 

It was the great desire of the Queen and all those
about his Majesty to keep these unhappy surmises
from the public, and on this account he still showed 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 7 

himself on all State occasions, and even held a lev^
as late as the end of October.^ After this an attack
of fever came on which was followed by delirium,
but it was given out to the world that it was an
attack of cold and spasm in the stomach, caused by
his sitting in wet stockings. 

The King was, however, still able at times to
drive out, but his Majesty upon these occasions often
frightened the Princesses. Some days he was almost
unmanageable, and at last became fretful upon every
subject, and danger ensued. 

On November 3, 1788, assembled after dark in
the room at the top of the staircase. Doctors Baker,
Heberden, Reynolds, Warren, and Sir Lucas Pepys,
who met in consultation upon the King's case. The
Queen had consented to these secret deliberations
with proper advice from high authorities ; the Cabi-
net Council, Pitt, Grenville, Spencer, and Thurlow,
sincerely hoping that a cure might be effected. 

' Stanhope, in his lAfe of Pitt, says of this event : ' On the 24th
(October, 1788), however, the King made an effort hejond his strength
in going to hold a lev^ at St. James's. He made that effort, as he
wrote to Mr. Pitt, " to stop further lies and any fall of the stocks." But
at the lev^ his manner and conversation were such as to cause the
most painful uneasiness in several at least of those to whom he spoke.
Mr. Pitt, in particular, could not entirely suppress his emotion when he
attended the King in his closet after the lev^, which his Majesty ob-
served and noticed with kindness in writing next day to his Minister
from Kew. Probably conscious himself, at least in some degree, of
his coming malady, he directed Mr. Pitt in the same letter not to
allow any political papers to be sent to him before the next ensuing
levte. 

8 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

After this a time of wretchedness and anxiety
ensued that almost amounted to despair. 

Mrs. Tunstall was commanded to keep every
ro6m and apartment in Kew House aired and ready
for occupation at a moment's notice, in case such
a change should be deemed advisable ; and those
of the household who resided at Kew during
the summer, were to remain there until further
orders. 

The suite of rooms occupied by the Queen at
Windsor consisted of six. Immediately opposite the
entrance door was the music-room ; next to it that
in which their Majesties met the evening company to
cards ; then a boudoir, and close to it the Queen's
study. To the right a large bedroom and the
Queen's dressing-room, wliich opened upon the
private staircase down to the King's apartments, and
up to those of the Princesses. 

Over these six rooms nine were arranged : two
for the Princess Royal, two for Princess Augusta, two
for Miss Planta, one for Miss Sandys (the wardrobe),
one for Miss Mackenthum, and the ninth for Madame
Schwellenberg's two abigails. The opposite rooms,
now cleared of visitors, were for the Princesses'
meals, and General Goldsworthy, as head equerry,
was now accommodated in the room at the end of
the passage, two more were for Princess Elizabeth,
and at the other end one for Major Price. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 9 

Immediately under the Queen's rooms were those
of the King, through all of which were communi-
cating doors, besides one from each of the six rooms
into the passage. Although of solid mahogany, the
physicians feared the King's strength in a paroxysm
might burst them, and they were secured. Other
arrangements were made for the safety of the King's
person, and we must hope for his comfort. Precau-
tions were, no doubt, necessary and wise, but the
necessity for them was very, very sad. 

One circumstance that certainly greatly disturbed
and vexed the King, and it is feared brought forward
his direful malady to a more violent crisis, was the
return of the Duke of York from Hanover, without
permission, and the unceasing endeavours of his
Royal Highness to persuade the King to allow him
to introduce into the Guards' bands the Turkish
musical instruments, with the ornamental tails, cres-
cents, &c. The Duke was ordered back, but did not
go, and this conduct was naturally very irritating to
his Majesty. 

The loss of the American Colonies just at this
juncture also undoubtedly preyed upon the King's
mind; but though these and other trying circum-
stances might have brought his Majesty's unfortunate
malady to a crisis, they could not have been the origi-
nal cause of it, and there must have been some lurk-
ing tendency to unsoundness of mind, undiscovered 

10 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

in his early life, notwithstanding his apparent healthi-
ness and vigour of constitution.^ 

November 3, 1788, was Princess Sophia's eleventh
birthday. On these occasions the Princesses always
had some amusement as a hohday, and were more
than usual among the family. This day they were
all to dine together, for the King to see his children,
but he took little notice of them or of any one. At
dessert he fell into a heavy doze. 

Then all left him, and Dr. Baker entered. On
waking up his Majesty inquired what it all meant ?
They told him first that the Queen, who for some
time had not been well, was worse, and that Dr.
Baker had prevailed upon her Majesty to take rest.
*Then,' said the King, 'let me see her.' They en-
deavoured to persuade him that it was better not,
but the mancBuvre was not successful, and the poor
King became rapidly worse. 

The almost total loss of sleep from which his 

^ ' The constitution of George III. was by nature hardy and robust,
but with a constant tendency to corpulence. To counteract this the
King had from an early period adopted a system of abstemious diet and
of active exercise. While his meeds were of the simplest and plainest
kind, the equerries in attendance upon him might often complain of the
great distances which he rode in hunting, or of his walks of three hours
before breakfast. That system carried to excess, combined with never-
failing and anxious attention to affairs of State, was the cause of the
mental malady in 1788. Such at least was the opinion of the case ex-
pressed by Dr. Willis, the ablest by far of his physicians, when examined
by the Ck>mmittees of the House of Lords and House of Commons.'
(From Stanhope's lAfe of FUt) 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 11 

Majesty had been suffering of late was of very serious
import, both as a cause and effect of his rapid in-
crease of illness. He was aware of the evil attending
this sleeplessness, and bewailed it in the most pitiful
manner. 

[Upon this subject Dr. Doran says : — * Previous to
the first night of the King's delirium he conducted,
as he had always been accustomed to do, the Queen
to her dressing-room, and there, a hundred times
over, requested her not to disturb him if she should
find him asleep. The urgent repetition showed a
mind nearly overthrown, but the King calmly and
affectionately remarked that he needed not physicians,
for the Queen was the best physician he could have.
" She is my best friend," said he. " Where could I
find a better? "'—Ed.] 

Through that night, and for several successive
days, the physicians in turn never left him ; and of
the pages and footmen, some were always in atten-
dance, and were to relieve each other as they found
they could best manage it. 

To assist old Matthews and Cox, pages' men, the
Queen ordered two others over from Kew. The
pages in attendance were six : Kamus, Ernst, Stilling-
fleet. Chamberlain, Compton, and Papendiek, with
Grieswell as a helper. Two small bedsteads were
placed in the dessert-room for two only at a time to
take natural rest, and so intensely cold was the 

J 2 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

winter, that, there being no fire allowed in the room
where the King slept, no one could remain there for
more than half an hour at a time. 

Four times a day provisions were put upon the
table in the pages' room, to which they came as they
could, by the communication through the Koyal
Family's former dining-room ; and from the pantry,
a few steps away, any beverage, hot or cold, could
be procured at any moment, night or day. 

The King was allowed pens, ink, and paper, and
wrote down, as a sort of journal, every occurrence
that took place, and every conversation, as correctly
as could be. 

Twice only was the King shaved between Novem-
ber and some time in January. My father, though
' principal barber,' the title of his 300/. a year place,
was too nervous to undertake it. Mr. Papendiek,
however, was ready. He begged the Queen to have
Palmer, the razor-maker, down, that there might be
no flaw or hitch in the instruments, and the razor
well sharpened. This was done, and Mr. Papendiek
succeeded in clearing the two cheeks at one sitting,
which, with the King's talking in between, was nearly
a two hours' job. The Queen, out of sight of the
King, sat patiently to see it done, which was achieved
without one drop of blood. 

Everybody compUmented the poor barber, who
in a few days cleared the mouth and throat, by 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 13 

liitting upon a pleasant conversation to amuse his
Majesty while the operation was proceeded with, and
this was repeated after a few weeks' interval. 

The condition of the Queen was pitiable in the
extreme. The first few days of her terrible grief
she passed almost entirely with her hands and arms
stretched across a table before her, with her head
resting upon them, and she took nothing to eat or drink
except once or twice a little barley water. Madame
Schwellenberg, who attended the noon dressing, and
sometimes the evening retirements, now endeavoured
to rouse her Majesty from her position of grief, and at
last succeeded in persuading her to retire to rest, but
Miss Goldsworthy spent nearly the entire night in
reading to her. The Queen had removed her
sleeping apartment to one nearer that of the King,
but it was not thought right to allow her to see him. 

The King was told that she was ill and not able
to come to his room, which in some measure pacified
him, but one night, I think it was the 5th or 6th, his
Majesty got up, and with a candle in his hand, went
to the Queen's room to ascertain with his own eyes
that she was still in the house. He spoke to her
with the greatest affection, and this night's event,
though it greatly terrified the Queen, had a more
soothing effect upon the King than anything that had
as yet been tried. 

It seemed cruel to him, nay to both of them, 

14 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

that this gratification of meeting could not have been
granted. I suppose it was right. I do not under-
stand, and can only judge from my own feelings. 

Mr. Papendiek told me afterwards that the
silence and gloom within the walls of the Lodge was
something terrible. Anxiety and sorrow was depicted
upon every countenance, not only for the condition
of the beloved King, but in sympathy with the poor
Queen, who was so utterly wretched and yet so
patient and so resigned to the will of God. Her
Majesty was never left alone, night or day, and in
the morning the earliest intelligence of how the night
had been passed, was brought to her. 

The King's condition was sometimes better and
sometimes worse, and the physicians were not unani-
mous in their opinion, either as regarded the possi-
bility of his ultimate recovery, or in the present
treatment of the patient, except in one thing, that
perfect quiet must be maintained. 

Every precaution was taken to preserve this state
of quiet. No bells were rung, and all arrangements
were made among the attendants that the necessary
changes should take place at stated hours without
any bustle or confusion. The park gates were
locked, and no stranger was permitted to enter. An-
other equerry was ordered down. General Manners,
as being the next in seniority. Three gentlemen
porters were added at the Eoyal entrance-gate, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 15 

and four sergeant porters at the gate in the Home
Park, and an additional number of kitchen boys
was ordered down from London to fetch everything
from these gates. 

On Sunday, November 16, a public prayer was
put up in all churches throughout the land, for the
King's recovery. The special prayer was very
touching, and the whole congregation in the Koyal
Chapel joined in most devoutly. Indeed the service
throughout was very affecting, and many were the
tears shed upon this occasion. The dear old Bishop
of Worcester came, and saw the Queen, the interview
being very short, as it was too affecting and trying
to them both, though her Majesty was much gratified
by his visit. 

The conduct of the Prince of Wales was, during
tins season of affliction, very heartless. He came
constantly to the Lodge and assumed to himself a
power that had not yet been legally given to him,
without any consideration or regard for his mother's
feelings. At first the Queen could not make up her
mind to see him, but the second time he requested
an audience (or I might more correctly say demanded
one, so excited and vehement was his Royal Highness),
he was admitted to her presence. 

When he began to enter upon political conver-
sation, her Majesty said that the equerries and Miss
Goldsworthy must be called to answer the Prince, 

10 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

who, after being most severe, and knocking his stick
several times upon the floor, while condemning the
whole of what had been done, bowed and retired
without kissing the Queen's hand according to the
usual custom. 

All felt for her under this cruel treatment, out
it had the effect of rousing the poor Queen and she
soon after began to take the air in plain carriages.
General permission was given to walk m the gardens,
but no one was suffered to leave the premises or join
their friends. The Queen was already much changed ;
her hair quite grey, and her spirits sadly depressed
The Princesses were, however, now sometimes sent
for, and also occasionally visited the Queen of an
evening. , 

Her Majesty also visited the younger Princesses
at the Lower Lodge, and was not altogether pleased
to find that the three Miss Fieldings had often been
introduced by Lady Charlotte Finch in the evenings
to amuse their Eoyal Highnesses, particularly as no
permission had been even hinted at. The King did
not like Captain Fielding, and had told Lady Char-
lotte Finch, at the time of his marriage with her
daughter, that he was of too inactive a character to
rise above the rank of Commodore, and that he was
not likely to be often called upon for active service.
As I have before mentioned, Mrs. Fielding was
appointed bedchamber-woman to the Queen, so their 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 17 

Majesties felt that they had done all that could be
reasonably expected of them. 

The appointment was worth 300/. a year, and
the perquisites, a share of the Court clothes &c.,
amounted to about 200L more. This was a recognised
fact, which is proved by the circumstance that during
the war, when an embargo was laid upon the impor-
tation of foreign lace, the loss was made up to the
six bedchamber-women, by an allowance of lOOZ. a
year each. 

It was injudicious of the lady governess to act
at this critical moment in such a manner as to draw
observation, and it ended in these girls being less
taken up by Royalty than might otherwise have been
the case. The eldest was handsome and clever, and
married, at the age of sixteen. Lord Robert Fitz-
gerald, brother to Lord Edward, who, as ringleader
of the rebels in Ireland, was taken prisoner and died
of his wounds. He was married to the renowned
Pamela, daughter of Madame de Genlis. The second
Miss Fielding was also very pretty, and one of the
greatest coquettes, then the term (now I think it is
called flirts) in fashionable circles. She never
married, but the third, Augusta, of a fine figure but
not handsome, married Captain Hicks of the Guards,
a son of the King's laundress. 

In the same quiet manner did the Queen and
Princesses continue to go on while at Windsor. She 

VOL. II. C 

18 COURT AND PMVATE LIFE IN 

saw the physicians daily, and with them planned the
bulletin that was issued every morning. This was
eagerly read by all his Majesty's subjects, and the
affection and loyalty of the pubhc was so great, that
the excitement, when the news was less good, reached
a pitch of agitation that was almost dangerous.
Upon one occasion the carriage of Dr. Baker was
stopped as he drove along the streets, and upon his
saying, in answer to their eager inquiries as to the
health of the King, that he had only a bad report
to give, the mob cried out, 'The more shame to
you!' 

The Cabinet Ministers now came down to Windsor
to consult what was further to be done, as certainly
no improvement had taken place. It was suggested
that a fresh opinion should be taken, and the Queen
had no objection to Dr. Monro being called in ; but
it was her opinion that any physician who made that
malady his spidaliU^ and who might be recom-
mended to attend the King, should remain constantly
with his Majesty, even after recovery, should that be
the result, and felt that it would not be right to
deprive the public of the services of so favourite a
physician. It was decided therefore to call in Dr.
Addington, an old man, but one who had had great
experience in the malady from which our loved
King was suffering. 

He had a consultation with the other medical 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 19 

men already in attendance. They listened to his
Majesty's talk from the side room, to see if they
could gain a clue to any subject that might be
especially worrying the King's mind. He talked
incessantly, till his poor voice was quite hoarse and
painful to listen to, but there was not much to be
gathered from his conversation. He spoke of the
general conduct of the Prince of Wales, fearing
that his brothers, with the exception of Adolphus,
were following him ; of his little Octavius who had
been his companion, his comfort, his delight ; adding
that the Almighty had taken him. He hoped and
thought he was resigned to His will, but he must be
very sinful to be so sorely chastened ; and then the
tears rolled down his cheeks in a manner pitiful to
behold. 

His Majesty used to inquire who called, and on
wishing to be told if Lord North had ever been, was
answered in the affirmative. Then the King said,
' He might have recollected me sooner. However,
he, poor fellow, has lost his sight, and I my mind.
Yet we meant well to the Americans ; just to punish
them with a few bloody noses, and then make bows
for the mutual happiness of the two countries. But
want of principle got into the army, want of energy
and skill in the First Lord of the Admiralty (the Earl
of Sandwich), and want of unanimity at home. We 

2 

20 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

lost America. Tell him not to call again ; I shall
never see him/ 

The King also inquired if Lord Howard had
ridden down on his little white charger to inquire,
and added, ' Tell him not to trouble himself. I know
he is not sincere ; he was angry at my not giving
consent to his marrying Lady Effingham. I knew his
family would not treat her or her daughter well, and
I thought there was a mutual affection between her
and the Queen, so we did not want to part with her.
The 500/. I allowed her annually I have secured to
her, but the house at Kew I have taken away, as
she has one in the country.' 

These and many other conversations his Majesty
wrote down in the journal which he kept. One par-
ticularly, where he fell into a quarrel with Comptou,
who, though a just man, was a thorough John Bull,
and despised EoyaJty, a Court, and foreigners. He
told the King that his father had been a man devoid
of principle; that many people round about the
country had been totally ruined, some even having
committed suicide, from the Prince of Wales not
having paid his debts, nor his father, George IL, for
him. Petitions presented to the Princess Dowager
were totally disregarded. The house at the top of
the Long Walk had been given to the Duke of Cum-
berland, the King's brother, upon the same want of
principle, and debts incurred without a hope of pay- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 21 

merit. All this, the King observed, was rather too
much to tell a Sovereign, although it might be and
no doubt was true. Poor man, he never forgot it,
nor could he ever bear the sight of Compton. 

A pitiable and painful event occurred on Christ-
mas Day. The King found out that it was the 25th,
and asked why he had not been told that the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury had arrived to administer the
sacrament to him. No particular answer was given,
when, upon his becoming impatient, his Majesty was
reminded that all those things rested with the doctors,
as well as all others of moment, and that they, the
pages, were acting solely by their orders. The fever
ran high, yet the King appeared calm, and tasted his
dinner but could not eat. Suddenly, in an instant
he got under the sofa, saying that as on that day
everything had been denied him, he would there
converse with his Saviour, and no one could interrupt
them. 

How touching, and how truly sad ! 

When he was a little calmer, Mr. Papendiek got
under to him, having previously given orders to the
attendants that the sofa should be lifted straight up
from over them. He remained a moment lying with
his Majesty, then by pure strength lifted him in his
arms and laid him on his couch, where in a short
time he fell asleep. 

Mr. Papendiek felt the eflTects of this great 

22 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

exertion for some time after, but was pleased to
think he had succeeded in placing the King in
safety without doing him any hurt. This occurrence
was mentioned in his Majesty's diary, with the re-
mark appended that Papendiek had only twice
offended him, and that he forgave him. 

Now Dr. Willis appeared upon the scene. How
he was found out I do not know, but I believe he
was introduced by Dr. Warren. He was a clergy-
man, and held a hving in the eastern suburbs of
London, where he had been of incalculable service to
his parishioners in the cure of their bodies as well as
their souls. It was the custom in those days for
many who were bred divines to add the study of
other sciences for the benefit of their fellow creatures,
and it is evident that Dr. Willis had made this
branch of medicine his special study, and had been
most successful in his cures of the direful malady of
insanity. His eldest and youngest sons were regu-
larly brought up to the profession, while his second
son became a clergyman, and acted as chaplain to
the institution which had some time before been
established by Dr. Willis in Lincolnshire, where he
had a commodious house and extensive grounds for
the reception of gentlemen mentally afflicted. Dr.
Willis was an upright, worthy man, gentle and
humane in his profession, and amiable and pious as
a clergyman. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTIE 23 

Mr. Pitt brought him down to Windsor, and after
being introduced to the Queen he was taken in to see
the King, her Majesty being present, though, as usual,
out of sight. Mr. Pitt said, ' We have found a gen-
tleman who has made the illness under which your
Majesty is now labouring his study for some years,
and we doubt not that he can render comfort, and
alleviate many of the inconveniences your Majesty
suflers.' Upon which the King replied, ' Will he
let me shave myself, cut my nails, and have a knife
at breakfast and dinner, and treat me as his Sovereign,
not command me as a subject ? ' The doctor said,
' Sire, I am a plain man, not used to Courts, but I
honour and respect my King. I know my duty, and
have always endeavoured to do it strictly. Bred to
the Church, religion has been my guide, and to do
all the good I can is my constant maxim and earnest
desire.' That answer appeared to satisfy the anxiety
of the King, who would immediately shave. 

This was permitted, and Mr. Papendiek now came
with the necessary materials, the doctor privately ex-
tolling the courage he had shown in having per-
formed the operation on the previous occasion. It
now took the King a long time to complete the task,
and he was glad not to repeat it. The nails were
cut the next day with the same permission. 

Dr. Willis having watched his Majesty minutely
for twenty-four hours, ventured to give it as his 

24 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

opinion that the malady had been too long suffered to
remain, but that if the constitution could bear the
remedies necessary to work out the disease, he had
no fear for a cure. 

Of course the physicians were less unanimous than
ever now, but all concurred in their jealousy of this
new comer, who, as time went on, and in spite of
many relapses into even a worse condition than had
before shown itself, would be sanguine. 

It now became, a question whether it would not
be advisable to move his Majesty to Kew. Dr. Willis
was entirely in favour of it, for two or three reasons,
of which the principal one was the grounds and gar-
den in which his Majesty could take air and exercise
privately, and without any annoyance, while at
Windsor the whole of the private garden could be
seen from the Terrace, and to exclude the public
suddenly from what they had hitherto had the pri-
vilege of using, would give rise to comments and sur-
mises that were best avoided. The Queen was very
much against the move, knowing that the King him-
self would object to it, having taken a disUke to
the place; ♦and in this she was right, for when the
idea was first proposed to him, he was very vehement
in his objections. 

However, when the advantages were pointed out
to her Majesty of the garden for exercise, of the
conveniences of Kew in the matter of accommodation. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 25 

and of its accessibility from London, she at once agreed
to the undertaking with her usual sweet acquiescence
in all that she thought might conduce to the King's
welfare. The Queen desired Miss Goldsworthy to
write a letter of introduction to Mrs. Tunstall, which
Dr. Willis would himself be the bearer of, in order
to make the required arrangements with her, and
Ml'. FiihUng, the clerk of the works. 

The very large dining-room, with six windows to
the west, was to be the King's living-room, with one
window opened to the ground for his Majesty to step
out into the garden whenever the sun should be suf-
ficiently warm for him to take this exercise, the hard
frost and extreme cold still continuing. In this room
Dr. Willis approved of a constant fire being kept up,
which was a comfort to all parties. 

From the guard-room at the back of this, the sol-
diers with their encumbrances were removed to rooms
near the gates of the office court, and the guard-room
was converted into accommodation for the footmen
and pages' men. This office court, near the King's
room, gave excellent apartments for all who were in
attendance, of every rank. 

The Queen's own suite of apartments was secured
to her as before, as were also those of the elder and
younger Princesses. The Queen's dressing-room was
appropriated to Miss Goldsworthy, who continued to
sleep in her Majesty's room. The King's bedroom 

26 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

adjoined the other room, then two rooms for Dr. Willis
and his son Thomas, who was now sent for, that one
or other of them might always be present. The bed-
ding prepared for the King was of down feathers, and
everything was done to show the most tender feeling
for him as monarch, and yet as a sick and suffering
man. 

A privy council was now convened at Windsor to
sanction the removal. The Prince of Wales: the
Chancellor, Mr. Pitt, and several of the ministers
of state were present, and gave the necessary per-
mission. 

[Miss Burney gives the following interesting account
of this meeting of the council, and of the circum-
stances attending it. ' A privy council was held at
the Castle, with the Prince of Wales : the Chancellor,
Mr. Pitt, and all oflScers of state were summoned to
sign a permission for the King's removal. The poor
Queen gave an audience to the Chancellor — it was
necessary to sanctify their proceedings. The Princess
Eoyal and Lady Courtown attended her. It was a
tragedy the most dismal ! 

' The Queen's knowledge of the King's aversion to
Kew made her consent to this measure with the ex-
tremest reluctance, yet it was not to be opposed. It
was stated as much the best for him on account of
the garden, as here there is none but what is public
to spectators from the Terrace, or tops of houses. I 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 27 

believe they were perfectly right, though the removal
was so tremendous. 

' The physicians were summoned to the privy
council, to give their opinions, upon oath, that this
step was necessary. 

' Inexpressible was the alarm of everyone, lest the
King, if he recovered, should bear a lasting resentment
against the authors and promoters of this journey.
To give it, therefore, every possible sanction, it was
decreed that he should be seen both by the Chancellor
and Mr. Pitt. 

' The Chancellor went into his presence with a
tremor such as, before, he had been only accustomed
to inspire, and when he came out he was so extremely
aflfected by the state in which he saw his royal master
and patron that the tears ran down his cheeks, and
his feet had difficulty to support him. 

' Mr. Pitt was more composed, but expressed his
grief with so much respect and attachment, that it
added new weight to the universal admiration v/ith
which he is here beheld.' — Ed.] 

In a very short time the whole was ready. The
office people and Lower Lodge moved first ; Lady
Charlotte Pinch to her house by the water side, and
the Princesses with their attendants, and Mr. Brown
the page, to their usual apartments in Kew House. 

The regulations for the gentlemen porters and
others were the same as at Windsor, only rather less 

28 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

strict, for a little more intercourse was allowed at Kew
than there had been at Windsor. Mrs. Tunstall had
the coffee and still-room, where Betty Snoswell with
her assistants attended ; and night or day you were
equally well served, and no one was deprived of a
dish of tea when required, even if not a privileged
person. 

Dr. Willis did not wish any of the gentlemen to be
removed that the King was accustomed to see about
him, but the Queen, knowing how much he disliked
Mr. Compton, from the disrespectful way in which he
talked of the late King's family, sent him back to his
own home in Pimlico, which he by no means re-
gretted. The four footmen were to continue, but
Fortnum begged to resign from infirm health, and
Howard was ordered in his stead. 

Fortnum now settled in business as a grocer in
Piccadilly, the success of which undertaking is well
known. • 

My uncle, as the Kew page, was now to do
duty, but my father was not to be liberated, as
the Queen wished as few changes as possible to
take place. 

And now, all being ready, and all the arrange-
ments made, the great move was to take place as
soon as possible ; and it was satisfactorily accom-
plished one evening early in the winter. 

I cannot recollect the exact date of this event, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 29 

but my impression is that it was either at the close
of 1788, or quite early in January of the succeeding
year. 

Dr. Willis and the equerries went in the same coach
with his Majesty, and the retinue followed. The
Queen, Princesses, and their attendants followed
closely, so that before her Majesty entered her room
at Kew, she was able to be told that the King was
safe in his new apartments. He at first expressed
pleasure at the appearance of a cheerful fire, which
for some time he had not seen ; but he became very
indignant when he found that he was not to see the
Queen. This had been held out as a promise to his
Majesty, if he would consent to leave Windsor, and
now, very wrongly in my humble opinion, the pro-
mise was broken, and the King naturally felt hurt at
the deception. 

Dr. Willis now wished that a consultation between
the physicians should take place at least every two
days, and the Queen soon found the comfort of the
change to Kew ; as, being within easy reach of the
metropolis, she was enabled to see Mr. Pitt nearly
every day, and the physicians were no longer without
control. 

[According to Miss Burney the removal to Kew
was accomplished on Saturday, November 29. A few
other discrepancies occur between her account of
this transaction, and that of Mrs. Papendiek. For 

30 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

instance, as to the hour at which the Queen per-
formed the journey, she says : * The poor Queen was
to get off in private : the plan settled between the
Princes and the physicians was that her Majesty and
the Princesses should go away quietly, and then that
the King should be told that they were gone, which
was the sole method they could devise to prevail
with him to follow. He was then to be allured by a
promise of seeing them at Kew ; and as they knew
he would doubt their assertion, he was to go
through the rooms and examine the house himself.
I believe it was about ten o'clock when her Majesty
departed ; drowned in tears, she glided along the
passage, and got softly into her carriage, with two
weeping Princesses and Lady Courtown, who was
to be her lady-in-waiting during this dreadful
residence.' 

I cannot account for these inconsistencies, as both
descriptions are so circumstantially given ; and I
cannot find a third authority to reconcile the two.
As, however, they are not points of material con-
sequence, I leave them undecided. — ^Ed.] 

The routine now went steadily on, and though
there were days of the utmost depression, when the
reports of his Majesty were more than usually bad,
there was, on the whole, a more hopeful feeUng
creeping over the community ; for Dr. Willis, in spite
of all that was said by the other physicians, and of 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 31 

the changes that sometimes took place for the worse,
held to his own sanguine opinion of a cure, and in-
spired all who came in contact with him with some
of his confidence. 

32 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

CHAPTEE XIV. 

Madame Schwellenberg again — Political intriguee*— Pitt stands firm —
Unusually severe winter — Remedies for chilblains — Mrs. Jervois —
Mrs. Stowe — Mrs. Roach — The baby fails in health — Mr. Meyer —
The Forrests — The window for St. George's Chapel — Mrs. Papen-
diek visits her aunt at Kew — John Cramer and other composers —
Mrs Meyer— The Meyer family — Return home to Windsor — Dinners ;
turtle, fish, meat, puddings, and beverages — Domestic arrangements —
Knives and forks — Mr. Papendiek's short visit — Distress from the
intense cold — Personal sorrow for the King and Queen — Serious
illness of little George — Death of Mr. Meyer — Mrs. Willis — The
Royal patient —The Regency Bill — Deputation to the Queen — Conva-
lescence of the King — Lord Mulgrave's speech — ^Dr. Doran's review
of the state of afiiairB. 

Madame Schwellenbebg took advantage of the
former arrangements of dear Kew, to desire that Miss
Burney alone should dine with her, and that Miss
Planta should return to her former table with the
Misses Gomm and Montmollin. 

The Queen saw Mrs. Tunstall every day, and
herself arranged the meals with her for her own
table and that of the Princesses. She desired that
no communication should be kept up with the Miss
Ducks, who were housekeepers to the Prince of
Wales in the opposite house. The extreme rapidity
with which all was got ready for the reception and 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 33 

accommodation of the King and the household, was
due to Mr. Whitshed Keene, the head clerk in the
Lord Chamberlain's office, under whose directions the
whole w^as carried out. His apartments, or house,
were the same as those in which the Princess Augusta
now resides. He was succeeded by Mr. Nicholas
Calvert, the elder of the brother brewers, who
resided in the same house, and took his bride there ;
but on the accession of George IV., being ordered to
quit this desirable residence for his Majesty's ac-
commodation, he resigned, and Mr. Mash, now Sir
Thomas, was appointed to the situation. 

All this time much political intrigue was going
on. and the question of a regency began to be dis-
cussed in Parliament. After the meeting of the privy
council at Windsor they made a report of the con-
dition of the King, corroborated by that of the phy-
sicians, which proved beyond doubt that his Majesty
was not in a fit state to conduct the business of the
country. 

The Prince of Wales now came forward, and,
supported by the Whigs and their leader. Fox, an-
nounced that upon him, as heir- apparent, should the
government of the kingdom devolve ; and he seemed
to wish his Eoyal mother to be set aside entirely.
There was much discussion, and the Queen became
the object of considerable calumny. She, however,
supported this as she had all her previous troubles, 

VOL. II. D 

34 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

with pious fortitude, and was upheld in all her views
by Pitt, who not only helped her in asserting her
rights, but stood firm in his adherence to the King,
and acted throughout in a manner that was best for
the country. 

But before continuing the relation of these pubhc
affairs, I will return to our own private concerns. 

After Mr. Papendiek came over on November 3,
to fetch his things and to take leave of us, our pro-
ceedings were carried on with the greatest circum-
spection. He wished us never to walk but where we
were sure to avoid everyone belonging to Royalty
and the household. 

It was, as I have before observed, a most remark-
ably cold winter, so that it was only very rarely that
any of my children, except Frederick, could stir out.
Baby and Eliza were delicate, and poor little Char-
lotte had sad broken chilblains round the heels, just
at the top of the shoes, where the petticoats do not
shelter the legs from the cold air. Her feet were
wrapped in flannel and laid upon a chair, keeping
on the chamois shoes, which were large and the
warmest then made, so that when she felt inclined to
move about a Uttle she could do so, as exercise was
desirable for her general health. The remedies were
to wash the poor broken chilblains with turnip water,
and to put the turnip, well mashed and passed
through a sieve, upon the wound as a poultice, gently 

THE TLME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 35 

rubbing those not broken with the turnip water, the
object being to create circulation. 

Though the assemblies at the Town Hall for
cards and dancing were suppressed, yet private
evening parties were continued, probably on a rather
more moderate scale, but to these I made a point of
never going, out of respect and love for the Eoyal
Family. The Jervois's were all friendliness, and to
them I used constantly to go, to work with the ladies
and to dine, and then, after sometimes a practice
with Mr. Jervois, I would return home to tea. Mrs.
Stowe, too, would sometimes come over to sup with
me when her daughters and my children were gone
to bed, and then we would draw our Uttle table
close to the fire and settle what we would have.
Eoasted oysters and egg beer were great favourites. 

Mrs. Eoach called now and then, and my sister
and the little Zoffanys often passed the Sunday after-
noons with us after coming out of church, and went
home at dusk in the sedan, but this only when the
cold, which showed little sign of abating, was not
too severe. 

Dr. Mingay took regular care and guardianship
of us, and we soon began to see that the poor little
Georgy boy did not thrive. He moaned and pined
and did not take his food properly. He slept ill,
and after a few weeks we were both the worse for
that. I kept large fires, and everything we could 

D 2 

36 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

think of was tried but failed. It now became neces-
sary that he should have a wet nurse, and Mrs.
Spencer, the wife of the bookkeeper and foreman at
More's, who lived within three or four doors of us,
was willing to take him. They were very respect-
able people, and by no means low or vulgar, and I
arranged with her that baby should remain with her,
and that my nurse should go over two or three times
during the day to feed and dress him. 

This was a trial to me, but I felt that it must
be right to endeavour to save the life of the poor
child and to improve his health ; and he certainly
did improve, though he still remained a puny little
thing. A little bed was put up in my room, and one
or other of the three bairnies was always to sleep
there, which was a great privilege and delight to
them, poor little dears, and the race to be first
made the act of going to bed more desirable to
them. 

One afternoon, at dusk, 1 was surprised by a visit
from Mr. Meyer, from Kew. He came in with his
cheeks flushed, pimples well filled, and in a state of
great excitement at not having been admitted at the
Lodge or allowed to see any person there. 

I begged him to be calm while I explained the
whole matter, when I felt sure he would under-
stand how judicious the Queen's arrangements were.
He had just received letters from his son in India, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 37 

who at the age of seventeen had been sent out as
writer, a situation not in those days so easily obtained. 

This amiable man was brought up at Westminster,
where he became head of the school, showing himself
talented, elegant, and prepossessing, and through
Mrs. Hastings, an old friend and fellow' country-
woman, both being WUrtembergers, he obtained this
appointment. She, always wishing to please the
Queen, gave it as through the interest of Madame
Schwellenberg, and therefore one can understand
Meyer's disappointment at not being able to show the
first letters of this young man, which spoke greatly
to his credit, for he in a very modest way mentioned
that being already able to correspond in the Eastern
languages, he was receiving 4,000/. a year. 

Mr. Meyer wanted to go off at once, but as I
told him that there was no conveyance at that hour,
he allowed me to order dinner and a bed for him
at the house opposite, with which he was pleased.
He said he admired my serene cheerfulness, so
different from my aunt at Kew, who was bewailing
their being ordered to remain there, and her lot
generally. 

I said, ' Let her send my eldest cousin to me. We
will amuse her,' and to my astonishment and pleasure,
in a day or two, down she came, delighted. She was
a great acquisition to the Jervois's particularly in her
practising with Mr. Jervois, and she in return gained 

38 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

great advantages by playing with the accompaniment
of the Griesbachs, and by constantly hearing new
music. I got Eodgers to come in every evening to
give her a lesson, and with him she studied really
good music and improved greatly. 

Our morning occupations over, we walked when
the sun shone, and amongst other places I took her
to the Forrests', to show her neatness, comfort, and
quiet happiness in a family circle where poverty
rather than plenty was certainly resident. 

To my surprise I found the sweet Uttle garden,
which had hitherto been cultivated in a manner
most pleasing to the eye, filled with stoves and
furnaces for burning glass. These were to try some
process by which the small panes, which were each
separately burned after being coloured, would be
rendered less liable to crack or break. 

We went on to Jarvis's, a little lower down in
Peascod Street, and in his work-rooms saw the painted
window of the Eesurrection, for St. George's Chapel,
finished. 

The Dean and Chapter had informed the Queen,
through General Goldsworthy, that the window was
ready to be put up, and that they awaited her Ma-
jesty's commands. The Queen did not wish to have
it put up, in the confident hope that the King would
yet have the pleasure of directing the work, as
originally intended ; but she quite approved of its 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 39 

being temporarily fixed, in order to judge of the
efiect. 

The authorities, with other competent artists, the
Queen and Princesses, with their little court around
them, all concurred in the opinion that it was too
narrow, and that sides must be added, for which Mr.
West was ordered to prepare the cartoons. 

He at once thought that the most appropriate
subjects would be * the three Marys coming early to
the Sepulchre the first day of the week' for one
side, and * the two Disciples outrunning each other '
for the opposite side. This was agreed upon,
and the drawings were to be immediately begun,
with the endeavour to complete the work by the
spring. 

After this meeting, Mr. Forrest, on the way home,
spoke to Jarvis about the secret process for burning
the glass, of which he, Jarvis, had hitherto had the
monopoly, and urged his making it over* to him, as
he had neither son, nephew, nor any friend to assist.
Forrest had an honest, upright heart, and had
served Jarvis well in his work, especially in the
window of New College, Oxford, and in this window
for St. George's Chapel, and he promised to assist his
labours with additional alacrity if he would do this
thing for him. 

However, Jarvis was inexorable, and then Forrest
said that he considered himself bound to finish* all 

40 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

the Cliapel work with him upon the same terms,
but that, after that, he should feel himself at liberty
to erect stoves and endeavour to find out this or
some other process for himself that would answer
equally well. 

Should he succeed, he would strive in every way
to act honourably by him ; and thus they parted,
shaking hands and remaining good friends. These
stoves were what we had seen in Forrest's garden. 

After a fortnight a letter from my aunt came,
desiring the return of her daughter, as they were all
so at a loss without her. This was accompanied by
a pressing invitation to me from my aunt, and also
from the Meyers, both of which I promised to tKink
about on parting with my cousin, whose visit had
been mutually pleasant to us both. We had read
together Miss Burney's two novels, * Evelina ' and
* Cecilia,' and I had helped her with some work,
having given her the materials for a cover for her
music-stool. 

Being able to make satisfactory arrangements for
my children, I did in a short time go to visit my
aunt at Kew. It gave me intense pleasure to see the
place again after this long interval, for no one had
invited me there since my marriage. 

I made the acquaintance of some new people,
the Grahams, who had taken my father's old house,
and were a great acquisition to the neighbourhood. 

TIIE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 41 

My cousin was very anxious to occupy her time
more profitably, and as she had suddenly shown a
decided talent for music, I proposed that she should
give lessons at her own home, which would enable
her to pay for masters to improve herself in other
ways. 

My uncle acquiesced, as he said he could only
afford to educate his boys, but my aunt made some
objections. She, however, afterwards consented, and
as music was becoming a much more general accom-
plishment, my cousin soon succeeded in getting a few
pupils at Kew, though there were now several good
masters and new composers. 

Schroeder was retiring, but Huimandel had al-
ready begun with success ; John Cramer had also
started, and Clementi was waiting to see the progress
of things, intending to come down upon them all like
a thunderbolt. His talent was known, and people
were watching the result. Benser was an excellent
master on Bach's plan, but could not give you any
sentiment for the science. 

My cousin's manner of playing was gay, her pas-
sages being executed with extreme neatness, and a
brilliancy and interest was kept up in allegro or
presto movements ; yet a flippancy pervaded that
she could not or did not wish to conquer. So in
adagio she failed, having no knowledge of, or feel-
ing for the fine harmonies therein expressed, either 

42 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IX 

simple or chromatic ; no seizure of the instrument to
produce effect ; no power to convey to the minds of
others the beauties which her own mind did not
feel. She played all alike equally neatly and quietly,
put in a turn or a shake in good taste, and a well
chosen crescendo or diminuendo in certain passages,
but there was no soul in the performance. 

1 did all I could to help my cousins, while I was
with them, to arrange their occupations and studies
as far as they could carry them on for themselves,
for, unfortunately, my aunt was not of much assist-
ance in this matter. My uncle's income was small,
and he did not see the necessity for the girls to have
much education. He said that when in town they
had Mr. Meilan for grammar, religious and profane
reading, with a writing master who also taught
ciphering, and they would do very well. Needle-
work they could pick up in the nursery, where they
always muddled away their mornings ; and so on. 

In the evenings friends constantly dropped in,
and my uncle and aunt would join in a social game
of cards or dice, ending with a neat little repast
and a nicely mixed warm beverage, the mode of the
time ; and although all this was most agreeable,
could it be right for parents thus to enjoy them-
selves every day, without paying the slightest atten-
tion to the numerous family growing up around
them, either as to their studies or amusements .^ 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 43 

Thus we parted, and on the following morning
I went to the Meyers, where I was most hospitably
received. Mrs. Meyer was very enthusiastic, and
said : ' My dear Lotte, you are what we always
thought you! You sent home Mr. Meyer quite
composed, and able to enjoy his letters, and your
cousin a different being.' Poor Mrs. Meyer was at
this time very suffering. Having hurt her leg by
a fall and bruised it severely, her medical advisers
said she must keep it in a horizontal position, as it
did not recover, and showed a disposition to break.
I therefore sat by her with my work, and many
hours did we talk together. 

She had not had a very happy married life, and
it was a comfort to her to unburden her mind lo so
old a friend as I was. She told me that after her
second daughter was bom, her husband said that as
he saw he was only to be troubled with girls, he
would not have them brought up fine learned ladies,
but that they should be taught plain reading, plain
needlework, writing, and ciphering as far as addi-
tion of money. At as early an age as they could
possibly be sent from home, poor things, Mr. Meyer
found out a school in Staffordshire, whither lie took
them, and contracted for their staying three years.
Their clothing was of linsey-woolsey, black worsted
stockings, which in those days were only seen on
servants of an inferior order and the lower workinjr 

44 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

classes, camlet cloaks with hoods, bonnets of tlie
same, straw not then being known, and strong leather
shoes. 

All going on fairly for these three years, two
more were added, and when they returned home, the
poor mother was distressed indeed. 

Charlotte, the eldest, had always been idiotish,
which had certainly increased as she grew. She
was in figure and face the mother's likeness, which,
without a mind to illumine the countenance, must,
as she said, be plain indeed. Her occupation was
doing every stitch of plainwork for the family, and
she sat alone, never seeming to care for companion-
ship, or taking interest in any one thing. 

Mary, the second, Mrs. Meyer had some hope
for. Her figure was that of her father, her eyes
lively, and she must have had some beauty, as Sir
Joshua Eeynolds had selected her for his * Hebe ; '
but the countenance portended the very ill-temper
which she added to her very ill-breeding, and her
ill-judged conduct spoke to her want of goodness of
heart, for on a summer's afternoon, while she was
still quite young, she left home upon some slight
observation of disapprobation, with the intention of
engaging herself as needlewoman in some family. 

She took the route of Mortlake, Barnes, Putney,
over Fulham Bridge to Hammersmith, and there
went to the principal inn, jaded with fatigue and 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 45 

want of food. The mistress of the inn thought she
had some recollection of her, and knowing that Mr.
Englehardt, of Kew, was in a return chaise at the
door, she requested him to come into the parlour
and assist her in the development of the affair.
The moment Englehardt saw her he asked what she
could be doing there alone past midnight. The
woman then begged him to take care of her home,
and when she heard who she was, she blessed the
mother and reproved the daughter. At daybreak
Mr. Englehardt delivered her to the care of Mrs.
Hawkins, who was then with Mrs. Meyer, and who
led the girl to her mother. 

It was diflScult to know what to do with her, as
she was averse to reading or superior needlework, so
it was decided that she should act as housekeeper,
which suited her tastes. 

Poor Mrs. Meyer's next great trouble was an
epidemic of fever with putrid sore throat, which
attacked her children. All the younger ones died,
and so great was the fear of infection that every
one fled from the house, and she had the greatest
difficulty in getting the necessaries of life brought to
her door. She was sent away as soon as possible for
change of air, and the house thoroughly purified. 

After this came her one happiness, the birth of
the son who was then in India, and who was in his
early days brought up and taught entirely by her. 

46 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

taking such an excellent place on going to West-
minster that she was much complimented upon the
way she hail grounded him in all subjects of learn-
ing. He grew up, as we have seen, to be a comfort
and joy to both his parents. 

After spending a few pleasant days with this dear
friend of my early years, I returned home to Windsor
and found my children safe and fairly well, with the
exception of the poor chilblains, which were much
in the same state. Georgy was certainly benefiting
by the change of treatment. 

Christmas Day I passed with my children and
servants in the usual manner. I did not go to St.
George's Chapel for fear of meeting anyone who might
be inquisitive, but I joined the service at the parish
church, where we had a pew, and stayed to the sa-
crament. I always venerated religion, and never
neglected the public or private duties of it except from
very pressing domestic requirements; I trust not
from a disobedient or careless mind. 

At the end of 1788 luxury had to some extent
gained ground. Dinners were still at two o'clock, or
for company at three. Of soups, even then We only had
gravy clear, or with vegetables cut small swimming at
the top. White soup was used for ball suppers, but
a white dinner soup, or mock turtle, had only found
their way down as far as the Lord Mayor's table, real
turtle being dressed only as a ragout, never as asouj). 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 47 

Beef or mutton broth were sometimes sent up in a
large dish, with the meat and vegetables all together.
Of fish, in winter cod and smelts was a choice dish,
and we also had herrings, sprats, oysters, and lobsters
when hawked ; in summer, salmon, sea or river,
salmon trout, generally pickled, mackerel, haddock,
Dutch plaice, shrimps, and prawns ; river and pond
fish all the year, stewed, broiled, fried, or water
souch^d in a tureen in the centre. The next course
two dishes roast and boiled, with appropriate vege-
tables, and dumplings, and for a friend generally a
third was added. 

These were ordinarily joints of beef, mutton, or
veal, replaced sometimes by a calf s head, or rump
steak in slices sent up hot and hot, or a knuckle of
veal with a gammon of bacon, ham being a very ex-
pensive luxury and only used for gala dinners. In
winter a dehcacy was a boiled leg of house lamb,
with lamb chops round. Mutton heated a second
time was never brought to table, geese and ducks
could be had only from June to old Michaelmas Day,
fowls and pigeons round the year, but very frugally
used. 

. Company puddings were, lemon, potato, ground
rice, vermicelli, marrow, boiled batter and bread in
moulds or cups, pancakes, apple fritters, omelettes,
and tarts of various kinds with custard or cream.
Then cheese &c. as now, but macaroni and other 

48 COURT AND privatp: life in 

savoury dishes were not then introduced. Malt
liquor, cider, and perry, were the ordinary drinks at
dinner, and port and madeira were put upon the table
afterwards with a trifling dessert. If the gentlemen
assembled wished to make a drinking bout, which
often was the case, it began after supper. 

Smoked provisions were not much known. At the 

King's House, they received all kinds that were known 

from the controller, Mr. Mackenthum, at Hanover, and 

also from Baron Alvensleben, the Hanoverian envoy. 

His maltre-d'hotel or cook tried a smoking room at 

the baron's house on Ham Common, and failed. Some 

years later the Queen's housekeeper, Mrs. Starkey, 

had a room built at Frogmore, and succeeded. Every 

meat and every sausage was then as well cured as 

in the foreign countries from w^hich they had been 

procured as a delice or curiosity. Now (1837) these 

smoked provisions are in general use, and from the 

duty having been taken ofi* salt, they are as cheap in 

proportion as fresh provisions. Prices in 1788 were, 

upon an average, meat bd. a lb., bread 4rf. or 5d. a 

quartern loaf, eggs in spring 16 or 18 for 4rf., fowls 

in summer and autumn 1^. 6d. a pair, loaf sugar 7rf. 

a lb. ; wages seven or eight guineas, and 1/. for tea or 

beer. Washing always done at home, and everything 

ironed, as mangles then cost 25Z., whereas I believe 

they can now be bought for as many shillings. 

Very few of the rank I am speaking of kept more • 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 49 

than two female servants. The housemaid could
assist the lady, for a hairdresser was employed,
either by the quarter for daily dressing, or on par-
ticular occasions. No new gown was ever made at
home, and the mantua-maker, the term of those days,
attended upon dress occasions to see that her work
was correct and to assist in having it properly put on.
The housemaid had plenty of time for needlework, as
work was not so stirring then as in these days. Eooms
were very plainly furnished, all ornaments being put
into cases or closets, and only brought out upon
occasions, and not much silver was kept out in daily
use. Silver forks were only used by the nobihty and
foreign ambassadors, but silver-handled knives and
forks were sometimes seen, and more often ivory or
bone handles, or ebony fluted, with silver ferrules.
Forks still had only three prongs, so knives were made
with broad ends for eating peas in summer, and the
same of a smaller size for catching up the juice of a
fruit pie, dessert spoons being quite unknown in our
rank. 

What an idea to think upon in these days of refine-
ment ! And yet all requisites of good breeding, ac-
quired knowledge, and refined tastes, would be found
in every well-regulated estabUshment, and these
little things were simply matters of fashion. Indeed,
though all manufactures and appliances of Ufe are 

VOL. IL E 

50 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

greatly improved, I doubt if there is more imiate
refinement now than there was in those days. 

Before leaving Windsor, ray father and Mr.
Papendiek came to see us. Mr. Fapendiek was much
hurt and dissatisfied at my arrangements for Uttle
George. He said that his nurse in the course of
nature would soon be obliged to wean the child, and
that worse would happen than if we had tried to
persevere at home. 

Thus was our short meeting blighted. 

Charlotte's chilblains were still bad ; the cold was
too intense for them to heal, but the others were well. 

My poor father was silent, but he felt as we all
did, sorry. However, I could not regret what I had
done, and I felt that any step taken with due con-
sideration, and with the intention of acting for the
best, could not in itself be wrong. And although
Mr: Papendiek's prophecy was soon realised, yet the
few months' good feeding may have given strength to
poor baby, and power to weather the severe illness
of which I shall soon have to speak. 

Henceforth I was to correspond with my husband,
but as seldom as possible. Mr. Papendiek left with
me what he usually allowed for home expenditure,
and as I knew that he would be at no increased
expense at the Queen's House in the service he was
performing (in fact, if anything, he would require
rather less), I urged some little addition for the pay- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 51 

ment of Mrs. Spencer, the nurse. This Mr. Fapendiek
would not accede to. Therefore difficulty arose, for
coals were used in double quantity, and some indul-
gences were absolutely required. 

The greatest distress prevailed from the extreme
cold, of the mitigation of which there seemed no hope,
and charities were brought so pressingly before one
that my heart ached, the more so that I had so little
power to help my poor suffering fellow- creatures. 

We parted in sorrow. And so ended this event-
ful year, a.d. 1788 ; eventful in its sadness, and its
occurrences so touching to one's feelings that they
made an impression never to be effaced. We, who
were so intimately connected with the Eoyal house-
hold, took these things, perhaps, more entirely home
to our hearts, but I may say that there was scarcely
one person throughout the land who did not grieve
for them — so truly were our King and Queen beloved
and revered. 

The month of January continued extremely dreary,
and all went on as usual with me and my friends.
Towards the end of the month, what Mr. Papendiek
had prophesied came to pass. Mrs. Spencer, with her
sense of rectitude, told us of it immediately, and poor
little George came home. Whether from the change
of food or from cold Dr. Mingay could not say for
certain, but the child was suddenly seized with so
violent an attack upon his chest that he could neither 

£ 2 

52 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

eat or play, or even move. Nature seemed under a
stupor, and in this condition he remained for three
days. After that time he revived, and, although
with great difficulty, he did attempt to cry. Poor
little fellow, he was kept warm night and day, and by
degrees he began to take a little food. By the greatest
care, and with the assistance of our kind Dr. Mingay's
skill, he did eventually recover, but the poor child
was a great anxiety to us for a considerable time. 

Since the Koyal Family had been at Kew, a slight
relaxation of the very strict rules that before had been
enjoined was made, and now a few of those persons
attached to the household, such as John and Thomas
Haverfield, the Kichmond and Kew gardeners, old
Alton, Meyer, and one or two more, had permission
to make inquiries, and when opportunity offered, to
step in and see their old friends. 

Meyer had been ill with a fever and cold, but as
soon as he was better, his first walk was to Kew
House. There he had to encounter Ernst, who was
in one of his bad humours, and kept poor Meyer
waiting for him in a room that had just been washed,
and which was therefore cold and damp. He returned
home in haste, but fresh cold succeeded. A relapse
came on, and poor Meyer was no more. 

The widow collected his miniatures, drawings, &c.,
with the assistance of her friends, and those that were
likenesses she sent, whether finished or unfinished, to 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 53 

the people who had sat for them, without making any
demand. She gave up the house at Covent Garden,
and established herself entirely at Kew, concentrating
the valuables and beauties of the two houses, and by
this means making her residence very comfortable
and pretty. 

To the Queen, having first obtained permission
through Madame SchweUenberg, she also sent all
miniatures of their Majesties and the Royal Family,
again without any demand being made. This so
pleased the Queen that she liberally rewarded Mrs.
Meyer for her honourable conduct. 

Some who had received their pictures showed the
same consideration, and paid handsomely ; others took
no notice at all; and a few said they had paid at
their first sitting, it being the general rule that half
the sum is paid down in advance, and the rest on
completion of the portrait. Nothing was expected
by Mrs. Meyer, so the loss was not felt, but she was
naturally gratified by the thoughtfulness and liberality
of the few. 

Mr. Papendiek and Dr. Thomas Willis found that
they had a mutual tie of friendship through the
wife of the latter, who had been one of the Misses
Strong. This was a satisfactory discovery, and Mr.
Papendiek being much liked in the establishment,
was able to secure a welcome reception for Mrs.
Willis. Mrs. Tunstall, who was always glad to oblige 

54 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

any of our family, contrived to find her a bed, Betty
Snoswell waited upon her, and her meals were regu-
larly served with the neatness and comfort born of
good feeling. There was a great feeling of respect
and confidence throughout the whole household for
all the Willis family, and they were only pleased to
do anything they could to oblige them also. Mrs.
Willis only remained when all was going well with
the King, but when likely to be in the way she
retired. 

Dr. Willis's treatment continued to have the most
satisfactory results, and though the other physicians
were not warm in hope, he always said, * A little more
time I ask for. Even as days go on, I do not despair.'
What the hope was, or how the improvement was
shown, I do not understand, but I heard that the fever
was less, that the temper of mind was more cheerful,
and that the medicines were acting with greater
facility. One of these medicines was musk. What its
properties are, and how it was expected to act upon the
Royal patient, I do not know, but the scent was very
objectionable to the King, and he begged that it might
be discontinued. Dr. Willis explained that he could
not obey or attend to his Majesty's wish, as he so
depended upon its efficacy. Everybody seemed to
sufier from the power of it, and poor Mr. Papendiek
was almost in a stupor from it. 

The month of January brought the recovery very 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHAKLOITE 55 

forward, and everybody prayed that it might be
consummated before the Eegency Bill was passed.
Party feeling ran very high, but there was great
dread among all who were attached to the King and
Crown, lest the Prince of Wales should succeed in
his evident desire of being nominated Regent without
restrictions upon his power. Pitt, Grenville, Thurlow,
and many others, both in the House of Lords and in
the Commons, contrived to spin out the debates so as
to gain time, but at last it was announced that the
Bill was to be formally brought before Parliament on
February 3. 

The Prince of Wales, after much pressure, agreed
to accept the Regency upon the terms proposed,
namely, without any power but that of signature,
which the Council would direct. He did this with
very great displeasure, and showed very bad taste
and a total want of heart or filial affection. 

It was proposed to insert a clause in the Bill to
the effect that every hope was entertained for the
King's recovery, and that it was only agreed to in
order to facilitate business ; that it would probably
be only fcH* a very short period, and that they wished
the King to find on his return to health that no
changes had taken place. 

The Queen received an address at Kew, with her
little Court around her, which consisted of the Cham-
berlain, two ladies of the bedchamber, two maids of 

56 COURT AND PRIVAI'E LIFE IN 

honour, the pages of presence, the three elder Prin-
cesses and their two ladies ; all in Court hoops, and
the Queen and Princesses in sacque dresses, as they
appeared at the Abbey festival. The deputation
came in full dress at two o'clock in the afternoon,
and her Majesty had a chair of state raised upon a
platform, to receive them with proper respect. 

I mention these little particulars, as they were
ridiculed in the opposition papers. 

This was the first time she had been addressed as
Queen, in distinction to the title of Queen Consort,
it being now proposed that she should have the care
of the King's person, and that she should receive the
report of the physicians, and be present during their
examinations ; and further, that she should have the
care and regulation of the household, except as
regarded the lords of the bedchamber, who as they
would not now be required to give their attendance
to the King, would be attached to the person of the
Prince of Wales, and attend him when any state
occasion called for their appearance. 

The Queen's answer was animated, and expressed
gratitude for the trust reposed in her, and a desire that
to assist her judgment in matters of moment, a
council might be formed of any persons they thought
proper to appoint, to whom she might apply upon
all occasions, and trust for careful guidance. 

Some days elapsed after the presentation of these 

THE TDDE OF QUEEK CHARLOTTE Oi 

addresses before one was fixed upon to receive the
answers, and on the day that the Prince was to give
his, a deputation firom the Irish Parhament arrived
to invite him to undertake the administration of the
Irish Government, with no restrictions, during the
King's incapacity. 

How gladly he might have accepted this position
we can only guess at, for most fortunately at that
very juncture the TTiTig was declared convalescent,
and able once more to return to the helm of
afiairs. 

He was not allowed by his physicians immedi-
ately to attend to business, but the announcement of
his Majesty's recovery at once, of course, stopped the
debate upon the Eegency Bill, and for a few days
Parliament was adjourned. 

The names of the Duke of York, and of the
King's brother, Henry of Cumberiand, were at the
end of the Ust of Peers who petitioned the Prince of
Wales not to accept the Kegency restricted, when
upon its being known that the King was convales-
cent, it was given out that it had been done without
their concurrence. 

Of the lords spiritual, Markham, Archbishop of
York, and the Bishops of liandaff and Norwich, were
against the Queen having any share in the Kegency.
As Liandaff said, *It weakened the power of the
Crown, and divided the affections of the family.' 

58 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Lord Mulgrave, in his speech during the debate,
expressed extreme surprise at hearing the Queen so
disrespectfully as well as so unkindly and so un-
generously spoken of for wishing to accept a trust
(the care of her husband), from which he sincerely
hoped she would not be deterred by intimidation.
He believed that excellence in the female character
did still exist, and trusted that her Majesty would
not from any cause be prevented from undertaking
this charge, as well as the care of the faithful ser-
vants of the household. It was not proposed to give
the Queen power to change the persons who held the
leading places, yet she was ready and happy to give
any assistance to the situation the Royal Family
were then placed in, and he. Lord Mulgrave, was
distressed and hurt to find that a person like the
Queen, whose conduct had ever been held up to the
country generally as an example of all that is true
and good, who had been hitherto beloved and re-
vered, who could not be assailed by even a breath
of calumny, should, in a moment of affliction Uke
the present, be subject to every remark of severity,
and to an entire absence of dutiful respect, because
she had acquiesced in the desire of those ministers
of the Crown who at this critical juncture had
proved themselves the real and attached friends of
their Sovereign. This animated speech of Lord
Mulgrave's, of which my feeble powers can give but 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHAKLOTTE 59 

a very faint outline, made some impression on tl\p
House, and under the idea that recovery was ap-
proaching, a little more moderation was observed. 

Both the Queen and Prince did accept the proposed
trust, and doubtless these arrangements would have
held good had his Majesty remained an invahd ; but
now that he was declared convalescent, he did at
times see and converse with the Cabinet Ministers,
particularly Mr. Pitt, who had constantly been with
the King throughout his whole illness, and had been
staunch in his allegiance to his master. 

[Dr. Doran's review of the state of affairs in the
political world at this time, gives a very clear idea of
the situation. He says, ' The whole country became
Tory in spirit — as Toryism had now developed itself.
Fox in vain explained that he meant that the admin-
istration of the government belonged to the Prince of
Wales, only if Parliament sanctioned it. In vain the
Prince of Wales, through his brother the Duke of
York, proclaimed in the House of Lords that he made
no claim whatever, but was, in fact, the very humble
and obedient servant of the people. 

* It was precisely because he did assert this claim
that the Queen and her friends were alarmed.
Should the Prince be endowed with the powers of
Kegent without restriction, the Queen would be re-
duced to a cipher, Pitt would lose his place, the
ministry would be overthrown with him, and, should 

60 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

the King recover, difficulties might arise in the way
of the recovery also of his authority. 

* Party spirit ran high on this matter, but there
was little patriotism to give it dignity. Among the
ministry even, waverers were to be found who were
on the Prince's side when the King's case seemed
desperate, and who veered round to the Sovereign's
party as soon as there appeared a hope of his
recovery. 

* A restricted Eegency the Prince of Wales affected
to look upon with ineffable scorn. His Royal brothers
manifested more fraternal sympathy than filial affec-
tion by pretending to think their brother's scorn
well founded. They all changed their minds when
they saw, by Pitt's parliamentary majorities, that they
could not help themselves. Ultimately the Prince
consented with a very ill grace to the terms which
Pitt and the Parliament were disposed to force upon
himr Never did man submit to terms which he
loathed with such bitterness of disappointed spirit as
the Prince did to the following conditions, namely : 

' That the King's person was to be entrusted to the
Queen ; her Majesty was to be also invested with the
control of the Royal household, and with the conse-
quent patronage of the four hundred places con-
nected therewith, including the appointments of Lord
Steward, Lord Chamberlain, and Master of the Horse.
The Prince, as Regent, .was further to be debarred 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 61 

from granting any office, reversion, or pension,
except during the King's pleasure, and the privilege
of conferring the peerage was not to be allowed to
him at all. 

* With a fiercely savage heart did he accept these
terms. 

* And now the day was appointed for bringing the
Regency Bill regularly before Parliament — ^February
3rd — and the clauses were already under discussion
when, a fortnight later, the Lord Chancellor (Thurlow)
announced to the House that the King was declared
by his medical attendants to be in a state of conva-
lescence.' — Ed.] 

62 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

CHAPTER XV. 

The King absolutely refufies to see the Queen — Some days later he
agrees to see her — ' Queen Esther ' — ^The King walks with the Queen
and the Princesses — Want of filial affection of the Prince of Wales
and the Duke of York — ^Thurlow — Mr. Papendiek sends for his wife
to Eew to attend the rejoicings — A prayer of thanksgiving — General
illuminations — The Bank most splendid — Cortege of the Queen and
Princesses — ^The King receives the Queen on her return to Kew — He
conducts her to the supper-room — ^Verses on the entrance gates —
Illuminations kept up for three nights — Mrs. Zoffany's house — Mrs.
Roach — Frederick's sixpence — Baron Dillon — ^A subscription ball at
Windsor — The King receives an address from the Lords and
Commons — ^The Queen holds a drawing-room during March — Mrs.
Papendiek goes to London — The procession for the public thanks-
giving — The King attends the service in St. Paul's Cathedral — ^A new
dress introduced — Fresh difficulties about Dr. Willis's men — 'Not
full page ' — The Royal Family return to Windsor — ^Mr. Papendiek
returns to his home fatigued and disappointed. 

A NEW difficulty occurred just at the moment that
Dr. Willis was anxious to present the King to his
people as being thoroughly restored, and in a fit con-
dition to take part in the business of the State. His
Majesty could not be prevailed upon, indeed he abso-
lutely refused, to see the Queen ! He said that he
had always respected her and had paid her every
attention, but when she should have screened his
malady from the public she had deserted him, and
left him to the care of those who had used him ill, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 63 

inasmuch as they had forgotten him to be their
Sovereign ; that he had always felt a great partiality
for Queen Esther (Lady Pembroke), and with her,
upon a proper agreement, he would end his days. 

Dr. Willis was obliged again to use remedies to
ensure a perfect recovery. The mind and body were
still weak, and a few days intervened before the
usual good accounts could be again put before the
pubUc ; but the Queen exerted her power of trust,
and would not suffer the word 'relapse' to be in-
serted in the bulletins. It was represented as more
of a bodily attack, which it really was, as the mind
was only now suffering from the long-continued state
of weakness. 

When the King awoke two or three mornings after
this little break in the satisfactory progress of his
Majesty's recovery, he talked in a perfectly rational
and quiet manner to those about him, and on rising
complained of the cold, which in his case always
showed that the fever had passed off. A fire was
permitted, and when the King had taken his break-
fast he was shaved and dressed. This had been done
for some time past by Dr. Willis's men, but on this
particular occasion my father was proposed. No
objection was raised, and he came with the necessary
requisites, bringing Mr. Papendiek, as before, to per-
form the operation. All was satisfactorily completed,
when Dr. Willis said, *The Queen waits without. 

64 CX)URT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Your Majesty's pleasure will be to command an in-
terview.' ' It is my wish/ answered the King, * if
the Queen has no objection to see me in the abject
state in which I must appear before her.' 

In a quiet, impressive manner the Queen entered.
To the joy of Willis, his Majesty kissed her, said not
a word, but shed a flood of tears. After recovering
himself he wished to tell the Queen of all his suffer-
ings, but she said she was aware of them, and had
known of all that had passed both by day and night ;
that Dr. Willis was the friend of them both, and
would make his Majesty acquainted with everything
that had been done throughout those sufferings if
he wished. She added that she was sure the King
would think that she had made the best possible
arrangements for conducting the attendance upon
him, and had studied his comforts and welfare in
every way that was in her power. 

The interview was short, but after this first visit
the Queen saw his Majesty every day twice. For a
time one of the Willis's was always present. The
King still rambled at times, particularly on the sub-
ject of Queen Esther, of whom he had been fond
from the first moment that she had been introduced
at Court. He also at times had slight returns of
fever, but all these evils passed off by degrees. 

Each day now brought joy into every countenance,
and the great depression was removed from the land. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 65 

The King saw his daughters and the Queen constantly,
and walked with them, but as yet he had not been
out in a carriage. His meals were now of a more
natural kind, one of the Willis's, nevertheless, being
still present to watch the slightest return of the malady.
The apartments remained the same, but a sitting-
room was added in which the ministers waited, one
only being introduced at a time. Every day now
seemed to give strength, and the King began by
degrees to resume his usual habits and to visit the
various members of his family. 

A gradual change in the weather began at the
end of February, when the thermometer rose con-
siderably, and by the beginning of March a decided
thaw set in. This genial change decidedly im-
proved the King's bodily health, and the mind was
strengthened by the more healthy state of the body.
He conversed with those who came into his presence,
and they accosted him with greater freedom. The
equerries resumed their regular attendance, the
Queen's visits were no longer restricted, and every-
thing began to fall back into its ordinary course.
The public had not yet seen the King, and though
the park gates were unlocked, and people that were
known no longer denied intercourse with the house-
hold, no one as yet was admitted to his Majesty's
presence, except the ministers occasionally. 

The conduct of the Prince of Wales and the
VOL. II. F 

66 COURT AND PKIVATE LIFE IN 

Duke of York was extremely heartless. At their
first interview with the King after his recovery, they
showed no emotion whatever, unless the mortification
at the loss of power which was so evidently depicted
on their countenances may be termed emotion. Of
fiUal afiection they appeared to have none, and it is
grievous to have to relate that so far from showing
any pleasure at the restoration of the King to health,
they rather tried to affect a disbelief in his Majesty's
sanity, and went about among their friends, telling of
words and phrases he had used which might be con-
strued into proofs of their assertion. At last, how-
ever, the King got so perfectly well that even they
were obliged to confess it, but their behaviour, both
in public and in private, continued to be in every
respect despicable. 

The debates now again ran high, so much so
that they drew forth that wonderfully strong ejacula-
tion from Thurlow, the Lord Chancellor : ' May God
forget me when I forget my King ! He is recovered,
and executes business with as much clearness and
steadiness as before.' 

[I cannot forbear quoting another passage from
Dr. Doran's * Lives of the Queens of England ' in this
place. * Li justice to the opposition it must be re-
marked that the greatest traitor was not on that side»
but on the King's. The Lord Chancellor Thurlow
was intriguing with the opposition when he was 

THE TDIE OF QCEEX CHARLOITK 67 

affecting to be a faithful servant of the Crown, His
treachery, however, was well known to both partiess
but Htt kept it fix)m the knowledge of George DI,,
lest it should too deeply pain or too dangerously
excite him. Wlien Thurlow had subsequently the
effrontery to exclaim in the House of Lords, *" When
I forget my King, may my God forget me I '' a voict?
from one behind him is said to have murmured,
" Forget you ! He will see you d — d first." * — ^Ed.] 

During this time things were going on with us at
Windsor much as usual. It had been a great satis-
faction to me that I had been able to correspond with
my husband, and we greatly rejoiced at the more
favourable accounts communicated to us, and still
more when the news of tlie King's complete reco-
very reached us. The cold retreating, too, gave us
spirits ; we all appeared to be coming to life again,
like the silkworm, after lying dormant through the
winter months. 

And now a letter arrived from Mr. Papeiidiek
desiring that I would immediately repair to Kew to
partake of the general joy, saying that he had
secured me a bed at dear Mrs. Zoffany's, where he
knew I should be happy. Her daughters were still
at home, so I did not attempt to trouble her with any
of my children, but Charlotte, who still suffered from
her chilblains, I took to my mother's, where she was
a welcome guest both to her and to my brother. 

68 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

With warmth and good nursing she began to get
better, yet the spring had quite set in before we could
say she was really well. 

After making all necessary arrangements for my
other children, I went off to Strand-of-the -Green,
which was near Kew, where I was most kindly and
hospitably received by Mrs. Zoffany. 

On March 1 a prayer of thanksgiving for the
King's recovery was given to each member of the
household by her Majesty, which was also to be read
in all the churches of the Metropolis and the suburbs
on that day. By the following Sunday, there was
not a private family or a church in the whole of
England where it had not been offered up. It
was truly a heartfelt thanksgiving, shared by all his
Majesty's subjects. 

It was the King's earnest desire to himself offer up
a pubUc thanksgiving for his recovery, his natural
reUgious feeUngs being so strong at all times. This
caused much terror to the Queen and the ministers,
as they feared that the intense excitement of such a
proceeding might be very injurious to him. They
therefore induced him to allow this ceremony to be
put off for a little while, and it did not take place
till towards the end of April. 

In the meantime pubHc rejoicings had full vent,
and a general illumination and great demonstration
were fixed for March 9. On that morning Mr, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 69 

Papendiek arrived in a chaise to take Mrs. Zoffany
and myself to see all the preparations. She excused
herself on account of her children being at home,
and of her own illuminating diflSculties. I therefore
started off with Mr. Papendiek alone, he telling Mrs.
Zoffany that she was not to expect me till she saw
me, nor to sit up one moment beyond her usual time
for me, as he thought I should probably remain in
town. 

From Stfand-of-the-Qreen we proceeded through
the back lanes of Chiswick and part of Hammer-
smith into the high road, where there was not a
house, large or small, not a cottage nor the humblest
dweUing of the poor, but what showed some sign of
lighting up, even to a rushlight. The Assembly
House in the Broadway, Hammersmith, was very
splendid, as was also Hatchett's, the coach- builder,
who had emblematical devices of his trade in coloured
lamps placed in each window, with rows of white
lights round which were to give brilliancy to each
device. All the houses in Kensington Gore were
beautifully illuminated also, and at the turnpike an
arch of great height was thrown over the road from
Hyde Park Gate to the opposite side, above the two
toll-houses, the barrier gates being removed. The
arch was made in sort of steps meeting in the centre,
and on the two sides, one facing Piccadilly and the
other the western road, were devices in coloured 

70 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

lamps of the crown, star, initials, &c., arranged with
flags. The lamps were of a kind to keep out rain,
and each had a reflector, so the efiect was most bril-
liant. On the railings round the toll-gates were
flambeaux, which were then in general use, and
which could be prepared at great expense to bum
for a long time in rain. Most fortunately it was one
of the finest spring days, and the evening and night
like summer. The heat was greatly increased by the
quantity of lights, and the transition from the
extreme cold of the four previous months made it
more remarkable. 

We continued on our way, and the preparations
were extremely grand. All the churches had flags
from their steeples and their bells were rung conti-
nuously from noon on March 9 to sunrise the next
morning. Eound the tops of the supports of the
outer gates flambeaux were placed and constantly
replenished. Piccadilly was well Ughted and St.
James's Street, White's Clubhouse, to the left, being
entirely covered with white lamps in elegant taste.
The crown, star and garter at the extreme top, and
the initials below, each in appropriate coloured lamps.
At Brooks's Clubhouse, that of Fox's party, which
had an extensive frontage and handsome balcony, the
display was grand, but without device. 

We then reached my father's apartments in St.
James's, and there found Salomon. After lunch we 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 71 

took a hackney coach to go through the city to the
farthest point, calling for my bcother at St. Bartholo-
mew's. The India House was covered with trans-
parencies, very well done, showing every article that
the Company imported, with a whole-length portrait
of George m. at the top, with the crown &c., and
lower down a portrait of Pitt, with his crest and
arms. The Bank then riveted our attention, but
my powers of description are inadequate to give
much idea of its excessive beauty and splendour,
At the extreme top, very high up, were the King's
arms, St. George and every part of them being per-
fectly manifested by lamps and transparencies. Then
the four orders, with their stars, mottoes, badges, &c.,
equally complete. The whole frontage was covered
with initials and appropriate devices, the railing
having a cheval de frise of flambeaux to give addi-
tional effect and to serve as a barrier to keep the
crowd off. The glass shops were splendid, and
the theatres within and without — no performance
going on, but the doors of course opened. At Exeter
Change there were transparencies of what each
counter sold, and of many of the live stock there
exhibited, with a crown at the top of each, and
G. E. with the date underneath. This was extremely
neat and unassuming, and even tasty from its uni-
formity. We returned up Whitehall, where the
Army Pay Office was imposing, everything belonging 

72 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

to military accoutrements being portrayed by lamps,
and the Admiralty with their insignia in the same
descriptive manner. The Duke of Cumberland's
house in Pall Mall was attractive ; Carlton House
had the screen only lighted with flambeaux. 

And so we found ourselves again at St. James's,
where we dined, after seeing the finest specimens of
art prepared for what obscurity was to make perfect.
All was finished to a nicety. At one o'clock, noon,
they began to light, and kept all in the order in-
tended till sunrise. 

My father arrived at about six o'clock from Kew,
and told us that the Queen and Princesses were to set
off at eight o'clock, with their ladies, in Lord
Aylesbury's and Lord Harcourt's carriages, and a
third carriage was provided for Lady Charlotte
Finch, the Misses Qoldsworthy, Burney, and Planta ;
and my father proposed that we should go with him
in the postchaise that brought us to town, to await
the Queen's arrival at Hyde Park Corner, and there
to fall into her Majesty's cortege. Salomon, my
mother, and brother accompanied us in a glass
coach. 

The Royalties went round the squares, down
Whitehall, St. James's Street, Pall Mall, and back to
Kew by twelve o'clock, at which hour Dr. Willis had
planned that the King should receive her Majesty,
and lead her to the supper-room. We saw my 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 73 

mother and our friends safely into the passage lead-
ing to her apartments, and then followed the Eoyal
carriages. As we passed the Assembly House, at
Hammersmith, they were dancing. No caps or head-
dresses for the young, but the bandeaux^ either white
or purple, had embroidered on them in gold letters,
* God save the King.' The elder ladies wore the
same on turbans, caps, dress hats, &c. 

On arriving at Kew we all jumped out quickly,
and the ladies of the third carriage, with myself, Mrs.
and Miss Tunstall, Mrs. Thomas Willis, and one or
two more, stood on each side of the Queen's carriage,
and saw her handed out by my father and Mr.
Papendiek. The King now met her Majesty, took
her hand, and led her up to the supper-room, which
was prepared in one of the front rooms of the house,
so that from the windows could be seen the illumi-
nation on the gates of the Queen's House, the space
between, which was the carriage drive, being suflS-
ciently extensive to give a good effect to this
illumination, which had been put up by the Queen's
express command. 

On the gateposts on either side of the entrance
gates were the two following verses : 

Our prayers are heard, and Providence restores
A patriot King to bless Britannia's shores!
Nor yet to Britain is this bliss confined.
All Europe hails the friend of human kind. 

74 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

If such the general joys, what words can show
The change to transport from the depth of woe,
In those permitted to embrace again
The best of Fathers, Husbands, and of men 1 

The words were in gold letters on a purple ground
transparency, and above each verse was a purple
bow with gold ropes twisted to hold it, represented
by purple and yellow lamps ; the tail pieces were two
serpents coiling, also in lamps. On the gates them-
selves were the crown as high as it could be placed,
with the lion rampant upon it, admirably expressed
in lamps ; the arms partly in transparency and
partly in lamps, to give the motto distinct ; the order
of the Garter with that of the Bath under it ; and on
either side the orders of the Thistle and of St. Patrick.
So well were these devices executed that the mottoes
were perfectly distinct, the stars correct, and the
ribbons as if they were real. Among these ribbons
and orders the date was inserted, and G. E. was
judiciously and conspicuously brought in. The whole
was very elegant and tasteful, and the King when he
saw it, on coming to the door to meet her Majesty,
not only admired it, but expressed his pleasure at
this token of respect and love. 

In the supper-room, the elder Princesses joined
their parents, and the three younger Princesses were
also there, with the Misses Gomm and Moula, to
receive the King. 

As soon as supper was served his Majesty took 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 75 

leave, and was conducted to his apartments by Dr.
Willis, quiet, composed, and perfectly self-collected,
although it was the first time he had seen all his
family, and the attendants, &c., together, and the hour
was later than he had recently been accustomed to
be up. 

The following day, as the King was in no degree
the worse for this trial, the Queen did not hesitate to
leave him, and proceeded to London again, through
the city, and wherever were to be seen the wonderful
works of art and design that were raised up on this
memorable occasion. 

The illuminations of the public buildings were
kept aUght for three nights, but the most interest-
ing part of the sight was, that not one floor of a
lodging-house was left in darkness ; not a shed, nor
cellar even ; and this motley respect told more than
the eflbrts of many of the nobles, who, instead of
opening their gates and illuminating their houses,
simply had flambeaux streaming on the tops of the
walls round the court yards. 

Our object in hurrying on to Kew the preceding
night, was that my father and Mr. Papendiek should
be at their posts. They could not, in consequence,
take me round to Mrs. Zofiany's ; besides, it was a
pleasure to Mr. Papendiek that I should witness the
scene which I have just endeavoured to describe. I
at once went to his room, famished and completely 

76 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

tired out, and there Betty Snoswell brought me tea
and all belonging to that meal in a most inviting way.
I found that the room was next to Mrs. Willis's, so we
brought our forces together, and after this pleasant
meeting, and a most delightful chat, we said adieu
for the night. I then turned into my quarters,
where I found paper for curling my hair, combs,
powder, and all that paraphernalia. But alas, my
raiment for the night, where was that to be pro-
cured? Never mind, I managed, and tumbled into
bed weary but happy. 

The next morning early, I went back to my dear
friend at Strand-of-the-Green, in the hope of either •
taking her to see the Queen's illumination, or of per-
suading her to go to London with Mr. Papendiek
while I remained to take care of her house. She
declined both, so we passed the day together in quiet
rest and pleasant intercourse. 

Mrs. Zoffany then lived in the first of four houses
near the river, of which the frontage was precisely
the same, and the residents of these houses made
their devices of lamps to encompass the four. This
gave space ; the idea was well imagined, and the
chaste effect drew the attention of the Queen, whose
carriage was ordered to stop on the bridge that their
party might see it. The tide was high, and the
reflection in the water was almost more beautiful
than the thing itself. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOrfE 77 

The next day I took leave of my friends, Mrs.
Willis, Miss Bumey, and my aunt and cousins. I also
saw my father and husband, and poor Betty, from
whom I parted with grateful thanks ; also Mrs. Meyer
and her family. 

She told me that she had received letters from
her son in India, with remittances of 4,000/. in
return for his outfit. I also heard from her that Miss
Green's father was going to marry Mrs. Holland,
a lady of considerable property, on which account
he had to take the name of Holland. He was now
dubbed a knight, and afterwards created a baronet, so
he was married under the name, style, and title
of Sir Nathaniel Holland. His daughter was much
disappointed. She was now of an age to un-
dertake the care of her father's house, and had
hoped to have been placed in the position of
head of his establishment about this time. Lady
Holland, however, acted most kindly and generously
towards her, and settled upon her 300/. a year to be
paid free of all stamp duties (which at that time were
very high), and with no drawbacks. These good
people enjoyed but a short existence together, in
the most perfect happiness, and died shortly after
each other. The husband went first, and then
Lady Holland added another 100/. to Miss Green's
annuity. 

Mrs. Meyer now determined upon sending CaroUne 

78 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

to Mrs. Roach's, and commissioned me to tell her that
she would join at the half-quarter before Midsummer.
The terms were only 20/. per annum, or 25/. if oc-
casional indulgences were to be expected. Ward,
who kept the principal academy at Windsor, taught
writing, and very superiorly so. Dere, from Eeading,
was the dancing master, Boney was for French, and
Rodgers for music — all good. History and geography,
of which only the rudiments could be expected, were
taught in the school, and English reading, needle-
work both useful and ornamental, and all other female
duties, were taught and inculcated in such a manner as
to be a lasting benefit through life. There were only
a few boarders, but more day scholars than were
desirable. 

Mrs. Roach was a woman of strong principles, and
endeavoured to instil into the minds of her pupils
truth and sincerity, with kind-heartedness towards
each other, and as much of religious instruction as
their tender years could comprehend, showing them
that it should influence their actions and strengthen
the moral duties so studiously attended to. My
daughters profited by this excellent instruction, and
the strong mind of my little Charlotte, afterwards
Mrs. Oom, and now Mrs. Planta, received its first
impressions in this place of education, and her excel-
lent superior abilities, both as to ornamental acquire-
ments, female duties, and useful knowledge, 'were 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 79 

gained under the guidance of this exemplary woman,
between whom and myself a lasting friendship
existed until Mrs. Eoach's death. 

On my return home I found my three Uttle dears
well, and as I left them. We were now to lose Betsy
Baker, a girl who had been with me for a few months,
and who had now obtained a regular situation as
needlewoman. Her kind heart and good disposition
gave her a gentle and obUging manner, and she had
been of the greatest possible comfort to me during
the dreary winter we had now got over. In return
I took every pains to initiate her into the habits of a
gentleman's servant, to teach her every part of useful
dress, the higher Unes of the laundry, the business of
the still-room, the store-room, and the general care
of the Unen. 

My Uttle Frederick was so fond of her that he
always would sleep with her, and on parting wished
to make her a present. Among his little treasures
he had a new sixpence, which he intended to give her,
and to keep it safe till he saw her, he put it up one
of his nostrils. Finding it became uncomfortable as
it was drawn higher and higher by his breathing, he
came to have it extracted, only just in time to save
its being a serious, even dangerous, accident. He was
then just over two years old. I have the sixpence
still. 

On the King's recovery being announced, Baron 

80 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Dillon arrived in England from Ireland, and having
made the proper inquiries, written his name, and
made known, according to the usual mode, his con-
gratulations on the happy event, he came down to
Windsor. The baron was an intimate friend of the
Jervois's, and in their house he was lodged. His dress-
ing room was arranged as a study, where he received
his friends. He was a truly patriotic man, and had,
with his sons, of whom he had seven, twice faced the
rebels in Ireland. The baron was once slightly
wounded, and one of his sons severely so, which
unfortunately disfigured his fine face, for they were
all handsome men. The baron's poor wife died of
anxiety. 

At tlie time that Joseph 11. of Germany was sup-
pressing the monasteries and otherwise subduing the
Koman Catholics in his own country, it was proposed
to enact a law in England which would be very
detrimental to their interests, and in some instances
ieven destructive to their pursuits in life. The baron,
although a strict Protestant, had an equal compassion
for his fellow-countrymen whether of the same per-
suasion or not, and had a petition drawn up to point
out the distress and ill-feeling that such a law must
occasion ; and this was done so clearly and to the
purpose that it absolutely had the effect of preventing
the ill-judged decree. The attention of the Emperor
Joseph was drawn to the transaction, and on the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 81 

baron's return to Ireland, after coming over to present
the petition with the proper forms, he conferred the
title on him of baron of the Holy Roman Empire, to
be continued to his heirs male, lawfully begotten.
It was a noble trait on both sides. 

The resource of this amiable man was music. He
had a sweet tenor voice, which seemed emblematical
of his mind. He was quite at home with us. I tried
all his little compositions for him, assisted him to
copy them, and joined in glees with him, which were
his delight, and in these Rodgers helped us through
the absence of Mr. Papendiek. 

The Stowes also were a great amusement to him,
and between us all I think we made his time among
us pass pleasantly. He read much, and was always
planning what he thought might be for the benefit of
his country. 

A subscription ball and supper at the Town Hall
was now proposed by the mayor, among other re-
joicings on the recovery of the King. Tickets were
to be a guinea, and 10,9. 6rf. for refreshments, which
only comprehended tea and biscuits. Mrs. Stowe
excused herself on the plea that she wished first
to introduce her daughter at Court, which could not
take place till she was eighteen. I excused myself on
account of my husband's absence, and also because
there had been no company yet to visit the Queen.
The Jervois's and our dear baron regretted but 

VOL. n. G 

82 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

approved. I at once offered to help Miss Jervois in
working her gown, a most beautiful India jaconet
musUn which was to be embroidered in small sprigs
and stripes with gold thread. We procured our
materials at the Golden Ball, then Eyston and Crook's,
and elegantly did we finish it, singing and reading
going on, while we worked like slaves, but so merrily
that we were in the height of enjoyment. 

The faqpn or make was new. The dress round,
with a small train prettily sloped from the sides ; the
bodice had the cape with the handkerchief under,
and the three straps as before. The capes were
edged with purple and gold cord, and the body was
laced with gold over a purple stomacher. The words
*God save the King' were worked in purple and
gold on the white satin bandeau. Shoes purple satin.
Her sister, who from delicaie health did not dance, had
a dress of the same material but not embroidered.
Mrs. Jervois had a purple silk gown, opened over a
crape petticoat embroidered in gold. Purple ban-
deau in her cap, with the motto in gold thread and
spangles. All the dresses looked remarkably well
when finished. 

These three colours — purple, gold, and white,
were almost universally worn at all meetings on
the recovery, more or less embellished according to
circumstances. The Town Hall was illuminated ap-
propriately both within and without, but not mag- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHAHLOTTE 83 

nificently, and the ball was not a brilliant one in a
general point of view. 

At Kew everything was proceeding regularly and
quietly, and no relapses occurred. The King still
remained in his own apartments, but he dined daily
with the Queen and the three elder Princesses, with
their various ladies in waiting. They passed the
afternoon together, either in the gardens or house, as
weather permitted, the King gaining strength daily,
and finding no difficulty in going through the routine
of business. His Majesty saw the Ministers of the
Cabinet and others whenever the progress of busi-
ness required it, and on March 11 he received in
person an address of the Lords and Commons on his
recovery. 

Levies and drawing-rooms had not yet been held,
and the King had not as yet been to London. When it
was necessary to call a council, they, up to the time
of which I am writing, had met at Kew, the King
being present ; but now his Majesty began to wish to
show himself to the public, and it was decided, with
Dr. Willis's concurrence, that he should return
thanks, publicly, to Almighty God for his recovery,
at St. Paul's Cathedral, on April 23, St. George's
Day. 

The Eoyal Family moved to London a few days
before the ceremony ; but previously to this the
Princesses had returned to Windsor from Kew, and 

G 2 

84 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

the Queen had held a drawing-room during March
to receive congratulations. 

Meanwhile the arrangements and preparations
for the public thanksgiving were proceeding. The
members of both Houses of ParUament were to
attend in state, and all those who belonged to the
Cathedral were to be at their respective posts. The
Archbishops of Canterbury and York were to receive
the King, and the former, with the assistance of the
Bishop of London and the Dean of St. Paul's, were to
do the duty. It was decided that Porteus, the
Bishop of London, should preach the sermon, and
that the service should begin at 12 o'clock. 

Mr. Papendiek, anxious that I should see this in-
teresting sight and partake of the general joy, sum-
moned me up to town. He had the same lodgings
that he was in before, at Clarke's, the Queen's foot-
man, in Eaton Street, PimUco, and he arranged for
me to go there. Eodgers kindly took charge of my
boys, and Eliza went with me to town to join her
sister on a visit to her grandmamma. 

The invitation to Mr. Street's, who had a house
in the broad, open part of the Strand, opposite
Somerset House, was the bait. My brother had a
holiday, and accompanied me, but the hour was too
early for my mother, as we had to be at our place of
destination by eight o'clock, besides which, there was
the necessity of a walk of some distance from the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 85 

carriage to a door at the back of Mr. Street's exten-
sive premises, which was opened for the accommoda-
tion of his guests, so she declined the invitation. 

Mr. Street had his two drawing-rooms, with three
windows in each, prepared with rows of rising seats
for his friends, many in number. The warehouse
and hall were prepared in the same manner, but more
extensively, for his numerous assistants in the busi-
ness and their friends. For the servants of the com-
pany a scaffolding was raised outside, with a covering
in case of rain, and a wooden cheval de frise to keep
off the pressure of the crowd. No carriage was per-
mitted to go through those streets along which the
procession was to pass after a very early hour, and
we had therefore to walk down a long court to
the house, after alighting in a back street. The
weather was unfortunately very showery, which
did not favour the general appearance of the female
visitors. 

On our entrance we found tables placed along
the spare walls of the drawing-room, spread with a
most elegant breakfast. Tea, coffee, and chocolate ;
muffins, crumpets, Yorkshire cakes, something of the
same kind as a Sally-Lunn, which was not then known,
and another kind of cake which was then greatly in
request, and is rarely met with now, a roll of dough
of a thickness to be cut in half, buttered hot, or very
good eaten plain ; bread of all sorts ; rolls, English, 

86 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

French, and German; Kringles, German cake, &c.,
and eggs, neither meat nor fish being then introduced
as appertaining to breakfast. We all took our meal
standing, and then ran to the windows, for the pro-
cession had begun. Three rows of troops, horse and
foot, lined the streets from St. James's to Temple Bar
in full uniform. 

First came the Speakers of the two Houses, in
their state coaches, dress, and wigs ; the Crown
lawyers the same ; the Peers in the S,S. collar, and
those who were of either of the four orders of
knighthood wore their ribbons over the court full-
dress, with bags and swords ; the Commons also in
full dress ; the Bishops also in their full dress, lawn
sleeves, &c. 

The carriages moving slowly, we could easily
discern who were seated in them. The court or
state carriages of noblemen and gentlemen were in
themselves a splendid sight in those days, with their
fine horses decorated superbly, their dress liveries
finished well, no expense being spared, and every
elegant item carefully attended to. Many hackney
coaches were in the procession, principally containing
members of the Lower House ; Fox, Sheridan, and
two others were in one. 

At about 11 o'clock trumpets and kettle-drums
announced the heralds, who demanded admittance at
Temple Bar for the King, which, according to the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 87 

recognised form, was refused by the city authorities.
Very soon after, the King's carriage came in sight,
and the instruments sounded his approach. Then
the gates of Temple Bar were thrown open; the
heralds made the usual request, which was now
granted, and the Lord Mayor in his robes of state,
attended by his sheriffs &c. &c. on chargers, pre-
sented the keys of the city to the ICing, which the
form directs his Majesty to take, and then imme-
diately to return to the Lord Mayor. In the first
carriage, with glass panels, were seated the King and
Queen, and two ladies. In the next the three Prin-
cesses and their ladies. Then followed several other
carriages with the usual attendants in their respec-
tive styles of dress. 

The King was in the full-dress Windsor uniform,
blue with red collar and cuffs, gold lace button-
holes, &c. The Queen, Princesses, and ladies wore
open gowns of purple silk, edged and finished off
with gold fringe ; point lace capes and sleeve trim-
mings ; petticoats of Indian gold muslin over white
satin, with deep fringes of gold at the bottom. The
hair was still worn * en ioupSe,' with chignon, and two
curls at each side pinned ; and a large veil of Indian
gold muslin was then thrown over the head, and
pinned * en toque^' being confined by the white satin
bandeau, on which the motto was embroidered in
gold letters. This made a thorough covering for the 

88 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

head, and fell tastefully over the shoulders. For
warmth, ermine tippets were worn by the Eoyalty,
the ladies in waiting having white furs. 

The Lord Mayor conducted the King to the place
prepai'ed for him in the Cathedral, and then took his
own seat with his attendants. I was told that the
service was very impressive, and his Majesty most
devout, going through the whole ceremony without
the slightest agitation or undue emotion. When the
service was concluded, the Lord Mayor escorted the
King back to his carriage, and the procession returned
by the same route. 

This was appointed by the Church as a general
day of thanksgiving throughout the metropolis, but
the churches and chapels were not filled. Numbers
were engaged in the procession and in business
connected with it, others in looking at it, so it
became, as may be imagined, a general holiday. A
second special prayer was in consequence sent
forth, which was to be used all over England at
morning and evening service for a given number of
Sundays. 

During the interval when the ceremony was pro-
ceeding at St. Paul's, the movements of the exces-
sive crowd amused us. Besides which, we filled up
the time with an excellent repast called luncheon,
but which was dinner to many. Variety in those
days was not the leading feature, but plenty, if not 

THE TLME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 89 

profusion, was the characteristic. Upon this occa-
sion there were dishes of veal, ham, and fowls,
tartlets and cheesecakes, large plum and plain
cakes, rolls and bread, hot, cold, and dessert wines,
choice beer, and white soup. Mr. Papendiek joined
us, which was an unexpected and great addition to
the pleasures we were enjoying. 

The afternoon was finer than the morning, which
softened the return when one had fatigue also to
contend with. 

A new dress was introduced for this day, which
remained the fashion for the spring — a jacket and
petticoat of Indian dimity, a material which our
manufacturers now imitate and call it twilled calico.
My wardrobe being low, I had two with deep
flounces of striped Indian jaconet muslin, the jacket
being laid in plaits to fall round easy, with two
muslin capes laced down the front with purple ribbon.
Hair already described, and people of our rank had
* toques ' of muslin tied under the chin. My bandeau
was of purple, with a gold motto and handsome
edges worked by myself. 

After this thanksgiving service, Dr. Willis was
very anxious that the King, with his family, should,
in order to keep him in health, and that he should
gain strength, return to Kew, and remain there till
the prorogation of Parhament, and then go to the sea-
side for change of air. This the King objected to. 

90 COURT AND PRR'ATE LIFE IN 

and it was true that there were very much greater
conveniences at Windsor, where the Queen's Lodge
had been fitted up as a summer residence, the Castle
for entertainments, and the Lower Lodge for the Prin-
cesses, with every accommodation for friends around
them, and for the various attendants, and his Majesty
strongly urged their returning thither. It was,
however, finally settled that the Koyal Family should
first repair to Kew, and there make their plans and
arrangements for the future. Some alterations were
necessary to the IQng's apartments at Windsor, to
do away with such things as would bring certain
recollections of the past to his mind, and to brighten
and beautify them, so as to make his surroundings
give a pleasant turn to his thoughts. 

Dr. Willis had intimated to the Queen that he
thought it advisable that four of his men should
remain about the King, two at a time in turn, and it
was proposed in order to keep the circumstance
private, that they should be made pages. Now four
additional pages could not be accommodated in either
of the Eoyal residences, so it was suggested that
Kamus and Ernst should retire upon their salaries
to their apartments at St. James's. They inquired if
they were to enjoy their perquisites as usual, and the
answer was that these could not be allowed. They
thought that after their long and faithful services
they had a right to expect this consideration, and 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 91 

therefore refused the dismissal unless a sum equiva-
lent to the average amount of perquisites were added
to their salaries. Again this was not agreed to.
They blamed Willis for not introducing his men
under different regulations, and all the pages expos-
tulated upon this fresh degradation. It was expected
that after the many months of arduous labour that
they had gone through, some recognition of their
fidelity and zealous attention would have been ten-
dered, if iJot in a manner to speak to futurity of their
services, at any rate to secure their comforts and
happiness in the present, but it seemed that this was
not to be the case. 

This affair disturbed the King a little, and as
neither party would give in, it was settled that Healey
and Bowman, who had attended upon his Majesty
from the time that Dr. Willis was called in, should
remain as assistant pages, to be constantly about the
King in turn, with no regular wait. The other two
were not to be brought forward except in case of
necessity; Kamus was to remain at the head as
before, and Ernst was to change his wait with one
of the old set upon the usual footing. Stillingfleet
resigned upon his salary. His father, who was gen-
tleman of the wine-cellar, and now aged, also begged
to be allowed to retire. He had a fine estate at
Woodgates in Wiltshire, one stage beyond Salis-
bury from London, and there both father and son 

92 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

established themselves, and greatly improved what
already was a sweet place. 

The Queen, on taking leave of the younger
Stillingfleet, the page, urged him now no longer to
postpone his marriage with Miss Griffiths, particu-
larly as her mother was now dead. Her Majesty
thought she would prove an acquisition as companion,
housekeeper, and nurse, but the young man answered
that his father had still the same repugnance to the
match, and that he would not thereforfi at that
moment propose its taking place, but that he would
accompany his father down to Wiltshire, and quietly
feel his way on the subject. 

Grieswell remained as before in constant attend**
ance at the hours of dressing, and Chamberlain
returned to town to resume his place in the library
at the Queen's House, for which a small allowance
was made to him in addition to his salary as * not
full page,' the term given to the secondaries. 

On Mr. Papendiek returning to his duty as page to
the Princess Royal, the King read a letter to him which
he told him he had long wished to do. It expressed
that he was to have a grant of Mrs. Carter's house on
the Castle Hill, the one nearest to the lodge, that the
garden of it was to be added to that between the
upper and lower lodges, and that as soon as Parlia-
ment was dissolved, and Mr. Papendiek ' denizened '
to enable him to vote, he was to take possession. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 93 

Meanwhile the house was to be repaired. Mrs.
Carter had died during the winter, and the house
had been bought by Government, as it stood on
Eoyal ground. Those who were interested for us
felt pleasure in this happy project, but Mr. Papen-
diek having shown the letter to the Queen on the
King's giving it to him, her Majesty observed ' that
the end was incoherent,' and she feared therefore
that what the first part of the letter promised, would
be disannulled by the latter. So it unfortunately
proved, and the house was ultimately given as a
grant to the Duke of Cambridge. 

The Eoyal Family returned to Windsor soon after
the beginning of May, when the King resumed his
former habits of business and appropriation of time,
except as regarded pubhc days at St. James's,
drawing-rooms, levees, &c. 

I returned to Windsor a few days after the
thanksgiving service, with my two little girls, and
found all well at home. 

On Mr. Papendiek resuming his attendance upon
the Princess Eoyal, Magnolley retired discontented,
his attendance from November to May not having
been even acknowledged with approbation. Mr.
Papendiek reminded him that he was probably the
only one who had profited pecuniarily, for he had
alone enjoyed the perquisites of the Princess's apart-
ments for three months. Thus ended for the present 

94 COURT AND PRIVATE UFE IN 

the King's illness and all its concomitant circum-
stances. 

Mr. Papendiek's return home was hailed with joy
by his family, but he felt the loss, for them, of his
heretofore allowances, and for a time suflfered under
disappointment and fatigue. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 95 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Concert at the Palace — ^Madame Mara — The organist for Windsor — Mr.
Forrest — Picture by St. Mark — The Queen^s present to Mrs. Tunstall
— Ball and supper at Windsor — ^The Prince of Wales in a fume —
The Duke of York and Colonel Lennox — Sapper in St. Geoige's Hall
— ^The duel referred to by Dr. Doran — Entertainments given by the
French and Spanish Ambassadors — Drawing-room on the King's
birthday — ^Mr. DeLavauz and Mr. Burgess — Death of Mr. Thrale —
Mrs. Thrale marries Mr. Piozzi — Mrs. Parsloe and Mr. Sykes — ^Party
at Dr. Aylward's — ^A great success — The Royal Family leave Windsor
for Lyndhui'st — Ceremony on entering the New Forest — Serious illness
of Mr. Papendiek — Arrival at Weymouth — ^Their Majesties make
several excursions — ^The bathing women — ^The Royal Family go to
Saltram — ^Visit Plymouth — Return to Weymouth and Windsor —
Theodore Smith— Charlotte has music lessons — Illness of Eliza —
Frederick goes to school — ^Frederick's pin — Mr. Papendiek returns
home — ^Looking much altered — Changes in the Royal attendants — The
brothers Hawkins — Mrs. Papendiek visits the Queen — Mrs. Papen-
diek stays with her father in London, and then returns home. 

A CONCERT was the first entertainment given at the
Palace. The St. James's band was added to the
King's private band, and the singers for the choruses
were chosen from the Windsor choristers. Mr. and
Mrs. Harrison, the Messrs. Abrams, Signer Tasca, and
Madame Mara were also engaged, and the Queen
begged the latter to direct the arrangement of the
platform for the orchestra. This was made the entire 

96 COUliT AND PKIVATE LIFE IN 

width of the room, with steps the whole length of it,
and seats at the two ends for the singers when unem-
ployed, the instrumental performers remaining of
course in the orchestra, except between the two acts. 

Mara was to sing ' The Prince, unable to conceal
his pain,' from ' Alexander's Feast,' which she did, as
before, to perfection. The excitement of listening to
music was rather feared for the King, but his Majesty,
with Lady Pembroke at his side (his Queen Esther),
was very happyj and the concert ended to the plea-
sure and satisfaction of all concerned in it, and of the
numbers of invited guests. 

Mara's singing was admirable as usual, and she
looked well. Her dress was of purple silk, moderately
trimmed, and she wore her diamonds. The dresses
of all the ladies were of purple, white, and gold, out
of compUment to the King. 

Baron Dillon stood behind Mara, and assisted in
the obbUgato pianoforte parts in many of the choruses
&c., and Sexton, the deputy organist, presided at the
organ. 

The Jervois's, Stowes, and other friends were with
me in the adjoining rooms, and we were of course all
highly gratified, for not only was the music of a most
perfect description, but the beauty of the room, the
elegant Ughts, and the briUiancy of the company,
made the sight a very imposing one. 

Refreshments of every kind were set out elegantly 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 97 

in the suite of rooms adjoining, and replenished from
time to time till the end of the evening. 

The return to Windsor, the resumption of his
former habits, and this first public assembly, excited
the King a little, but Dr. Willis, finding that his
Majesty's general health was good, permitted him to
go on as usual, requesting only that he would desist
from going out riding or walking in the sun during
the heat of the day. 

The question of filling the post of organist was
now brought forward, and many were proposed to the
King. Finally a friend of the Delavaux's was chosen.
Dr. Aylward, professor and lecturer of Gresham
College. He understood the Chapel service well,
and all the business of an organist. He kept on
the deputy organist as before, and made the duties
of singing as easy to the boys and men of the choir
as could be complied with. 

St. George's Chapel now came under the King's in-
spection, and the window was put up, and West's altar-
piece of the Last Supper, which with the addition of
the side pieces looked remarkably well. Orders were
given to Mr. Evelyn to repair tlie carved woodwork,
and to add new where required. Two chairs at the
altar table were to be done first, and the railing to
be beautified. His Majesty wished all to be made to
accord, which, as it had been put up at different times,
was not the case at present. The King also desired 

VOL. II. H 

98 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

to have a painted glass window put in over the western
door, but the Dean and Prebendaries thought it
would be better to have the side aisles done first. 

Mr. Jarvis refused to begin another work with Mr.
Forrest, so the whole matter of their disagreement
was explained to the King, who blamed Jarvis, and
gave the command to Forrest to paint the three
windows, which succeeded admirably. The subjects
were the Nativity, the Angels appearing to the
Shepherds, and the Offerings of the Wise Men. A
new organ was ordered of Green, and the old
Chapel was to undergo a thorough repair in every
branch. 

While this was taking place, and the services
could not be performed there, prayers were read in
the Collegiate Library, where there was a portrait of
our Saviour, handed down as having been painted by
St. Mark. The Prebendaries in residence used to
preach at the parish church, and the Royal Family
had service performed at 8 o'clock in the morning at
the chapel in the Castle. It was customary for the
Clerk of the Closet to do duty there, and the King
usually commanded who was to preach the sermon. 

The Queen gave to Mrs. Tunstall, as a recognition
of her attentive and kind exertions, a silver tea-urn ;
and to Mrs. Meyer, for the miniatures, a silver tea-
pot, milk-pot, and sugar-basin. 

No other gifts that I heard of were presented to 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 99 

the household, though all had exerted themselves to
the utmost during the whole of this trying time. 

The second entertainment given was a ball and
supper at Windsor, for which occasion all the ac-
commodation for guests of which the Castle was
capable was brought into requisition, lodgings being
also engaged in the town, that none of those noble-
men who had been staunch in their allegiance and
friendship should be omitted in the invitations, which
were very numerous. 

The Eoyal entertainments always commenced at
eight o'clock, and at about seven the Prince of Wales
came down in a great fume, desiring to see the
Queen. Her Majesty was dressing, but as soon as
possible his Eoyal Highness was admitted. The
object of his visit was to desire the Queen not to
receive Colonel Lennox at the ball, he having that
morning fought a duel with the Duke of York. 

Her Majesty, as soon as she was assured that
neither of them was hurt, answered that until the
King had been informed of the affair and had com-
manded the course that was to be pursued, it was not
in her power to act. The Queen did not at once go
over to the Castle, but remained at the Lodge until
Mr. Pitt should arrive, when he was immediately
ordered to her presence, and requested by her
Majesty to break the intelligence to the King and
to let her know his decision in the matter. 

II 2 

196006 

100 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

This he did, and the King desired that all was to
proceed as if no such thing had occurred. Upon
this the Prince of Wales returned to town, exaspe-
rated at his Majesty's command. 

The delay which this affair occasioned caused great
anxiety among the assembled company, as may be
imagined, but on the appearance of the Royal Family,
with the King looking well, all was delight, and danc-
ing was at once begun, and kept up to a late hour
with great spirit and hilarity. 

The dress was purple and gold for those ladies
who did not dance, and for the dancers white, with
purple and gold trimmings, the gowns being made
round, with a small slope from four to six inches on
the ground as train, which did not impede the move-
ments in dancing. 

The supper was in St. George's Hall, the table for
the Royal Family being across the upper end, up the
steps, two long tables down each side, the entire
length of the hall, being arranged for the guests.
The gallery at the lower end, supported by those
fine statues of a black and his three sons, was set
apart for music, the King's private band performing
during the supper to relieve those who played for
the dance. 

In this gallery also, we and our friends, with
many others, had places as spectators. The whole
effect was enchanting. The new gold service of plate 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 101 

was used for the first time, and the salvers and cups
were peculiarly elegant. They were ornamented
with serpents twisted round in a tasteful manner, and
made in shining and mat gold, which raised the
scales in relief, and made the reptiles look fearfully
real. The two mouths met at the top, and from
them the beverage was poured. 

The supper was most recherchSy and there were
several ornamental dishes such as I had never seen
before. Temples in barley sugar four feet high, and
oiher devices introducing the motto and emblema-
tical of peace and joy, were among the most conspi-
cuous ornaments of the table, and all the viands were
of the most elegant description. There were ar-
ranged on the table jellies of all colours and shapes,
creams, cakes, fruit, pies of all sorts, including cray-
fish pies (new to me), tartlets, &c., and hot dishes
with appropriate vegetables, and white soup, were
handed round to all the company seated at the tables,
in number at least 200. 

The duel was already talked about, and canvassed
with a good deal of party spirit and malignancy.
The Duchess of Gordon would not take wine with
Lord Thurlow, who, notwithstanding his strong asse-
veration in the House of Lords so short a time before,
was now wavering in his opinions. 

The King and Queen retired on returning from
the hall after the supper was concluded, the younger 

102 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Princesses having left the assembly before supper.
The elder Princesses now resumed the dance, and did
not retire till nearly four o'clock. 

[The particulars of the duel between the Duke of
York and Colonel Lennox, so briefly alluded to by
Mrs. Papendiek, are given by Dr. Doran in the
following words : 

. ' The second son of Queen Charlotte delivered
his maiden speech in the House of Lords at
the close of 1788. A few months later he made
another speech in private society which might have
had a very fatal issue. He stated that Colonel-
Lennox (afterwards Duke of Richmond) had been
addressed in Daubigny's Club in language to which no
gentleman would have quietly listened as the Colonel
had done. The latter, on parade, asked for an ex-
planation. The Duke refused, ordered him to his
post, and offered him " satisfaction " if he felt him-
self aggrieved. The Colonel appealed to the club as
to whether the members adopted the Duke's state-
ment. They remained silent, and the result was a
duel on Wimbledon Common, on May 26, 1789.
Lord Eawdon accompanied the Duke, and the Earl
of Winchelsea attended on the Colonel. The duel
ended with no bloodier finale than the loss of a curl
on the part of the Duke. The latter, it was found,
had not fired ; he refused to fire, bade the Colonel
fire again if he were not satisfied, and rejected every 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 103 

inducement held out to him to make some explana-
tion. On this the parties separated. 

* Some littleness of spirit was exhibited in what
followed. The Colonel was present at a court ball,
at which the Queen presided, and formed part in
a country dance of which the Prince of Wales and
other members of the Royal Family were also a por-
tion. The Prince, who was remarkable for his gal-
lantry, did not exhibit that quaUty on the present
occasion. He passed over the Colonel and the lady
his partner without "turning" the latter, as the laws
•of contre-danse required. The Prince's conduct was
imitated by both his brothers and sisters, and the
Colonel's partner was thus subjected to most un-
warrantable insult.' — Ed.] 

After this entertainment, the French and Spanish
Ambassadors gave theirs ; the former at his residence
in one of the Squares — I think Portman Square — the
latter, who lived in Great George Street, in the corner
house next to the Park, where he had no suitable suite
of rooms, gave his invitations to Eanelagh. The ball at
the French embassy was a most perfect entertainment,
at which there was every elegance that the imagina-
tion can form, and in the illumination of the house
the Jleur-de- lis was introduced. The Rotunda at Rane-
lagh afforded ample space for dancing, cards, and a
promenade. The two first tiers of boxes were devoted
to refreshments and supper for the company, and the 

104 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

third and upper tiers were set apart for the accommo-
dation of spectators, who were admitted by invitation
or by tickets. For them were also provided refresh-
ments of tea, cakes, and negus. The illuminations
within and without were something seldom seen. 

These two balls surpassed everything of the kind
that was given at this time of rejoicing. As a com-
pliment to the host of both these entertainments,
anything emblematical of their respective countries
that could possibly be introduced in the dress of the
ladies, was added by them to the costume for the
recovery, and the gentlemen wore the full dress
Windsor uniform. 

The name of the French Ambassador I cannot
recollect, but the Spanish Ambassador was the
Marquis del Campo, whom I have before mentioned
as having gone down to Windsor at the time that the
King was shot at, to prevent her Majesty's hearing
the news abruptly. No other very remarkable fes-
tivity was given, but there were many smaller parties
amongst friends, and a general reaction after the long
and dreary winter and universal depression of spirits. 

On the King's birthday the drawing-room was
crowded. Members of both parties attended, and
all political ill-feeling seemed for the moment to be
set aside. 

In many instances the motto was studded in
diamonds on a purple ground, and the eflect was 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 105 

most brilliant. This was the last occasion upon
which it was expected to be worn. 

The King appeared in the throne-room to hear
the Ode, and to receive the blessing of the bishops,
but his Majesty did not attend the drawing-room. 

There was no court ball in the evening, and the
Royal Family after dinner returned to Kew, having
left Windsor a short time before this auspicious day.
Miss Sandys had resumed her place when the family
first went to Windsor after the recovery, and all the
ladies and attendants had now fallen back into their
old quarters. 

As I heard of entertainments likely to be given
after the first grand concert, I summoned my cousin
for a month, who was able to respond happily, and
she enjoyed with us many of the little parties given
by our friends to which I have just alluded. 

On one particular day when we were preparing
our dress for an evening party at the Jervois's, Mr.
Delavaux called in a great bustle to see Mr. Papen-
diek, who was not at home. After much persuasion
Mr. Delavaux told me that he wished to find out if we
would give a home to a Mr. Burgess and two pupils
aged seven and five, who were designed for Eton, and
wfere looking about for a suitable residence. Certainly
our house was well situated, but I strongly argued
against accommodating them. However, old Dela-
vaux managed to get hold of Mr. Papendiek, and the 

106 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

business was settled. For the small sum of 1 30/. a year
they were to be lodged and take aU their meals with
me, but I only would consent to taking them on con-
dition that I was not to be tied at home, or prevented
receiving and visiting my friends. 

We hired a lad, which was absolutely neces-
sary for attendance on these people, and I had to
make sundry alterations in my arrangements. We
had two small bedsteads made to fit the recesses in
the front room for the two boys, which, with the rest
of the furniture, were made at home, and we bought
a tent bedstead complete for Mr. Burgess, of Smith,
the upholsterer. This and the bedding for the other
two cost about 30/., and all other requisites we made
perfect. The two pretty little rooms next the draw-
ing-room possessed every convenience, and our new
inmates were much pleased with their accommoda-
tion. They entered at midsummer, and though the
Jervois's and the Baron gave me every encouragement,
I think upon the whole that it rather lowered us in
the opinion of the acquaintance we had formed. 

About this time Mr. Thrale, the great porter
brewer, and member for Southwark, died, leaving to
his widow the brewery and 50,000/., and to each of
five daughters the same sum. 

An Italian artist of mediocre talent taught the
young ladies to sing, and for the purpose of improve-
ment Mrs. Thrale took her three eldest daughters to 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 107 

Italy, leaving the two younger with Mrs. Kay and
Mrs. Fry, with whom they remained until their edu-
cation was completed. By agreement this man,
whose name was Pio:2zi, met them in Italy, when a
marriage took place between him and Mrs. Thrale. 

On the return of the party to England these
three daughters demanded their fortunes, and Mrs.
Piozzi's finances were shaken a little by having to
sell out of the funds at a great loss, and selling the
brewery at a still greater. Previously to her second
marriage Mrs. Piozzi had been known in the hterary
world. She still continued to write and to publish
her writings, but they ho longer carried with them
the same interest. Her friends and the public ceased
to respect her, and she soon fell into obUvion. Where
she lived, and whether now alive or dead, I cannot
tell. Her mother was a renowned classic scholar,
and the daughter, when stiU Mrs. Thrale, the same.
The latter possessed very superior abilities and great
judgment ; she managed her family and household
with industry and economy, took the trouble of the
business off Mr. Thrale's hands, and educated her
children at home. She was a religious, charitable,
and good woman, and how she became infatuated
with a person not even eminent in his profession,
after maintaining a rectitude of conduct for so many
years, is not to be defined. 

Carohne Meyer arrived at Mrs. Eoach's, but find- 

108 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

ing no companion to her taste, she did not settle well.
Her abilities for useful knowledge were superior, but
for ornamental accomphshments she had no taste,
nor was her temper amiable. I tried to show her
kindness when I could, and I think she did improve
under Mrs. Eoach's care, and gained a little softness
in her manner. 

A good deal of talk was raised in the town by a
disgraceful circumstance which occurred about this
time. An officer in the regiment quartered at Windsor,
of the name of Parsloe, had a wife of uncommon
beauty both of face and figure. She used to sit upon
the terrace morning and evening, and appeared to be
lounging about at all times for admiration. The King
asked the husband if he did not fear to allow her to
be out of his sight, to which he answered that he
must attend to his business, but that he never left
her without her sister or a companion. 

A young man of the name of Sykes, whose father
had recently acquired a fortune, came to Windsor
under a bet that he would carry off Mrs. Parsloe. He
began by introducing daily driving out in parties,
and on one morning he asked the captain to hand
his wife into his phaeton, and then drove off, saying,
' I will call for the sister, and you can follow after
parade.' Alas, she never returned ! The damages
were moderate, the husband having put the wife into
the carriage. Whether Captain Parsloe did not feel 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 109 

the affair very deeply, or whether he only affected
to carry it off with a high hand, no one could rightly
say, but although he must have been mortified by the
circumstance, he appeared to many to be released
from a care by his wife having quitted him. She
had no children. 

The new organist, Dr. Aylward's, house now being
in order, he asked the canons if they would honour
him with their company at the house-warming, to
which they replied with an acceptance. An evening
was fixed when the Royal Family were to be at Kew
for a couple of days, so that the doctor might have
the benefit of such of the band as were required for
the accompaniment of Handel's overtures &c. 

The invitation was general to those who had wel-
comed him to his situation, with the exception of the
Delavaux's, who could not be asked to meet the dig-
nitaries. They carried their pretensions so high that
this omission greatly annoyed them, and Dr. Ayl-
ward was obliged to ask Fischer to call and explain
matters. He did so, and endeavoured to make them
see how kindly they had been treated in the neigh-
bourhood and in their business, and how impossible
it was that they could always be received upon an
equality. This quieted them for the moment, but
they never lost an opportunity of pushing themselves
forward when they could. 

The doctor asked me to assist his housekeeper in 

110 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

making the requisite arrangements* for this party,
which I was very pleased to do. The house was in
the singing men's cloisters. The large room with the
organ and harpsichord was of course set apart for
the music, the dining-room for refreshments, and '
the study for cloaks, instrument cases, &c. ; tea to be
handed as the company arrived. 

The concert was good. The singing was by the
gentlemen of the choir and the leading boys, with
Eodgers to lead and accompany them with the assis-
tance of Sexton the sub-organist, Mr. Papendiek and
Baron Dillon joining in many of the catches and glees.
Miss Stowe played the second concerto of Handel on
the harpsichord, and all the music was excellently
performed. 

The evening was altogether a success, the refresh-
ments good, with plenty of the doctor's excellent
wine for the clergymen, and a regular supper for the
performers ; and all the arrangements for the comfort
and pleasure of the company being carefully attended
to, everybody retired well satisfied. 

The next day Mrs. Fischer called upon me to thank
me for the entertainment of the evening before,
knowing that I had assisted in the arrangements, and
saying that they were not accustomed to meet with
such elegance at private parties, nor to be gratified
with music suited to every taste. She admired my
dress, which was of muslin not transparent, a new 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHAKLOTTE 111 

Scotch manufacture, chequered, made round with a
short train, a small jacket, and broad sash pinned in
a peak in front, and handkerchief under a small cape.
I had it new for the King's birthday, 4th of June, and
it is the same in which I afterwards sat to Lawrence
for my portrait. Mrs. Fischer also complimented me
about my attention to my sweet children, and other
things. In fact, at this moment everything connected
with us was perfect in her eyes. 

Mr. Papendiek was now at the Lodge to receive
the Royal Family on their return from their two days*
absence at Kew, during which space he had obtained
leave to remain at home, the Queen having highly
approved of the motive for which Mr. Papendiek had
asked for this permission. 

During more than a month past, preparations had
been making for the removal of the Royal Family to
the seaside for change of air. As Miss Sandys could
not or would not dress hair, and as the Queen did
not want Sonardi and his ' lady' to follow her at such
a heavy expense as the last time, she appointed
Duncan as her hairdresser, a man who had been
recommended to her Majesty by some of her ladies. 

All was now ready for their departure to Wey-
mouth in the first instance, and the extension of
their travels if all went on well, and early in July
the whole family left Windsor for Lyndhurst, where
they were to make their first halt, and where they 

112 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

were able to be accommodated by Mr. Eose, Eanger
of the New Forest, Hants, in the house he occupied
as belonging to the appointment. The Eoyal party
consisted of the King, Queen, and three elder Prin-
cesses ; Kamus, Bowman, Grieswell, my father, Mr.
Papendiek, and Duncan ; Misses Bumey and Planta,
Sandys and Mackenthum ; two equerries, a lady for
the Queen, and one for the Princesses. 

Before arriving at Lyndhurst, on entering the
New Forest, the ceremony of presenting the King
with two snow-white greyhounds, decorated with
ribbons, was gone through. It was an old feudal
custom or law of the forest, and was a curious and
pretty sight, crowds of the inhabitants of the neigh-
bourhood collecting to witness it. 

At Lyndhurst they were to remain one week,
and delighted indeed they were with the exquisitely
beautiful country round — new to them. 

Poor Mr. Papendiek fell ill the first day, and on
the third day the medical attendant desired to know
how his patient was situated with respect to family,
for he feared it was a case of doubtful recovery. The
Queen wished him to be immediately removed, but
to this Mr. Papendiek decidedly objected, as did also
the medical attendants. He said he had given us
his blessing at parting, and now recommended us to
her Majesty's protection, not being in any other way
able to provide for us. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 113 

Whether the extremity of the case roused him,
or from some other cause not distinctly accounted
for, Mr. Papendiek rose up, and then made such
rapid progress towards recovery that he was able to
rejoin the Eoyal Family at Weymouth on the day
originally appointed for their arrival at that place,
the tenth after their departure from Windsor. 

The Duke of Gloucester had lent his house at
Weymouth to the King, and with the addition of
four houses adjoining, engaged for the three months,
the accommodation for the Eoyal party and their
attendants was very comfortable. These houses di-
vided Gloucester Lodge from the principal hotel,
Stacy's, situated opposite the esplanade, the high
road running between that and the row of houses. 

Four regiments were quartered in different parts
of the town and adjacent country, and there were
three frigates in the Bay, in one of which, the
Southampton^ commanded by Captain Douglas, the
Eoyal Family sailed on fine days, the other two often
accompanying the Southampton with friends on board.
The Magnificent^ a fine man-of-war, was stationed at
the entrance of the Bay during the whole time of
the King's stay at Weymouth. 

The King and Eoyal Family attended the theatre
several times, when Quick and Mrs. Wells performed
in comedy admirably, but there were no other actors
of any note till Mrs. Siddons, who was staying at 

VOL. 11. I 

114 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Weymouth for her health, was prevailed upon to
play 'Lady Townly/ and afterwards the part of
* Mrs. Oakley/ as neither the King nor Queen were
fond of tragedy. The performance was not equal to
her usual acting, as comedy was not her line, though
it is needless to add that Mrs. Siddons could do
nothing badly. 

Their Majesties made several excursions into the
neighbouring country, sometimes by land and some-
times by sea, and there was a great sense of freedom
and enjoyment over the whole party, added to much
gratitude for the steady improvement in the King's
health. The public showed much good feeling and
pleasure at their beloved monarch's recovery, who
was gratified by the immense crowds that turned out
upon every occasion to see him, not only at Wey-
mouth, but all along the route thither. ' God save
the King ' was in every mouth, sung by the hoarsest
voices, and played by the crackiest bands, but with
a lustiness and heartiness that proved the intensity
of their loyalty. The men and children in the
streets had a bandeau with the motto round their
hats and caps, and the very bathing women wore
girdles with the words in large letters round their
large waists ! 

[Miss Burney in a letter to her father corrobo-
rates this intense loyalty. 'His Majesty,' she says,
' is in delightful health and much improved spirits . 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 115 

All agree he never looked better. The loyalty of
this place is excessive ; they have dressed out every
street with labels of " God save the King ; " all the
shops have it over their doors ; all the children wear
it in their caps, all the labourers in their hats, and
all the sailors in their voices^ for they never approach
the house without shouting it aloud, nor see the
King, or his shadow, without beginning to huzza, and
going on to three cheers. 

' The bathing machines make it their motto over
all their windows ; and those bathers that belong to
the Royal dippers wear it in bandeaux on their
bonnets, to go into the sea; and have it again in
large letters round their waists, to encounter the
waves. Flannel dresses tucked up, and no shoes
nor stockings, with bandeaux and girdles, have a
most singular appearance, and when first I surveyed
these loyal nymphs it was with some difficulty I kept
my features in order. 

' Nor is this all. Think but of the surprise of his
Majesty, when, the first time of his bathing, he had
no sooner popped his Eoyal head under water than
a band of music, concealed in a neighbouring ma-
chine, struck up " God save Great George our
King." '—Ed.] 

After the settled time for remaining at Weymouth
was over, the family and suite repaired to Saltram,
the seat of Lord Barrington, where they stayed a 

I 2 

116 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

month. They saw everything of interest in Plymouth
Harbour, and sailed about to visit the admired spots
of the coast of Devonshire, to their great gratification,
besides going over the Dockyard, where everything
was minutely inspected. A grand naval review took
place during his Majesty's visit, and all was done to
render his stay in this neighbourhood agreeable.
The same manifestations of loyalty were exhibited at
every place where the Royal Family stopped, and all
along the route. 

After the time specified for this stay at Saltram
they returned to Weymouth, and then immediately
began their homeward journey. 

On the way back to Windsor they stopped at
Longleat, in Wiltshire, the beautiful seat of the
Marquis of Bath, and then at Tottenham Park, in
Wiltshire, the seat of Lord Ailesbury, whence,
after remaining a couple of days to rest, they pro-
ceeded direct to Windsor, which was reached
about the middle of September — I do not recollect
the exact date — after an enjoyable and successful
tour. 

When my husband left Windsor with the Eoyal
Family, my mother came down to me for a few days,
bringing my sister, who remained with me till the
term recommenced at Mrs. Eoach's. Miss Meyer
and the Zofianys also returned, but my friend could
not be prevailed upon to remain with me, as she was 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 117 

now expecting Mr. Zoffany's return from India
almost daily. 

Little Charlotte went back with her grandmamma,
where she again met Theodore Smith, who called
upon my mother by chance after an interval of some
years. His profession was music, and he lived by
teaching the pianoforte and singing. 

He had married a most beautiful woman some
few years back ; an actress whom he taught to sing.
Everybody blamed him for the choice he had made,
fearing a result which indeed very soon happened.
A Mr. Bishop took her off, and when the first shock
had subsided, he prevailed upon Smith to accept a
sum of money and be silent, for his wife would never
return to him, and he (Bishop) would marry her.
Smith told my mother, to her surprise, that he taught
music in a school where Miss Bishop, the daughter,
was, for the sake of seeing Mrs. Bishop, who some-
times came into the schoolroom, and this he con-
tinued to do as long as a master was required. 

Returning from this school, which was at the
corner of Chiswick Lane, he usually called in, took
his tea with my mother and brother, and gave little
Charlotte a lesson. This was the first time she had
shown any liking for music. Smith taught her as a
child, and made it playful to her, and soon dis-
covered talent. His duets and easy pieces, composed
by him upon known and famihar airs, she soon 

118 COJRT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

caught, and surprised us with her improvement most
happily. 

Eliza, very soon after her father left us, fell ill
with an inflammatory cough. The medicines not
acting as Dr. Mingay hoped, made him fear it would
turn to whooping cough, and he advised me to send
my poor little girl to Eodgers', where she was well
accommodated and taken care of. By the doctor's
advice also, I hired a httle chaise from the Mews,
with four wheels, a close back, and apron in front,
which had been the Princesses'. In this she was
daily to be drawn up to the shade in the Home Park,
or Long Walk, to gain benefit from the air and
amusement from the little jaunts. She was to be
well fed, and everything nourishing was given to her,
including ass's milk, of which she had a small tum-
bler every morning. After about six weeks she
returned home, no sign of whooping cough having
manifested itself, though I cannot say the same about
danger. We continued the same regimen, and she
gradually gained strength, but being naturally a
deUcate child, this illness pulled her down greatly. 

Frederick, after the holidays, went unexpectedly
to school. The cause of this step was that Mi's. For-
rest, who now assisted her husband in burning the
glass, putting in the backgrounds to his pictures, &c.,
found that she could not devote herself to her httle
boy, now two years old, as she wished ; and she told 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 119 

me that she had found a most respectable school in
Datchet Lane, where she thought of sending her
child daily, and she asked me to allow Frederick to
join him as his companion. This was decided upon,
and thither, at sixpence a week, did these two dear
boys go. 

I did not like the idea of it, but, wonderful to say,
the woman who kept the school was really superior
in her line, and taught the children to read and spell
well. She told me that Frederick had such an ex-
cellent ear that he very quickly caught the sound of
the words ; and she was greatly pleased and surprised
at his obedience and knowledge of good behaviour.
So strong a feeling of what was right had he that he
was greatly annoyed when the other children in the
school were refractory, and he used to get up from
his seat and push the boys, and prick the girls with
a pin, which he took care always to have ready. Al-
though this chastisement of the other children called
for reprimand to himself, he was always disturbed at
their naughtiness, and generally contrived to set it
right, never forgetting the pin. 

Poor little Georgy was now cutting his teeth,
which made him very fretfiil, and he gave no sign
of wishing to try to walk. As he grew he became
handsome as a child, and his eyes, brows, and lashes
were beautiful. 

Having heard from Mr. Papendiek that they 

120 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

were now travelling homewards, I deemed it advis-
able to let him know what had been taking place in his
absence. The Queen always inquired about us, and on
hearing my account of EUza she desired Mr. Papendiek
to return home from Longleat if he found he could
be spared. This was easily managed, for on the
King's account no entertainments took place where
the Eoyal Family visited, only family parties to make
it cheerful, so Mr. Papendiek was not really wanted
so much. 

Having seen all that was interesting at this fine
old place, therefore, Mr. Papendiek set off for home,
and surprised us greatly by his unexpected return.
I was sorry to see him so altered. He had grown
fat, looked bloated and red -faced from being so
constantly in the air, and his nice figure and pleasing
face seemed gone. Till then I had not heard the
extent of his illness at starting, and I conclude that
tlio great change in him was caused by the invigo-
rating sea air after his confinement to his bed, and
after emerging from the close and fatiguing atten-
dance upon the King for so many months. 

He brought home four gown pieces, one of a
very pretty green, with a small pattern of a darker
shade, another with a white ground and small
bunches of convolvulus over it, and two dark ones.
I made four morning frocks for winter, one each for
my four babies ; the other two we gave to our two 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 121 

servants. I then heard all the anecdotes of the
absent time, and Mr. Papendiek told me of many
proposed changes in the future. 

An order had been sent round to every person
holding an appointment in the Castle, and also to all
those who had the grant of apartments, to repair to
them, if possible, to meet the commands of the King.
The Duke of Montague, Governor of the Round
Tower, pleaded inability from age and infirmity, but
the Earl of Courtown, Deputy Governor, with his
family, immediately obeyed, and took possession of
their house in the garden of the Tower, at the foot
of the stairs, and opposite to those which led down
to the north side of the terrace, then open to the
public. Here the Courtowns remained till all their
sons were provided for, either in the army, the navy,
or the church. They had no daughters. The
Egertons in the North-East Tower, and the Walsing-
hams in the Southern Quadrangle, also obeyed the
summons, and some of the Canons who were not in
residence. A house of the King's, the first in High
Street, was given to the Queen's footman, Clarke, and
his family, the Duke of Cambridge's house still
remaining unoccupied. 

Several changes among the attendants now took
place. Mr. Brown was made King's page in lieu of
Stillingfleet, and Mr. Clement succeeded Brown as page
to the younger Princesses. This Clement had been a 

122 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

faithful attendant of old Dr. Majendie, who now found
himself sinking, and solicited the Queen to provide
for the man and his family, as he was unable to do
so. He was a 'worthy man, but, from his corpulency
and age, very inactive, and scarcely a proper person
for his new post. Mr. Brown came in according to
rule as junior page, but the King made him also
'page of the bedchamber,' to fill up the vacancy
caused by Hetherington's death, which had occurred
a short time before. The apartments allotted to him
were those between the King's kitchen and the Duke
of Clarence's house. 

Hawkins, the surgeon, and his brother had oc-
cupied the rooms now given to Brown almost from
the commencement of the reign of George HI., as a
town residence, to be near the Royal children. The
order to quit them, therefore, was heartrending.
They were now ordered back to Kew, to occupy the
house we had, between which and the one given to
the Duke of Cumberland they had several times been
moved backwards and forwards. 

One brother gave up the residence altogether,
and returned to London to practise, retaining his
salary as surgeon to the King. The other brother
died about two years after, having been for some
time in weak health, in that room looking to the
garden, which we called the painting room. His
grandson, Dr. Mott, was afterwards one of the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 123 

instructors of Princess Charlotte, and was dismissed
upon the idea that her Royal Highness's letters to
him in the way of instruction were too enthusiastic. 

The day after the Eoyal Family arrived at the
Lodge I went up to see them all, and acquainted the
Queen with the nature of Eliza's cough and conse-
quent illness. Her Majesty said she was always
anxious about whooping cough, and dreaded it
principally on Princess Amelia's account, who had
returned from a six weeks' stay at Eastbourne but
a short time before. I did not, therefore, show my
little girl at the Lodge this time. 

I then went for a short visit to Kensington with
my father, and took Frederick with me, but as Dr.
Mingay wished to keep Eliza under his eye and did
not think a change advisable, I left her in Mr.
Papendiek's care, who was so fond of his children
that I knew she would be well looked after. 

The weather was still very fine, the children no
trouble, and my stay was most enjoyable. The
walking in those sweet gardens of Kensington, the
social pool at quadrille of an evening, the pleasure
of my brother's company, and the happiness of our
being together again, all made this hohday of near
a fortnight appear like hours instead of days. After
this I returned home with my children, where
happiness again awaited me, for we were once more
all together. 

124 COURT AND PRIVATE UFE IN 

CHAPTEE XVn. 

Preparations for the winter — ^Memorial from the Eing*8 band — Nephews
of Dr. Herschel — Ball at the Caatle — Discomfiture of Mr. Kamus —
Present from the King of Naples — King Poniatowski — Mr. Papendiek
accomplished in Polish music and dancing — Sir Thomas Lawrence —
His youthful days — Portraits of Lady Cremorne and others — Intro-
duced to the Queen — Portrait of the Queen — Difficulties — Bridge-
tower — Mr. Jervois — Misunderstandings — Mr. Zoffiuiy on his return
from India — Mrs. Stowe and the Carbonels — Concerted music —
Duet with Eodgers — Mrs. Papendiek's remark on seeing the Queen's
picture — ^The Queen refuses to give Lawrence another sitting — ^Law-
rence was not paid — ^The portrait sold after his death — Miss Folstone,
afterwards Mrs. Mee — Her history — Pleasant little coterie — Lawrence
takes Mrs. Papendiek's portrait — Dinner at the Herschels — Un-
pleasant walk — Dr. Lind, Mrs. Lind — ^Mrs. Delany — ^Princess
Elizabeth copies her drawings — Charlotte shows talent for music,
Elizabeth for drawing — History of Dr. Thackaray — His death — The
Queen assists Mrs. Thackaray — Mrs. Papendiek goes to town — Dif-
ficulties with Bridgetower. 

I NOW began to prepare for the winter. Stuff petti-
coats, warm and soft, two coloured frocks open in
front, so that the little girls could almost dress them-
selves. Four white frocks ; and this year, new dark
blue greatcoats of ladies' cloth, with two rows of
very small yellow-knobbed buttons down the front.
Their straw bonnets cleaned, now again looked
almost new, and were lined and trimmed with lus- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 125 

tring (now termed gros de Naples) of the same
colour. The boys had the finest Bath coating of the
same blue, and black beaver hats. Dear little things,
they looked beautiful I 

Events crowded now upon each other. 

The first of moment was a memorial drawn up
by the King's band to request permission to have
musical parties of a morning at friends' houses by
subscription, and this was to be presented by Mr.
Papendiek. As he never proceeded in anything
without first naming it to the Queen, of course in
this instance that was his first step. Her Majesty
took the paper, and thinking it not an unreasonable
request, she said she would herself give it to the
King. 

He, however, at once refused, upon the ground
that they would not rest here, and said that he would
allow them to attend no meeting where they would
receive payment, except in such cases when his
Majesty ordered them to perform. One hundred
pounds had originally been their stipend, but on
giving up their house 30/. had been added, and 25/.
for the Ancient Music Concerts, of which twelve were
held during the winter. They also had each four
suits of clothes, and everything appertaining to their
profession — fine instruments, and able masters to in-
struct them when required. They went to London
regularly for a certain number of weeks' residence 

126 COURT AND PRIVATE LITE IN 

during the season, and after June 4 they returned to
Windsor, so that they were put to no expense of
moving to and fro, and being stationary at each place
for the time being, they had many days to themselves.
One can understand that having been encouraged by
their patrons to look forward to this indulgence they
were disappointed at its being refused to them,
tliough they had not any real grievance. 

The Griesbachs, in particular, were quite roused.
As Dr. HerscheFs nephews they determined on going
nowhere unless accompanied by their wives ; but the
Doctor soon settled that, saying that if they chose to
marry under circumstances so straitened tliey must
content themselves with their lot. No one could or
would be disposed to receive them so encumbered,
and by refusing to oblige friends with their talents,
they would soon be forgotten, and lose any means
they might obtain through them of assisting their
families. 

The next event was a ball given at the Castle to
welcome the wanderers who had returned by com-
piand to their respective residences, and to invite
those where the Eoyal Family had visited, with many
others. The dresses for the dancers had a little more
purple in them, otherwise they remained much the
same as before. 

Mrs. Montagu and I went to the Music Gallery as
usual, and wliile there, Mr. Kamus came up like a 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 127 

fury to upbraid us for taking such a liberty. In vain
did we tell him that we had acted only on former
privileges, and as others were there besides our-
selves, I could not see that we had done wrong. 

He then attacked Mr. Papendiek, who had
scarcely known that we were there. How or why
this arose I cannot tell ; suffice it to say that it made
me quite ill. I was confined to my room for a week,
and was much reduced. 

This circumstance was inquired into, and other
disagreeable occurrences combined with it led to
the discomfiture of Kamus. The Delavauxs not
being able to make anything of him now took up
Mr. Brown, of which we all remember the sequel —
his marriage with the younger sister. 

After the magnificent baU and supper, St. George's
Hall was prepared for the display of the dessert ser-
vice, sent as a present to the King on his recovery
by the King of Naples, who was married to the
second daughter of Maria Theresa, sister of Joseph
n. of Germany, and of Marie Antoinette, Queen
of the French. 

The service was enormously large as to the
number of pieces, and very magnificent. The plateau
was of looking-glass, with a small figure in the centre
of the Emperor of Rome upon a throne extremely
elevated, and surrounded by his courtiers and the
usual pageantry, all executed in fine white marble. 

128 COURT AND PIUVATE LIFE IN 

The edge was finely wrought in silver gilt and ara-
besque paintings, leaving spaces for the dishes, which
were of white china. On these and on eight dozen
plates were painted views of Italy ; landscapes, build-
ings, palaces, ruins, &c., not two alike. Four dozen
more were of a kind of crystallised glass with patterns
of flowers round the edge; the ice pails and dishes
for fruits in juice being of the same, and beautifully
ornamented with representations of insects &c. 

Besides these, there were cake baskets, a mixture
of china and glass, of extreme elegance and lightness,
finger glasses, goblets, glasses, coolers, and every-
thing that could possibly be required. The cases for
this magnificent service were covered in morocco
leather and lined with white Genoa velvet. The
public were allowed admission to view this present
for three days, and they flocked to St. George's Hall
in numbers. 

Mr. Papendiek, ever ahve to kindness, asked the
Queen if some attention should not be shown to the
gentlemen who brought over this offering. Her
Majesty said that a gift of money was the usual
return, and in this instance 500/. instead of 300Z.
would be given, as the moment was an anxious one,
and the bringing of the service had been a hazardous
undertaking, for the French Ee volution had just
then seriously broken out. In addition to this, the
gentlemen were lodged free of expense for three days. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 129 

I cannot recollect that the dessert service was ever
used in its entireness. Portions of it were con-
stantly put out, but the King never could bear to
see anything relating to or that reminded him of his
unfortunate illness. 

At this exhibition I was introduced by Dr. Her-
schel to General Kamazuski, who had fought in the
ever- memorable battle of the Poles for their liberty
and their king, Poniatowski. The latter had been
placed on the throne of Poland by the Empress
Catherine, and hurled from it by the jealousy of
Potemkin. General Kamazuski contrived to escape
with the greater part of his property to England,
where he lived until France became again at peace
with us. He was introduced to Dr. Herschel through
the Eoyal Society, in the hope of his being able to
be privately presented to the King, but under the
circumstance of his being in opposition to the will of
the Empress, with whom we were on terms of peace,
this could not be done. 

A few days after this introduction Mrs. Herschel
and Sukey White came to fetch me, saying that the
general had taken a great fancy to me. Whether I
looked interesting after my illness, or that my bonnet
was becoming (the one in which I sat to Lawrence),
or that he was struck at my endeavours to interest
him in the service of dessert, to the display of which
I took my three elder sweet children, who were 

VOL. n. K 

130 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

greatly admired by him, I cannot tell. At any rate
I went, and spent three days most happily at Slough,
the last of which Charlotte passed with us. I learnt
and played this amiable man's Polish hornpipes and
dances, sang with him, and being of a lively disposi-
tion, I felt that I assisted to make these little familiar
meetings agreeable to a foreigner. Mr. Papendiek
dined with us one day, which greatly contributed to
the gaiety, for he was particularly clever in Polish
music and dancing. He accompanied himself on the
guitar, singing and dancing at the same time, and
amused us greatly by the way he thrust the instru-
ment into a side pocket when requiring his hands to
meet his partner, real or supposed. 

After this short but very pleasant visit, I returned
home, and found all well. Mr. Papendiek, both at
Windsor and London, always slept at home, however
late he might be detained, as he could not bear to be
away from me or his beloved children, who in return
doted on him. 

The great prodigy of the day had now arrived at
Windsor, and everyone was anxious to see this self-
taught wonder. The Queen was to sit to him for her
portrait, and he was to have an apartment in the
Castle for his work and accommodation, taking his
meals at the Lodge. This interesting young man,
Thomas Lawrence, had not been introduced to the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 131 

visiting classes, as his origin did not warrant it till he
had made his own name. 

He was the son of an innkeeper at Devizes, who
married clandestinely a teacher at a boarding-school,
who was a woman of taste and abiUty, amiable, and
well looking both as to figure and face. She educated
her five children herself, and ultimately the eldest
son went into the Church ; the second never regularly
settled to any profession ; the two girls both did
well, one of them painting flowers superiorly; and
Thomas, the youngest, was the pet lamb of the
family. 

The mother taught them their own language well,
and gave them a fondness for reading. The British
classics were their study, with the best publications
of the day, and young Lawrence had a marvellous
memory and quite a talent for recitation, with a
sweet musical voice as a child, and could quote
readily from Milton and Shakespeare, whose plays he
illustrated with sketches giving strong expression to
the various characters as he conceived them. In-
deed, for all his reading he made appropriate draw-
ings, and these at last began to attract notice. 

Generals Garth and Manners, when travelling to
Bath, stopped at Devizes, and while their dinner was
being got ready they played a game at billiards, by
the encouragement of their host, old Lawrence.
Thomas was the marker, and engaged their attention, 

K 2 

132 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

his little table in the corner, with his books and
drawings, striking them particularly. They inquired
minutely into his sentiment for art, and asked to be
allowed to take away with them some of his perfor-
mances, promising to bring them back on their return
journey. This both Thomas Lawrence and his father
were very glad to do, and when the generals returned
they gave him their address in London, in case he
should ever come up. 

Not very long after this occurrence the father
became bankrupt, and as it was his second failure he
determined to leave Devizes and see what London
could do for himself and family. Young Lawrence
availed himself of the kind permission of the gentle-
men already referred to, and called upon them. As,
unfortunately, the King was just then in his iUness,
they could not introduce him to the great patron of
all arts, but they took him to Lady Cremorne, who
was a universal encourager of merit, and her ladyship
sat to Lawrence for her portrait, a full-length one.
He followed the example of Vandyke, and dressed
her in a high dress of black velvet with long sleeves,
Vandyke collar and cuffs, and no cap. The picture
was exhibited that season, and was favourably com-
mented upon. 

Lady Cremorne introduced this young artist to
the first Marchioness of Abercorn, a most amiable
woman, and soon he was quite an intimate in their 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 133 

family. He took the likenesses of the younger
branches in coloured chalk drawings, and painted
whole-length portraits of the two elder sons in one
picture, in Vandyke dresses. This was exhibited the
following year with equal success. 

The Abercoms, being extremely fond of getting
up private theatricals for their amusement, gave
Lawrence many opportunities of being useful to
them, in return for their kindness to him, and of
displaying his general taste. He had many intro-
ductions through these kind friends, and amongst
others to the Siddons family and the Kembles. Here
he frequently saw Maria Siddons rehearse her favourite
character of ' Emilia Galotti,' in which she was to
appear for the first time the following winter for her
mother's first benefit, and Lawrence certainly became
enamoured of her. It was said to be a most perfect
piece of acting. 

On his being eventually brought to the Queen by
Lady Cremorne, her Majesty was rather averse to
sitting to him, saying that she had not recovered
suflSciently from all the trouble and anxiety she had
gone through to give so young an artist a fair chance,
more particularly as he saw her for the first time. It
was, however, settled that it should be tried. The
first difficulty arose about the dress, the Queen choos-
ing a dove colour, which with her sallowish com-
plexion was most unbecoming. Secondly, the head 

134 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

dress. Neither the bonnet, cap, nor hat that she
proposed were to his taste, and this ended in her
deciding upon having no covering at all upon her
head. 

When the King came to look at the portrait this
disgusted him, as her Majesty had never been so seen.
West suggested a light scarf to be thrown over the
shoulders, which broke the stiffness and plainness of
the gown, but the difficulty about th.e head still re-
mained. 

Lawrence requested the Queen to converse now
and then with the Princesses, to give animation to
the countenance, but her Majesty thought that rather
presuming, and continued to listen to one of them
reading. 

The poor young fellow was naturally inexperienced
in the ways of a Court, and the manner in which her
Majesty treated him was not with her usual kind com-
miseration. West did not help the matter, as he did
not care to encourage too many of his own art about
the King, and the portrait was not quite the suc-
cess it should have been. 

About this time an adventurer of the name of'
Bridgetower, a black, came to Windsor, with a view
of introducing his son, a most prepossessing lad of
ten or twelve years old, and a fine violin player. He
was commanded by their Majesties to perform at the
Lodge, when he played a concerto of Viotti's and a 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 135 

quartett of Haydn's, whose pupil he called himself.
Both father and son pleased greatly. The one for his
talent and modest bearing, the other for his fascinat-
ing manner, elegance, expertness in all languages,
beauty of person, and taste in dress. He seemed to
win the good opinion of every one, and was courted
by all and entreated to join in society ; but he held
back with the intention of giving a benefit concert at
the Town Hall, 

Mr. Jervois insisted upon the Bridgetowers
coming to him after the boy had played at the
Lodge, as he wished to hear him before he took
tickets or interested himself in the business. Charles
Griesbach and Neebour had promised to come to assist
in the performance, but there was to be no audience
beyond the regular set or squad — ^Papendieks, Stowes,
and Mingays. After supper the music-room was
ready, and then the father would not let his son
play! 

Mr. Jervois blamed us ; the party broke up ; and
I leave my readers to feel for us all. Dear Baron
Dillon expostulated, and I hoped brought the Jervois's
round to believe that we could not have had any
decided influence in the matter, or anything really to
do with it. They did not break with us, but were
never quite the same to us after. 

The concert was notified, the evening named.
Tickets were to be seven shillings each, or four in one 

136 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

family for a guinea, which jvas then the current coin,
our present sovereign, of the value of 20^., not having
been coined till about 1815 or 1816. 

The Eoyal interest was sohcited, and their Majesties
approved, the King giving permission to his band to
assist, according to the request of the Bridgetowers.
This they one and all refused to do, on the plea of his
Majesty not having granted their petition. Upon tlie
same consideration, neither could the King command
them, as he himself would not be present. 

Mr. Papendiek, ever alive to kind-hearted feeUngs,
said at once, * Then I will give the concert at my house,
having a tolerable sized room.' The ladies of the
Lodge attended, and many of those I have already
named as friends and acquaintances. No money was
demanded, of course, but the circumstances of the
affair being known, this question was left to the
generosity of those who came to hear this wonderful
young performer. 

Lawrence was upon this occasion introduced to me
by Mr. Papendiek, who brought him to the house, as
was also Madame de Lafitte, and the two Miss Folstones,
who were with her, the younger of whom was a
sweet girl of sixteen, with a fine tall sUm figure, a
pretty face, and her light hair hanging down her
back, as was then the fashion. She wore a small
evening hat of white chip, trimmed with white, and
a light-blue satin gown with a long train, and white 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 137 

petticoats. The two sisters were dressed alike ; the
elder was the * mentoria,' evidently. 

As our house was opened to admit all those who
requested tickets under the usual restrictions, when
Mrs. Bannister (the mother of Mrs. Grape, whose
husband was a Minor Canon of Eton and the vicar of
Clewer) expressed a wish to attend the concert with
her daughter, no objection could be made. The mother
in her younger days was the wife of the principal
butcher in Windsor, but becoming a widow early and
being left witli considerable property, she lived in
retirement to bring up her daughter. Strange as it
may appear, she was a clever woman, and from the
extreme refinement of her mind, and amiable qualities,
she possessed naturally, both in manner and appear-
ance, an air of good breeding which many far above
her in station would have given anything to attain. 

No one else in any way peculiarly remarkable
was at this meeting except Mr. Zoflany, who surprised
us at dinner. He had only recently returned from
India, whither he had gone so many years before. 

We could but be rejoiced at his return, although
sorry to see him so changed, for during the voyage
home he had been seized with an attack of paralysis,
from which he certainly never thoroughly recovered.
During dinner we began to explain to him the nature
of the evening's amusement, but he told us that he
had heard all about it at Mrs. Eoach's, where he had 

138 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

called to see his daughters on alighting from the
coach. 

To our surprise, we saw the Stowes drive up to the
Jervois's in Mr. Carboners carriage, they having gone
on a visit to him at Anchorwyke House, Egham, to
remain till this concert was over. 

Mrs. Stowe had agreed with me that, as money
would be taken, we did not think it would be right
for her daughters to play, and if they were in the
room people would not be satisfied if they did not
take a part in the performance. 

Judge of my further surprise on receiving a note
from Mrs. Stowe to say that the Carbonels were most
anxious to hear the boy Bridgetower play, and would
attend with the Stowes, but not without them. I
answered that all our arrangements were made upon
their first decision, and that I could not now alter
them, favoured as we should be by the addition of
the Carbonels' presence. 

In a second note I proposed that the latter family
should come with Mrs. Stowe, leaving the girls at the
Jervois's, they having dechned to be present. To this
they would not agree, and so the matter dropped.
Mr. Papendiek was vexed and severe ; Zoffany ex-
tremely satirical upon the whole affair ; and, as may
be easily inferred, I was tired and agitated by my
exertions, and became almost hysterical. 

There was no time to be lost, and in the occupa- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 139 

tion of getting all completed by the time appointed, I
recovered my power of action, and went through the
whole evening with credit to myself under the con-
tinued sarcasm of Zoffany and the very few smiles of
approbation from Mr. Papendiek. 

To make out a concert without the assistance of
the King's band, who all continued steadfastly to re-
fuse to play, even when it was decided that the concert
was to be held at our house, was somewhat difficult.
We began with a flute quartett, performed by Mr.
Papendiek, Forrest, old Eodgers, and Charles Bostock,
which went very well. Then followed a long glee sung
by Salmon, Gore, Gale, and the Eodgers, father and
son. During this performance Mr. Papendiek went
over and compelled Mr. Jervois to come, leaving the
ladies to spend the evening together. 

Young Bridgetower now played the concerto
of Viotti, Mr. Papendiek taking the part of second
vioHn, Forrest the flute, old Eodgers tenor, Charles
Bostock and Gore violoncello, young Eodgers being
at the pianoforte with the score, to lead, so
we made it out tolerably well. The young per-
former played to perfection, with a clear, good
tone, spirit, pathos, and good taste. Jervois was
now pleased enough. The first act ended with sing-
ing. Baron Dillon and I assisted, and several pretty
things were sung, Dr. Herschel accompanying on the
pianoforte. 

140 . COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

B^freshments were provided up and down stairs,
tea having been previously handed as the company
entered, and during the interval between the two acts,
many availed themselves of this opportunity to move
about and talk with their friends. 

The younger Rodgers had previously asked me to
introduce him as a pianoforte player, wishing to give
lessons on that instrument in future. We had in
consequence practised together dementi's Duet in C,
then recently published, and with this we opened
the second act. By Kodgers also the instrument
was now tuned, so in both capacities we brought
him into notice. 

Our little girls and the Blagroves, Mr. Burgess'
two young pupils, did not find much accommodation
in the room, for I could not give them seats as I had
not invited Zoflany's children. To have had them
and all my young friends from Mrs. Roach's would
have been to give away too many non-paying seats. 

Little Fred always went about his own way, and
took care of himself. He sat on the ground in front
of the sofa the greater part of the evening, and when
he saw the maid looking for him to take him to bed,
he quietly slipped under. While I was playing the
duet with Rodgers he sat on the ground between us,
after which that dear little soul kissed us and went
off to bed. The duet, which we played without a
fault, pleased greatly, and was followed by more 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE .141 

singing, and Bridgetower's two quartetts and a
symphony to finish made a long second act. Then
we again had refreshments, and supper in the par-
lour for the performers. Over this meal we had a
pleasant chat. Kalph West Bridgetower (as he was
named) was most fascinating ; young Lawrence ele-
gant and handsome, and very attentive. My dress
was the muslin round dress with jacket and train, a
chip hat hned and trimmed with mazarine blue
satin. It became me, and I know that I looked
well. 

Twenty- five guineas Mr. Papendiek put into
Bridgetower's hand, taking nothing from Mr. Jervois
as he compelled him to come. The ladies being gone
I went to bed, after making arrangements for
Zoflany, but the gentlemen made a merry evening
of it. 

This led to my going with Mr. Papendiek to
see the Queen's picture. Having heard much of
the difficulty about the head-dress, I remarked on
seeing the scarf thrown over the shoulders, 'Why
not have brought it over the head ? There would
be covering enough.' Lawrence was pleased with
the idea, and immediately made a tasteful sketch
of it. 

He implored the Queen to give him one more sit-
ting. The drapery was finished, and by just putting
on the ornaments as her Majesty wished to have them 

142 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

for a few minutes, he could sketch in their outline and
finish them afterwards. 

She refused. She said it would be troublesome
to have Sonardi down to dress her and adjust the
scarf or veil ; and although Duncan dressed very
neatly, and did weU as Robinson's partner, he had no
taste, and was no hand at arranging anything beyond
the common art of hairdressing. 

The Princesses were hurt and sorry, for they had
hoped to have sat to Lawrence quite as earnestly as
he had hoped for that honour, and the loss of their
favour and patronage was a great blow to the poor
young man. 

Eventually, through the interest and intervention
of their Eoyal Highnesses, the Queen permitted me
to wear the bracelets and a brooch to hold the scarf.
Miss Bumey, with Mr. Papendiek, brought them to
the Castle and put them on, Mr. Papendiek taking
them back to the Lodge at a given hour. 

Thus ended the visit of Lawrence to the Castle.
No money was paid. He remained until the new
year, working up the picture and finishing it ofi*, and
then the King told him to remove it to town and
have it engraved. When that was done the portrait
was to be sent to Hanover, and then the King pro-
posed to pay. But Lawrence had no money, and
could not risk the engraving at his own expense. 

The picture therefore remained in his studio or 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 143 

show-room in Gerrard Street, Soho, whither he had
removed it at the King's command, and was sold with
others after his death. The picture is not thought a
good one, but to my mind the likeness is stronger
than any I recollect, and is very interesting. Law-
rence was lodged and boarded while this work was
going on, but that was all the encouragement and
reward he in his early days gained from Eoyalty. 

The visit of Miss Folstone to this country at the
same time may in some degree have interrupted the
success of Lawrence, for she and her sister were
placed to lodge and board with Madame de Lafitte,
who was herself a Dutch emigrie with a son and
daughter, under the Queen's protection, with an
allowance of 300/. a year and a house in the Cloisters
free of expense. 

To benefit both parties, therefore, and to give an
asylum to the young ladies, Madame was given the
charge of them, and when she went to the Lodge
daily to read German with the Princesses, one or
other of the six, and even the Queen herself, could
sit for their miniatures to Miss Folstone without
inconvenience or difficulty, whereas dressing pur-
posely and going over to the Castle was attended
with both. 

Yet I must confess that as it was intended to
give patronage to Lawrence a swell as to Miss Fol-
stone, and to consider the visit as one of charitable 

144 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

intention, equal favour should have been shown to
both. 

Her history was also interesting. Her father was
a portrait painter of small whole lengths, and of that
class who make a circuit during the summer months
to those places which at certain seasons are preferred.
A guinea the piece, or less, rather than lose a sitter,
was taken. 

On returning from one of these excursions he fell
ill, and died within a few days, leaving a widow and
not less than seven children totally unprovided for.
This, his second daughter, had always been the
little companion of her father, had mixed his colours,
prepared his palette, and put in the background to the
canvas, ready for his portraits. Having for her
amusement constantly tried to take likenesses of her
family, she now turned her thoughts to making a
trial of her abilities, hoping to bring them into use
for the benefit of her family. How she has succeeded
her name of Mee will attest. She brought up seven
children entirely by her own exertions, four sons and
three daughters, in the most creditable way. She
was introduced to the Queen by Lady Courtown,
through Lady Cremorne, and at different times through
life she attended the Royal family to take their
miniatures. 

It so happened that her youngest son Arthur was
articled to Mr. Soane, the architect, at the same time 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 145 

as my son Charles, and they continued friends until
the death of the latter. Mrs. Mee's daughters, Mrs.
Thomas Fuller and Mrs. Burgess, are intimately
acquainted with my youngest daughter, Augusta
Arbuthnot, and indeed the whole of the Mee family
have always been friends with all of us. 

The concert we had for young Bridgetower we
considered our winter party, and had the pianoforte
removed to the parlour. 

Mr. Papendiek seeing that the whist playing of
Lawrence in the pages' room* which was far superior
to the ordinary, was not carried on in a manner strictly
honourable towards him, gave him permission to come
down to us of an evening whenever he found it acrree-
able. Of this permission he availed himself constantly,
and West, the President of the Academy, with his
eldest son Kalph, also frequently dropped in. The
Stowes and Bridgetower too, and one or two other
friends, would sometimes join us without ceremony,
so we had a pleasant little cotene. 

When we wished to fill up the time with music, I
sent for Rodgers ; otherwise we read, worked, or had
a game at cards It was during these evenings that
Lawrence drew those beautiful drawings in burnt
paper pencils. One of the heads West copied two
or three times over in his groups of angels in one or
more of the cartoons that he prepared for the windows
of St. George's Cliapel, now being painted by Forrest. 

VOL. IL L 

146 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Some of these drawings I gave to my friends as
keepsakes, others my second son George took with
him to Russia, and only two are remaining to us — a
caricature of Lawrence himself, and one of Mr. Papen-
diek, now in Augusta's possession. 

Going one morning to the Castle to sit for the
jewels at a quarter-past nine, the hour fixed, and
finding ourselves disappointed of them, Lawrence
proposed taking a sketch of me, which he politely
said had long been his desire, and now a fair oppor-
tunity presented itself. I had on a black beaver
hat with a gold band, as then worn, but he objected
to it, and would have the black bonnet. 

I had to run home to put this on, and he asked
me to bring back Fred, * that particularly handsome
boy,' who, dear little fellow, was pleased to go with
me. He took his letters and soldiers to play with,
and was no trouble ; and when Lawrence wished him
to stand a few minutes for his likeness, he was only
too happy to be cuddled up by me. 

Three or four sittings finished the drawing, which
Mrs. Planta, my eldest daughter, now has. It was
considered by all my family and friends an excellent
likeness, and it is certainly a very well executed
drawing, though only so slight a sketch and so quickly
done.^ 

' This portrait, an engraving of which forms the frontispiece to the
first volume, is now in my possession. — Ed. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 147 

An invitation to dinner was sent to us by the
Herschels, to meet Dr. and Mrs. Fischer, and Dr. and
Mrs. Lind, while Kamazuski, and Sukey White were
still staying there on a visit. Before sending an
answer, I asked Mr. Papendiek how we were to get
there and back. He determined upon accepting it,
and said that as he could only go in the evening, I
should either dress there, or contrive something ; he
should walk, and we could return with some of the
company who would have a conveyance home. 

I strongly objected to this arrangement, and wanted
either to have a carriage or stay at home. But no ;
we were to go, and in that ungentlemanlike manner. 

I had had my puce satin once more put in order
for the winter, with gauze capes and white satin
trimmings, and this gown I wore upon this occa_
sion. 

I had carelessly read the note of invitation, and
knowing that the Doctor always did remain at Slough
during the winter, to be on the spot for his observa-
tions, I took it for granted that they were there now,
so took the stage to that place. 

On arriving there I was told that the family was
at Upton, when the coachman said, 'No matter, it is
not dark, and I will put you down where you will
have only one field to walk through.' 

I well knew it, and what a long one it was. How-
ever, there was no help for it, so I started off. 

L 2 

148 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

I had to pass through a small inclosure, which I
thought was for the cows during the night, but I
descried a bull among them, and down I fell' from
terror and the damp, slippery ground. 

At last I reached the house safely, but saw at
once that my coming in that manner was not expected.
In dear Sukey White's room I put myself tidy, and
bathed my hand and arm, which were much swollen
from the fall, and in great pain. A glass of wine re-
vived me, and the dinner went off well, although it
was evident that the Fischers had adopted the line
of conduct I have before mentioned. Mr. Papendiek
arrived, and to return, the Linds offered to take us,
but the Doctor walked with Mr. Papendiek, and the
chaise went their pace till we had passed the College
at Eton, when the Doctor got in. Thus shabbily
ended this invitation, which the Herschels did not
repeat. 

Dr. Lind had recently taken the house imme-
diately opposite the Long Walk at Windsor, which
had shortly before been occupied by Dr. Thackaray,
a physician. Dr. Lind intended to follow the same
profession. He had an electrifying machine, called
himself a botanist, and had been round the world
with Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander, but his
knowledge was too frothy, and he never succeeded.
Eventually he obtained from the Queen an allowance
for winding up her clocks and watches, upon wliich 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 149 

he, with his youngest daughter, now Mrs. Gossett,
scantily subsisted . He was introduced to Dr. Hers-
chel by his particular friend Mr. Cavallo, of the Eoyal
Society. 

Dr. Lind had married a very fine young woman
who was needlewoman and everything to the Duchess
of Portland at Bulstrode. Poor thing, the change
was great ; and though it might seem to be a rise for
her at first, she was deceived in this. Her comforts
were gone, and she had no indulgences to make up
for them. 

She had three daughters, two of whom were after-
wards married, Mrs. Markham Sherville and Mrs.
Burney. Then she lost her health and her con-
sciousness, and during that time her son was born,
apparently still, but the doctor inflated the lungs
and he lived. The Queen eventually procured for
him a writership in the East Indies. The poor
mother never recovered her senses so as to be of any
real use to her family, and died a few years after her
son's birth. 

On the Duchess of Portland's death the King in-
vited her friend and companion, Mrs. Delany, to live
at Windsor. His Majesty had the house between
Mr. Montagu's and Dr. Heberden's fitted up for her,
and allowed this amiable and agreeable woman 300/.
a year, and her humble assistant, Mrs. Agnew, 50/.,
with this sole condition, that she was to attend at the 

150 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Lodge either in sickness or in health, whenever called
upon. 

However, while Mrs. Delany lived she was never
once called upon for her services, but remained a
sincere and valued friend of the King and Royal
Family. This grant was made almost immediately
after the death of the Duchess in 1785, and poor
Mrs. Delany only lived three or four years to enjoy it. 

During her residence at Bulstrode she had copied
the botanical plants at that place, and had written a
description of their use and origin. Princess Eliza-
beth profited greatly by these drawings, which nearly,
if not quite, equalled those of Mr. Banner at Kew. 

In copying Mrs. Delany's drawings and study-
ing the paintings of flowers from nature, under the
guidance of this gifted person, the Princess formed
the idea of painting the furniture for the saloon at
Buckingham House. It was done on white velvet,
in groups of flowers, and the borders in single sprigs
or wreaths according to the part it was for. The
Princess Royal at the same time copied the engravings
from jEsop's fables in pen and ink on the same mate-
rial, which afterwards furnished a room at Frogmore. 

The Lodge party was now greatly increased in
numbers, and Mrs. Papendiek was sometimes honoured
with their company to a little music, at which the
Wilsons, Mr. and Miss Douglas, Mr. and Miss Hallum,
and my other artistic friends would join. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 151 

Our dear children were constantly among them
all, and their tastes were insensibly formed. Char-
lotte soon developed a decided turn for music, while
the opportunities of seeing various kinds of drawings
at our house, and the fine collection of pictures at
President West's, gave Eliza a taste for that art in
preference to music. As soon as we thought her old
enough, we gave her every opportunity of instruc-
tion, but from her very dehcate health and early
seizure of disease, she had neither power or time to
bring her abilities to any perfection. 

As the family of the Thackarays, whom I have
casually mentioned, became in process of time con-
nected with us, and as I think their history interest-
ing, I will give it. 

Dr. Thackaray was enamoured of a young lady,
the only child of a widower, and proposed marriage
to her, but the father refused his consent. They
therefore married clandestinely, venturing, as many
do, on a sure hope of future forgiveness, but in this
case they were disappointed. The father would
never see them, nor allow them to be mentioned in
his presence. 

They came to Windsor, an amiable couple,
young, handsome, and with all those endearing
qualities that at once gain credit with the world.
He was eminent in his profession, and followed it
with an attention and benevolence that made every 

152 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

one desirous of assisting him by their recommenda-
tions. 

Seven children were born to them, four sons and
three daughters, and the youngest, Louisa, was but
an infant when her father fell ill of a fever, and died
in a very few days. Advice was at hand — Heberden,
Mingay, the household and other apotliecaries and
physicians, but they at once prepared tlie poor wife
for the worst, the constitution being too weak and
too much exhausted to admit of the proper remedies. 

Friends undertook to intercede with Mrs. Thacka-
ray's father for assistance and forgiveness, but he was
inexorable. Tliey repeated their entreaties from
absolute necessity. He then consented to take his
daughter home again with her children if she would
resume her maiden name. She thought this might
be done by herself and her daughters, but with her
sons, how could it be possible ? The eldest was on
the foundation at Eton, and the second was a mid-
shipman in the navy. Here, then, the negotiation
ended, and nothing was done by the father to soothe
the affliction of this distressed family. 

Dr. Majendie, who had succeeded to a Pre-
bendary's stall on the death of his father, and Dr.
Fischer represented this case to the Queen, telUng
her Majesty that they were agreed among themselves
always to find a home for this distressed lady in one of
the vacant Prebendaries' houses, of which there were 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 153 

always one or two, but they could not provide an
annuity. The Queen agreed to allow 400/. a year,
but in return for it, Mrs. Thackaray was to under-
take the management of the Queen's schools. Every-
thing was sold that could be parted with, and ar-
rangements were made by these really charitable
friends to defray the necessary expenses attendant
upon death, and to place the widow with her chil-
dren clear of anxiety in their new abode. 

This circumstance occurred in the spring of
this year, 1789. Madame de Lafitte educated the
daughters, and many lent a helping hand. Indeed
tlirough life did this family experience the same kind
friendship on all sides. 

I now went to town for a few days to see my
mother and brother, and finding that the Herschels
were also going to London, I took a seat in the
afternoon post coach, contrary to my usual custom
of travelling in the morning, in order to accompany
them. 

I was much surprised, when taken up, to find
Bridgetower in the coach. He said he was going to
engage lodgings, preparatory to their setthng in town
for the winter. I knew the Herschels would not like
being in his company, but it was a public coach
and nothing could be done, so we proceeded all
together. At the * White Horse Cellar ' 1 urged
the Herschels to take a hackney coach and see me 

154 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

safe to my mother's ; but no, they went on by the
same conveyance to Paternoster Kow, and I pro-
ceeded alone to St. James's. 

In the dark passages in the Palace, that black,
Bridgetower, suddenly presented himself, under the
desire of being introduced to my father and mother.
I told him that my parents from age and ailments
did not allow these freedoms to their children, and I
entreated him not to trouble me, as the door on the
staircase where we stood led to the public apart-
ments of the Palace, and, as I was generally known,
I should not like to be so seen. He then said he
wanted to borrow a little money. I took my purse
out quickly and gave him all I had, a guinea and
a half, and begged he would not attempt to call, as
he would not be admitted. I watched him safely
away, and then ran quickly to my home. 

I dared not tell my father, as he was angry
enough about our exertions at the concert, observing
that he knew from experience that no foreigner who
asks anything from one, ever returns one's aid either
in gratitude or kind. 

We passed our time happily among ourselves,
first having a pleasant tea, and afterwards a pool
at quadrille, poor old Pohl joining us, then our
punch and politics. Back to Windsor after two or
three days. My little girls were on a visit to Mrs.
Koach ; my boys I had left at home, being now 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 155 

reconciled to their new nursery maid — a woman of
about thirty, sister of Froude, the pawnbroker in
High Street ; respectable people. 

On my return, Bridgetower called, having pre-
viously sent the money, so he was straightforward
enough in this instance, but I told him in Mr. Papen-
diek's presence never again to ask us to lend money,
for we had already done what we could. I added that
he must not conclude that the whole of the 25/. put
into his hands after the concert had been received
for tickets. He, of course, was not over well
pleased with this speech, but I began, as did many
others, not to be altogether satisfied with his
conduct. 

He shortly went to London with his son, and
obtained an introduction to the Prince of Wales, who
took a particular hking to the lad, and admired the
father for his general elegance. 

156 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

CHAPTER XVm. 

Christmas party — Dr. Fryer — George Papendiek's play — Miss Catley —
Various marriages — Children's hall at Windsor — ^Kindness of the
Princess Royal — Mr. Papendiek and the band — Mrs. Papendiek to
town to ' make her courtesy * — The Drawing-room very splendid —
Footmen — Scholars of Christ's Hospital — Lawrence — Fuseli — Story
of Lawrence and Fuseli — ^The Tuesday's stag-hunt — ^Frederick's
precocity — Mr. Brown's ball — Son of the hairdresser Mori — Cousin
Charlotte — Mrs. Siddons — Burning of the Opera House — Magnificence
of the new Opera House — The stag-hunt at Windsor — Zoffany's
portrait of Mies Farren — The Blagroves — Bridgetower and his son —
Young Bridgetower and the Prince of Wales — Mrs. Siddons and her
daughter. 

It now bordered close on Christmas, and we had
our usual party — Mingays, Forrests, Delavauxs, &c.
Tea and cards in the drawing-room, and a hot supper
at nine, which consisted of four or six dishes, sweets,
mince pies, with a flame of brandy, a bowl of punch,
one of white wine negus, and mulled beer. 

The singing, which we always kept up till after
twelve o'clock, was good. The performers were
Gore, Salmon, and Sale, and we finished our evening
with ' God save the King.' 

At tea we were surprised with a visit from Dr.
Fryer, who had just arrived from the Continent, and 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 157 

introduced himself to my husband as being the par-
ticular friend of George Papendiek at Gottingen,
where he was now settled. He wished that we should
read over together the play of * The Misanthrope,'
which had been translated by George Papendiek, and
which he had in his possession. We explained that
we could not do it that evening on account of our
musical meeting, to which we begged he would stay,
and proposed the next evening for the reading, to
which he gladly acceded. 

I summoned the Wests and Lawrences, knowing
them to be excellent judges, to come and give their
opinion, and we all agreed that it was faithfully trans-
lated from Kotzebue, and that the author's mean-
ing was fully conveyed. Dr. Fryer had seen it
performed in Germany, and spoke highly of its
merits, and George Papendiek was anxious that it
should be brought forward in England, as the profits,
if it succeeded, would be acceptable. Dr. Fryer was
going to settle in Bath as physician, and we thought
it highly probable that they would bring the play
out in that place, and as the Bath Theatre was in
high repute, it would be a good introduction for it.
We drew up a little paper, which our party signed, to
say that neither Dr. Fryer nor George Papendiek
were to dispose of the play without consulting each
other, nor was it to be given out of the hands of the
Doctor to be read. Each of them was to hold a copy 

158 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

of this paper, and the play was then given back to
Dr. Fryer, for him to do the best he could with it in
George Papendiek's interest. 

We could scarcely forget the peculiar interest we
felt in this play. It was so touching that it almost
prevented the merry glass we drank to its success.
Burgess was moved by it to a degree of enthusiasm
which seldom occurred, and Lawrence said he almost
feared for its success, as it required a Siddons, a
Kemble, and a Palmer, to do it justice. 

Burgess, though a quiet, undemonstrative man as
a rule, did enjoy our little parties and our music, in
which he often took a part. He was always welcome
when he chose to come in ; Mrs. Eoach also had an
unlimited invitation, and seldom failed to join our
social meetings and whatever might tend to her
amusement or advantage. 

This Christmas Mr. Papendiek proposed an illumi-
nated tree, according to the German fashion, but the
Blagroves being at home for their fortnight, and the
party at Mrs. Eoach's for the hoHdays, I objected to
it. Our eldest girl, Charlotte, being only six the 30th
of this November, I thought our children too young
to be amused at so much expense and trouble. Mr.
Papendiek was vexed — yet I do hope and trust the
children were made happy. 

In the autumn Miss Catley died. She had been a
celebrated actress and singer in her day. General 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 159 

Lascelles took her from the stage, and after she had
given birth to a son and four daughters, he married
her for her really good conduct. Her leading cha-
racter which called forth so much admiration was
Euphrosyne in ' Comus,' and her acting of this part
was really superexcellent. After her retirement from
the stage she was remarkable for her charities, and in
every respect she was a truly good woman. 

Several marriages took place during the past
summer and autumn which caused some interest at
the time. Amongst others, Lieut.-Colonel Lennox, the
duellist, was married to Lady Charlotte Gordon, the
present Dowager Duchess of Eichmond ; Lord Mas-
sereene was married to his French friend, Madame
Borrien ; and Harry Aston was married to Miss
Ingram, a lady of high fashion, who afterwards became
bedchamber woman to Caroline, Princess of Wales,
her husband having been one of his Royal Highness's
companions of the table. 

The Christmas week was taken up in preparing
for a juvenile ball at the Lodge, which it was thought
would amuse the King without the trouble of ceremony
to him. His Majesty was always particularly fond
of children, and this idea, which was a novelty, was to
be carried out upon a scale calculated to give great
pleasure to them and to the King also, in watching the
delight of the little ones. The Queen planned that
this party should take place on January 1, as the New 

160 COURT AND PRVIATE LIFE IN 

Year's Day drawing-room was, for the first time since
the accession of the King, to be dispensed with, as well
as the Odes and other formal observances of congratu-
lation on the beginning of another year. The King
was apprised of the Queen's proposal and approved,
but when the time drew near he altogether objected to
it. He said that the rooms in which it was proposed
to hold the entertainment, four rooms upstairs and
two below, which were well suited to the purpose,
were too near to his own apartments, and that the
noise over his head would disturb him. This objection
was only raised the very day before this joyous party
was to take place ; and at supper on the last day of
the old year his Majesty said that unless it were held
at the Castle, it should not be held at all. 

Mr. Garton, the controller, was sent for. He was
gone home. Then Mr. Papendiek volunteered to go
down to him, which he did, and found him in his
dressing-room. At first he would not hear of the
change, said it would not be possible &c., but Mr.
Papendiek encouraged him by saying that it never
would be forgotten, that at a command from him, all
would fly to obey, and that he thought it might be
done. It ended in Mr. Garton putting on his coat
again, and then, returning to the Lodge together, Mr.
Papendiek entered the supper-room with a smiling
countenance, and in answer to the interrogatory
'Well?' from both King and Queen, he said that 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 161 

Mr. Garten was at the door. He was summoned im-
mediately, and when admitted simply bowed and said
that his Majesty's commands should be obeyed,
and that by six o'clock the* next evening (the hour
originally fixed upon) all should be ready at the
Castle. 

Princess Ameha waa at that time only six years
old. Princesses Mary and Sophia, fourteen and twelve.
The elder Princesses had planned very pretty decora-
tions, and the Princess Eoyal had painted two scenes,
behind which were to have been placed the choristers
and the regimental bands, so that all was to be fairy-
land to surprise the very young. Our Uttle girls
were to be placed so as to see and hear the whole, and
the Princess Eoyal had given them each a pink satin
sash to wear on the occasion. She had for many days
had the children with her to cut paper for bows, so
as to pretend that they were assisting her in the pre-
parations. Our dear Princess had such a kind heart,
and was always so good to the Httle ones I 

The equerries had the altered invitations to send
out. Garton sent messengers as far as Maidenhead
to the two principal inns there, to Salt Hill, and to
Staines, for new decorations and assistance in this
emergency, and also to the King's confectioners in
London. All responded with alacrity, but of course
there was much bustle and hurry. 

And so closed this eventful year, begun in so 

VOL. n. M 

162 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

much sadness, but ended, thank God, in joy and
thankfulness for the restoration of our gracious
monarch to his loving subjects, a feehng shared by
all, from the highest to the lowest in the land. 

My heart was lifted up in thankfulness, too, to
the Great Giver of all things for the continued bless-
ings and happiness of my own dear home. 

All was ready in good time on this 1st of
January, 1790, and the juvenile ball went off well.
Yet a Uttle disappointment at the change was felt, as
many of the arrangements and surprises that were
planned for the Lodge had to be dispensed with at
the Castle, which was too public for children, at any
rate for infant children. The Bang's band were
ordered, but many of them were absent on a hoUday.
Their places were filled, by Mr. Papendiek's con-
trivance, from the regimental band, and it was not
discovered. Mr. Garton was immortalised for his
successful exertions, and did not withhold his thanks
to Mr. Papendiek for his encouragement. The
following day the eldest Griesbach called upon us to
tender the thanks of the private band to Mr. Papen-
diek for his having concealed the absence of those
members who could not be recalled in time when the
order came for their attendance. They had been
told that they should not be wanted, so they did not
consider themselves in the wrong. Nevertheless, they
wished to thank Mr. Papendiek, whom they found 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 163 

to be their friend. They trusted that the little
unpleasantness of the year before might be forgotten,
and that they might resume former habits and come
to us on the same friendly terms as before. 

To set all right, and to show that we bore no ill-
will towards them, we proposed a trio and a supper,
leaving it to them to decide who should come. We
invited the Stowes, as we had not had them at our
last parties, and enjoyed some pleasant music. 

We dined at the Mingays only to meet the
Lowrys, and we went one evening to the Delavauxs,
and had a little singing and a supper. 

The 18th of January, the Queen's birthday, being
the first Eoyal anniversary kept since the illness, we
thought it right that I should go to town, ' to make
my courtesy,' as it was termed. I took the little girls,
who also appeared with me in their new pink sashes
and new caps with ribbons to match ; I in the same
dress as at the Herschels' dinner. 

We were graciously welcomed, and after seeing
the Queen, the elder Princesses and the younger, we
returned to my father's to dine. 

Soon after, Mr. Palman sent up to say that the
display at the drawing-room was so magnificent that
he wished us to come down. No one that day was
with us, so my brother and I went alone. The sight
was indeed grand. The dresses were richly em-
broidered and trimmed ; velvets with gold or silver 

M 2 

164 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

patterns; real sable borders beaded with jewels —
all most magnificent and costly. Sedan chairs were
then in use, and the Duchess of Devonshire, the
Duchess of Northumberland, and other ladies, went
in them, preceded by eight footmen in the most
splendid liveries. 

The title of footman was more correctly applied
in those days than at the present time, as they liter-
ally were men on foot, attending the chairs of their
masters and mistresses. At night they usually
carried torches, the streets of London being then
very insufficiently lighted, and upon arriving at their
destination they stood at either side of the door
steps till the lady or gentleman had passed within,
and then put out their torches by thrusting them
into the iron extinguishers which may still be seen
at the doors of many houses. 

On Royal birthdays new carriages came out of
the most elegant description, and the nobility ap-
peared as their rank demanded, and were looked
up to with respect and reverence. On these days
dinners were held by the nobility, the ministers of
state, the officers of the army and navy, and the
appointed trades, either at their respective houses
or at the leading taverns of the day. Indeed, the
holiday was so general that business gave place to
public rejoicing. The Court was brilliant, well
supported, and everything well regulated. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE IGo 

The ceremonies of the New Year's drawing-room
were this year observed on the Queen's birthday.
The Ode was performed by the state band of St.
James's, Dr. Parsons being the organist and con-
ductor. The Bishops gave their blessing, and the
mathematical scholars of Christ's Hospital attended
to show their improvement. This ward of the
school was founded by Charles 11., the institution
itself having been established in the year 1552 by
Edward VI., since when the endowments have been
continually on the increase from the munificence of
the City of London and from private sources, so that
at the time of which I am writing it was a noble,
richly-endowed charity. It was originally intended
solely and entirely for the sons of gentlemen of
limited means, more especially for those destined for
the Church or other learned professions ; but, as in
everything eke of the kind, abuse creeps in, and
now many of the scholars are of a class for which
the institution was not designed. Within the last
few years, I think about 1825, the Duke of York laid
the first stone of the magnificent hall, only lately
completed. 

Mr. Papendiek this year had lodgings at Kohler's,
in Thatched House Court, where there was sufficient
accommodation for me to be quartered also, when I
wished to come to town for a few days, and it waa a
very convenient situation, being so close to St. James's.' 

166 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

We called together on Lawrence, and found him
finishing the picture of Lord Abercom's sons, and we
also saw the commencement of the portrait of the
Duke of Portland, and one of Miss Farren, of which
so much was thought when it was exhibited the next
season. He told us that he had tried for Sir Joshua
Reynolds's house and painting-rooms in Leicester
Square, but they were occupied by an army clothier.
He therefore intended to remain in Greek Street, Soho. 

While we were in Lawrence's studio Fuseli came
in and looked round, criticising in his usual abrupt
but good-natured manner. He was a much older
man than Lawrence, but it was only this year that
he became a Royal Academician, while Lawrence was
already a student of the Royal Academy ; the follow-
ing year he became an Associate, and the year
succeeding that he was appointed painter to the
King, on the death of Sir Joshua Reynolds. As I
have mentioned something of his future, I may as
well here add that he died only in 1830, and was
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, near to the tomb of
his valued friend West. It was remarked by some
friends, who with him attended the funeral of Mr.
Dawes, another Royal Academician, in St. Paul's, that
Lawrence appeared to be looking about as if choosing
where he would wish to be laid himself. Within
three months he was buried at the very spot upon
which his eye had seemed to rest. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 167 

Fuseli had originally come over to England from
Zurich in the year 1763, but almost immediately left
again, to study, by Sir Joshua Beynolds's recom-
mendation, in Bome. He was a most promising
young scholar, and painted well, but he was apt to
fall into exaggerations of style, and though popular
at one time, his paintings are hardly of a quality to
survive the criticisms of these enlightened times.
His aspirations were lofty and sublime, but his powers
were not sufficiently great to enable him to carry out
his magnificent conceptions in such a manner as to
satisfy himself or to make his name great to posterity.
This very failing in himself, however, rendered him
an excellent critic upon the works of others ; but he
was so kind-hearted withal, and so lenient in his
criticisms, always finding out merits while pointing
out defects, that he was greatly valued as a friend by
all his contemporaries 

[I came across, a short time ago, an amusing story
of Fuseli and Sir Thomas Lawrence, which I venture
to quote, as I do not think it is generally known :
* In his (Lawrence's) great picture of " Satan calling
to his Legions," FuseU was angry, because he said
that he had borrowed the idea from him. "In
truth," said he, " I did borrow the idea from you, but
it was from your person, not your paintings. When
we were together at Stacpoole Court, in Pembroke-
shire, you may remember how you stood on yon high 

168 CJOURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

rock which overlooks the Bay of Bristol, and gazed
down upon the sea which rolled so magnificently
below. You were in raptures ; and while you were
crying, ' Grand, grand ! Jesu Christ, how graiid ! '
you put yourself into a wild posture. I thought on
the Devil looking into the abyss, and took a slight
sketch of you at the moment. Here it is. My
Satan's posture now was yours then." This pacified
FuseU. Others, however, refused to be pleased,
and the picture was very severely criticised when it
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790.' — Ed.] 

A day or two after this I returned to Windsor,
leaving the little girls in town, and found all well
and right at home. It was a mild winter this year,
a great contrast to the bitter cold of the preceding
year, and a gay season in London. 

In order to be present at the Tuesday's stag-hunt,
their Majesties, with the elder Princesses, two ladies,
two equerries. Misses Bumey and Planta, Sandys
and Mackenthum, with two King's pages, my father
and Mr. Papendiek, came down to Windsor every
week, until Easter, on Monday, and returned to town
on the Wednesday, which was a break for us all
during the dreary time. 

Frederick was three years old on the 20th of this
month, January 1790, and was so fond of music, and
so wrapt in hearing it, that it was something not
often to be met with. The Stowes were at this time 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 169 

daily with us to practise, and Frederick would be
placed in his high chair at the end of the pianoforte,
so that he could look down upon the keys. He would
have Horn's second sonata played, and so did his mind
take in the whole composition, that when Miss Stowe,
in joke or in trial of his memory, left bits out, that
dear little soul would try to express his distress in
some way, and would not be easy till all was per-
formed correctly. The sonata of Kozebuch in C
minor he also nearly acquired, but the whole was too
diflScult. 

Mrs. Stowe often came down to us of evenings,
and upon these occasions Mr. Burgess, if not out, took
refuge in his own room. 

Mr. Brown, on going to his new apartments, de-
termined to give a ball as a house-warming. He was
then a sociable being, and consequently much liked,
and the evening proved most agreeable. My uncle's
family had been intimate friends of his late wife, kind
to his children, and their house a home for himself.
He therefore asked my aunt to assist him in his
arrangements for the entertainment, and my uncle to
be master of the ceremonies. Mr. Papendiek under-
took to provide the music, and in addition to the
invitation list made out by Mr. Brown, we were to
name any friends we wished to ask. The guests in-
cluded the Misses Sandys and Mackenthum, the
former supposed to be the admired one ; Mr. and 

170 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Mrs. HUnnemann, Mrs. Wadsworth, three cousins
and their two brothers; our family of course, my
sister, then fourteen, my brother, &c. &c. We in-
troduced Salomon, Duberly, Nicolay, and Lawrence,
but the Wests could not come. 

Dancing proceeded merrily, when late in the
evening arrived the Delavauxs, to the surprise of all,
and their appearance rather threw a damper over the
general hilarity. The younger sister did not dance
or join in the throng, and conjecture then gave her
to be the bride of the host, which in less than two
years was realised. She looked very pretty in a dress
of light blue poplin, in which her likeness was taken
by a Mr. Brown, who travelled the country to paint
portraits at a low price. 

Mrs. HUnnemann's dress was particularly becoming
and well chosen. A white satin slip, with an India
book-muslin over it, trimmed with a good candle-
light ^coquelicot' In her well-dressed black hair
she had flowers to accord. She always used to go to
Mori's in Charing Cross, the Truefitt of the day, to
have her hair cut and dressed ; and in the shop the
present violin player, Mori, then a little son of the
house, would run about with a violin in his hand, and
say, * As you are going to a ball, I will play you some
dances.' There was a genius or a player by nature,
for I do not recollect ever to have heard anyone
named of whom he called himself the scholar. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 171 

She told me that Mr. HUnnemann had bought a
house in Frith Street, corner of Soho Square ; that
they had furnished their drawing-room new, and
that what they had before had fitted up as many
rooms as they required ; and that she had there given
birth to a second child, a little girl, whom she de-
scribed as being very pretty. 

My cousin Charlotte was the belle of the evening,
then about twenty. She was dressed in a fawn or
light brown silk, trimmed with blonde, and a cap
elegantly put on by Keade. I was not quite well,
and was disconcerted by my cousin not being so
rejoiced to meet me as I had expected. I wore my
striped India muslin, with a fancy body of purple and
yellow, to match a sash I had of that mixture quite
new. My cap failed, and, put on by Mr. Theilcke,
bad was made worse. I had called upon Miss Pohl to
ask her to make it, but in this order she did not suc-
ceed, though in my black bonnet, bought a few months
before, there was no fault. She did not carry on the
whole of her mother's business, but depended more
for a livelihood upon the house she had taken in
Duke Street, close to Piccadilly, which from its size
and situation proved a profitable speculation. She,
however, still did some millinery and mantua-making,
when her employers found the material, which she
preferred to purchasing it herself. 

Our evening closed agreeably. There was no 

172 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

supper, but refreshments at different times, and in a
snug parlour oysters and porter for the gentlemen,
often replenished. 

Miss Brown, our host's niece, now dresser to the
Landgravine of Hesse Homburg, was at this party, as
one of Mrs. Watson's workers, who came with her,
she being one of the great mantua-makers of that
day. 

We called upon my aunt the morning after the
ball, and she told us that, Lady Charlotte Finch
having objected to music over her head all day, my
cousin was now obliged to instruct her scholars at
their own homes, which was a great pity, as it com-
pletely altered the footing upon which she had begun
this means of being useful to her family. Mr.
Papendiek had cautioned my uncle and aunt against
allowing Clementi to be alone with her during his
lesson, but they said there was no cause to be un-
easy, which we quite understood ! and felt that they
ought to know how to manage their own family. 

One evening we went to see Mrs. Siddons, whose
acting could now be seen in perfection, as the Drury
Lane company had engaged the Haymarket Theatre
while their own was rebuilding. This was done to
compete with Covent Garden, which was opened this
season for the first time since its erection. It was on
rather a larger scale than the one pulled down from
want of repair, and the arrangement of boxes was 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHAI^LOTTE 173 

different. The second tier now went all round, 80 the
first or second gallery was immediately over the front
boxes. This was the theatre where the boxes were
supported from the walls, with no pillars, and chan-
deliers hanging round, which gave a subdued light
and made the stage appear much more brilliant. 

Miss Young, Munden, Quick, Edwin, &c., were
at that house, and Mrs. Siddons, Mrs. Jordan,
Kemble, the Palmers, &c., at the other. At the end
of the preceding season, the Opera House was burnt
down, the light of the conflagration having been seen
from the heights at Windsor. Wonderful to relate,
Novosielski, their architect, had rebuilt it in time to
open for the season as usual. It was built to hold .
5,000 people, and that number of tickets with 500
added were given gratis on the opening night to try
the effect and strength of the house. A small back
staircase fell, but no one was hurt. The walls have
bulged a little at times, and jealousy of course con-
demned the architect and builder, but as the King's
Theatre still stands, or more properly speaking, now
in 1838, Queen Victoria's, I think that in itself speaks
for the superior art and science there displayed.
Novosielski returned to Italy when the whole was
completed. , This new Opera House was upon a larger
and more magnificent scale than anything hitherto
attempted in England, and required singers such as
then could be engaged, Mara, Billington, Storace, &c. 

174 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Their Majesties, after the birthday, resumed their
former habits of amusement, and with the three
elder Princesses went every Monday night to Coven
Garden Theatre, and on Wednesdays to the Concerts
of Ancient Music, of which there were twelve regular
ones, and a thirteenth, at which the * Messiah ' was in-
variably performed, was always given for the benefit
of the fund for the Eoyal Society of Musicians, when
the pubUc were admitted with tickets at a guinea
each, which gave also the privilege of admission to
the rehearsal. These concerts were held at the rooms
in Tottenham Court Eoad. 

On Tuesdays and Thursdays were the concerts
at the Queen's House; on Thursdays the drawing-
rooms, and from Friday till Monday the Eoyal
Family spent at Windsor for the stag-hunt on Satur-
day, at the turning out of which the Queen with the
Princesses now again usually attended, weather per-
mitting, and when near home, we sometimes also had
the treat. 

These arrangements were for the early part of the
winter. As soon as Lent commenced their Majesties
did not visit the theatre, and during that season the
Eoyal Family spent from Monday till Wednesday at
Windsor, the stag-hunt being on Tuesdays, as I have
before said. 

On Sundays the family attended divine service at
the Chapel Eoyal, St. James's, in court dresses. After 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 175 

the service a drawing-room or reception was held,
but no presentations were permitted. 

While I was in town this time I called on Sunday
after service, with my brother, upon the Zoffanys,
who had now estabhshed themselves in one of the
new houses in Keppel Place, Fitzroy Square, Zoflany
having resumed his portrait painting. We found
them just going to dine, and by their desire we re-
mained to partake of their hospitahty. 

The painting-room did not exhibit a welcome on
the return of the once favourite artist, for not a
portrait was there except one of his old and sincere
friend. Miss Farren — ^a small whole-length, in alight
green satin dress and black velvet Spanish hat, the
then costume for dinner parties. Zoflfany was par-
ticularly great in drapery, both as regards the folds
and taste, and in copying the elegances of dress ; and
this portrait being faultless in these points, and also
an excellent Hkeness, was a perfect gem. Alas, these
dear friends are gone ; no more will they smUe upon
each other. 

We told Zoflany of Lawrence's portrait of this
inimitable actress, and that he intended to exhibit it,
upon which Zoflany replied, * I shall go and look at
it, and if I think that by exhibiting it he will gain
credit to himseK, I will keep mine back, for a young
man must be encouraged.' 

We left them early, in order to be in time to 

176 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

receive young Lawrence and his parents to tea at
St. James's. My father had called upon them, and
particularly admired the mother, and thought her a
woman fully capable of leading a genius or talented
person to eminence. 

I also while I was in town called upon Mrs.
Blagrove, who lived in Lower Berkeley Street. She
was a particularly pleasant, lady-like woman, and
very attentive to her children. The folding doors of
her drawing-room were of glass, so that she was
aware of all that was going on in the schoolroom,
the back drawing-room being devoted to that pur-
pose. 

Shortly after my return home the Blagrove boys
were seized with measles. We kept a constant fire
in Mr. Burgess's room, where we placed a nurse,
moving Mr. Burgess upstairs to the red curtained
back bedroom. The boys remained in their own
beds, and so well did Dr. Mingay bring them through
the attack that no unfavourable symptoms appeared,
nor did any after-indisposition occur of cough, weak
eyes, or any other ailment. They went home for
Easter rather sooner than usual, and while they
were away we had their rooms thoroughly washed,
purified, and refreshed. My boys escaped (the little
girls were fortunately still in town), though they went
on as usual. No door was shut, but the doctor did not
allow them to go out as long as the infection lasted, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 177 

SO that they should not breathe a different atmo-
sphere. We all reassembled after the holidays, my
girls returning too after their long visit to their
grandmother. 

During this time we were again annoyed by a
visit from Bridgetower. He, one morning, going as
he said to Salt Hill or somewhere in the neighbour-
hood, left his son with us, who took this opportunity
to disclose to us his unhappy situation. He said that
his mother was left in distress, and that the money he
could earn by his music was wasted in crime even in
his presence, and added that the brutal severity of
his father must soon lead him to some desperate act.
Mr. Papendiek could only pity, and persuade the
poor lad to be careful not to provoke or aggravate
this man, now found out in his wickedness. When
he returned we had luncheon, and then they went off
to London. 

We heard in a short time that the son had taken
refuge at Carlton House, and that the father had
returned to Germany. Mr. Papendiek called to
inquire into this business, when the Prince of Wales
told him that one evening Bridgetower, having re-
turned home with a companion, had desired his son
to get under the sofa and to go to sleep. The first
part of the command he obeyed, and, watching his
opportunity, made his escape. He ran to Carlton
House, where, from having often been there to 

VOL. n. N 

178 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

perform, he was well known, and on supplicating
protection, he was taken care of till the morning,
when the circumstance was related to the Prince.
His Koyal Highness at once sent for the father, and
desired him to leave the kingdom immediately,
saying that he would furnish him with a proper
sum of money for his journey, and that on hearing
of his return to his wife and family, he would
remit a trifle for present emergencies that he might
have the opportunity of looking out for employment
of a more honourable nature than he had pursued
in this country. If he made arrangements for his
immediate departure, the Prince said he would
permit him to call for the money and to take leave
of his son, whom he had treated so cruelly. The
Prince from that time took him entirely under his
protection, and treated him from first to last with
the utmost kindness. 

The young lad was first stripped of the fancy
dress of a Polish black, which he usually wore, and
clad in the English fashion of that day. A proper
person was appointed to instruct him, and as he was
not then to depend upon the pubUc for support, he
had time to develop the great talent for music
which he possessed. He was to keep up his vioHn
playing by steady practice, and by hearing the first-
class performers who were almost constantly at
Carlton House, for the Prince continued to have his 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 179 

little parties for practice either morning or evening.
This fortunate child had, therefore, the opportunity
of almost daily associating with such men as Giardini,
Cramer, Salomon, and Viotti, and improved greatly
from the latter, whose style appeared to suit him,
for Bridgetower had always been remarkable for
his elegant and bold manner of drawing the
bow. 

The farewell parting between father and son
was affecting, although there was a sort of horror
depicted upon the countenance of the latter. Their
position towards each other seemed for the moment to
be reversed, for the boy spoke gravely, beseeching his
father to lead a better life for the sake of his mother.
I am happy to say that he went through life with
credit to himself in all respects, and remained with
the Prince, who was true to him and to his word.
Whether now in this country, or even whether still
aUve, I cannot aver. His brother once came over to
see him. He was a violoncello player, but not
superior, though he supported his mother by his
talents, being cosntantly engaged at theatres, balls,
public gardens, &c. The father continued much the
same course of Ufe as before, neglecting his family
and home, and often wandering away for months at
a time. 

A theatrical sensation was at this time pending in
London. Mrs. Siddons took two benefits during the 

^2 

180 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

season ; one before Easter, * the high-water mark/
as Horace Walpole terms it, the second after that
holiday. Her daughter, Maria Siddons, was an-
nounced to appear on this second occasion in the
character of * Emilia Galotti,' and rehearsed the part,
admiration and approbation of her powers increasing
each time, and the night was looked to with the
greatest enthusiasm and expectation. Mrs. Siddons
was then in her zenith, and was very tenacious of
rivalship. At the last moment, to the surprise of
everyone, she would not permit her daughter to
appear, giving for the reason that she was too young
and too delicate ; and Mrs. Siddons announced that
she would herself perform the character. This, her
friends prevailed upon her not to do, and another
was substituted. Excitement in the Siddons family
was intense ; and among other things to disturb and
perplex the father were the constant attentions of
Thomas Lawrence to this interesting girl, then about
eighteen, and he asked him if his intentions were
honourable. Lawrence answered that they were un-
doubtedly so, but that if Mr. Siddons meant with
respect to marriage, that would at present not be
possible, as he was scarcely established himself, and
had his own family yet dependent upon his exertions.
Old Siddons then desired that his visits should be less
frequent. Whether from disappointment or really
delicate health, this sweet girl died a few months 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 181 

after. Her death caused a general feeling of sorrow
and sympathy. 

This story was related to me by Lawrence him-
self when I renewed my acquaintance with him, after
a few years' interval, about the year 1828 ; and he
added that it was not true, and that he had only
heard it from the Duke of Cumberland a short time
before, when he called upon him to solicit a command
from some member of the Royal Family. He had
only been honoured upon one occasion by her Royal
Highness the Duchess of Gloucester sitting to him for
her portrait, and he was very anxious to obtain some
Royal patronage. The Duke answered that the Queen
had considered her portrait a failure, and that the
story of Maria Siddons was no credit to him ; and
there the matter ended. 

Mr. Hughes, manager of the theatre at Wey-
mouth, who was very intimate with Mrs. Siddons,
told the circumstance to Mr. Papendiek as I have re-
lated it, and added that soon after the death of the
daughter, Lawrence again found his way into their
house, and, with the Kembles, took the lead in many
of the arrangements. No doubt it was an intimacy
of advantage to both parties, but it ultimately led to
the separation of Mr. and Mrs. Siddons. He had not
kept pace with his wife in improving the inferior
talent he possessed, and, therefore, when she, from
assiduity and perseverance, attained pre-eminence in 

182 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

her profession, he lost all control over her actions.
She was courted and flattered by all, and as she
advanced in her position, she gained a power of com-
mand over any society that seemed at the moment to
suit her purpose. She was sought after and received
in the higher circles, which disturbed the comfort of
her home, and when the children were off hand, some
by death and others by marriage, she separated from
her husband ; her eldest daughter, only, remaining
with her as a companion. 

The profits of her labours, 40,000/., were divided
between the husband and wife, each taking 20,000/.
The public rather doubted her conjugal fidelity, but
her husband and patrons held her in the highest
respect, being assured of her honour and integrity. 

She was an ambitious woman, and very eager for
gain. She twice refused to play for charity, and it
was with some difficulty that the public were per-
suaded to permit her to continue their servant. It
was the usual plan to engage the dramatic performers
for a certain number of nights at a stated sum, and
for any additional night that they were requested to
give their services, they were paid agreeably to their
demand, unless it were the leading members of the
company, who invariably performed gratis. Mrs.
Siddons, on the contrary, would only upon these
occasions lend her aid for a heavy sum, and this
mercenary greed was too glaring to be overlooked. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 183 

CHAPTEE XIX. 

Troubles in France — The new star, Dussek — His performance and
appearance — The Bishop of London — The French Kevolution —
Graciousness of the Queen — Music masters for the Princesses —
dementi — ^The Queen's dislike to Louis Albert — Horn — Dr. Parsons
— General Rooke — Mr. Albert breaks his arm — Planchd — Mr. Keate
and Mr. Griffiths — Mr. Keate and the Queen — Mr. Keate and the
Prince of Wales — Surgeon to the forces — Mrs. Papendiek goes to
London — Meets Charles Papendiek — ^Visits Lawrence at his studio —
Lawrence and Lord Derby — ^TheStowes leave Windsor — Gascoigne*s
house in the Home Park — Mrs. Papendiek goes to London — Abbey
concert — Excellent performance — ^The Royal Academy — Cecilia
Zoffany, afterwards Mrs. Thomas Horn — Her sisters, Mrs. Beachcroft
and Mrs. Oliver — Mrs. Papendiek, as usual, takes the children to
the Queen and Princesses — Baron Dillon — Ball-room tickets — ^Prince
Ferdinand of Wiirtemberg — The Stowe family — Charles Papendiek's
outfit 

The troubles in France were rapidly gaining ground,
and people of all ranks were crowding over to Eng-
land ; among them many artistes in music and other
branches of art and science, professors, literati, &c. 

A bright luminary in the musical line had been
expected to make his debut at the Musical Fund
concert, but he arrived only in time to be introduced
on the oratorio nights, which were held at the
theatre on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent.
Between the acts a modem piece was performed, and 

184 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

the new star, Dussek, was to make his first public
appearance on a Friday. 

Dussek was born in Bohemia in 1762. He went
to Prance, but owing to the Eevolution was com-
pelled to leave that country, which accounts for his
appearance in London. 

Ml*. Papendiek being in town, I just popped up
to be present on the occasion. 

Handel was the only master whose oratorios were
then performed, and the orchestra was on the stage
as at this day. 

A pianoforte of Broadwood's was then brought
in with as much ease as a chair, and immediately
after Dussek followed, supported by John Cramer,
whose fatlier stood forward as leader, Salomon and
other great men of the day being grouped around
him. The applause was loud as a welcome. Dussek,
now seated, tried his instrument in prelude, which
caused a second burst of applause. This so sur-
prised the stranger, that his friends were obliged to
desire him to rise and bow, which he did somewhat
reluctantly. He then, after re-seating himself, spread
a silk handkerchief over his knees, rubbed his hands
in his coat pockets, which were filled with bran, and
then began his concerto. That class of music then
usually consisted of three movements, and lasted
from twenty-five to thirty, and occasionally forty
minutes. Near the end of the first movement there 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 185 

was always a * cadenza,' which gave the performer an
opportunity of displaying his powers in brarmra^ or
to show off any pecuUar or particular merit that he
possessed. In this instance Dussek finished his
cadence with a long shake and a turn that led in
the ' Tutti ' to finish the movement, and he was rap-
turously applauded. 

His music was full of melody, was elegantly
pathetic, and even sublime. He was a handsome
man, good dispositioned, mild and pleasing in his
demeanour, courteous and agreeable. 

To accompany that inimitable harp-player, Ma-
dame Krumpholtus, Dussek had four notes in the
treble added to his pianoforte, which has now ex-
tended to three more in the treble and three in the
bass, by all makers. 

The proprietors of the Opera House disagreed, and
one party engaged a company to perform on Tues-
days and Saturdays at the new house, and the other
party had a performance at the Haymarket Theatre
on the same nights. This left only two nights for
plays, as the Drury Lane Theatre was still building.
Co vent Garden, therefore, had the oratorios, which
were admirably got up and performed. Their
Majesties no longer attended them, as they had their
own Ancient Music concerts. The theatre was opened
at playhouse prices, and filled well. 

The Royal Family, having resumed all their former 

186 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

habits, continued to attend the Chapel Royal on
Sundays ; and on Easter Sunday they there took the
sacrament. The afternoon of the same day they
entered the travelUng carriages for Windsor, a cir-
cumstance upon which the Bishop of London (Por-
teus) had preached strongly more than once, con-
demning the practice. This so vexed the King that
he said, * Porteus shall never be Archbishop of Can-
terbury,' and he never was ! 

The reason of this habit was that the last meet of
the stag-hunting season was invariably held on Easter
Monday, and the King, who always made a point of
attending, could not easily have reached the ground
by ten o'clock, if he waited to leave London till the
Monday morning. 

The Master of the Buckhounds, who was a peer,
always had to be present upon this occasion, and
arrangements were then made about the running for
the King's plate, and the ensuing Ascot races ; who
among the yeomen prickers were to run for it ; which
horses should be chosen for them to ride, and all
regulations settled for this business, as well as for all
matters relating to the hunt. 

The stag was then turned out in grand style, the
Queen and Princesses being present, and the nobility
and gentry residing in the neighbourhood. This being
the first Easter Monday hunt since the great illness,
the Bishop probably depended upon a change being 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 187 

made. If so, he was disappointed, for the same plan
was continued as long as his Majesty's health per-
mitted it. 

Great excitement prevailed in our own country
about the French Ee volution, which had now attained
a very serious height. Party spirit ran high and
religion appeared to give way to false principle, so
that we required energy in the superior orders of the
clergy. The Bishops were divided in their politics.
Such men, therefore, as Porteus, Hurd, and others
looked for support and encouragement in their labours
from the King and Eoyal Family. This was un-
doubtedly in most instances granted to them, not only
from what I may call, for want of a better expression,
political reasons, but also from the innate love and
reverence for religion felt by our gracious monarch
and his Queen. In this particular case, however,
they considered that their departure from the strict
observance of the Sabbath on this one day in the
year was for a good and sufficient reason, and that a
relaxation was allowable after the solemn daily ser-
vices and ordinances of Passion week. The Queen in
the most gracious manner, and with the kindest con-
sideration for the feeUngs of those about her, spoke of
these things, and herself explained to us all what her
views upon the matter were, saying, that as the hunt
had been originally estabUshed in the hope of pro-
viding a home amusement of a rational description 

J 88 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

for the Prince of Wales, she would not now wish to
throw a damper upon the sport by making changes
in the regulations, more especially as it was un-
doubtedly a real amusement to the King. 

During the recess, company assembled in the
neighbourhood of Windsor, and plenty of entertain-
ment was found for the Eoyal Family, but the doctors
(or rather Dr. Willis) were becoming anxious for the
time of year when the King always spent from Friday
till Monday away from London and the cares of busi-
ness, and when he could enjoy* the fresh air without
undue fatigue. There was, however, a tendency to
drowsiness of an evening which they did not Uke, and
to prevent this from becoming too decided a habit, it
was thought advisable for the Queen to engage a music
master for the Princesses Augusta and Elizabeth, who
should remain at Windsor for those days, and besides
giving these lessons, be ready at call to play in the
evenings to amuse his Majesty, assisted by Dr. Ayl-
ward, and the singers of the choir. The King's band
could not leave London before the appointed time,
added to which, we were this season to have an Abbey
performance. 

Who to fix upon now became the question. John
Cramer was too young ; Dussek was scarcely known ;
and Hulmandel, although a WUrtemberger, was from
Paris. He had married a lady whom he had taught,
and she being related to a member of the Convention, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHAKLOTTE 189 

prudence, in these warlike times, passed them by.
Clementi was applied to, but he was too crafty and
shrewd to have anything to do with a court. He
gave as his excuse that as he then had health and
power to continue his teaching for sixteen hours a
day, at a guinea a lesson, he did not wish to break
the spell while the public were willing to employ him.
These terms he never lessened, except in the two
instances of Miss Stowe and my cousin Charlotte.
Clementi, on refusing, said that he could recommend
a very proper person, and one known to the Eoyal
Family, namely the eldest daughter of Louis Albert
(my cousin Charlotte). This so incensed the Queen
that the dislike which she had always felt towards
them all became intensified. She showed, I should
almost say, a wish to dispense with the services of
my uncle, which, however, could not be done ! 

My father represented to the Queen the praise-
worthy undertaking of my cousin, and the manner
in which it was to have been pursued, and said
that it was only through the persecution of Lady
Charlotte Finch that the plan was now changed, and
though not quite so respectably followed, all was as
yet going on well. This conversation led to the
appointment of the two boys — Hugh to the Ord-
nance Department, and William to the Customs — at
about 60Z. a year each. A person as music teacher
was at lengtli found ; a professor, but one who did 

180 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

season ; one before Easter, ' the high-water mark,'
as Horace Walpole terms it, the second after that
holiday. Her daughter, Maria Siddons, was an-
nounced to appear on this second occasion in the
character of * EmiUa Galotti,' and rehearsed the part,
admiration and approbation of her powers increasing
each time, and the night was looked to with the
greatest enthusiasm and expectation. Mrs. Siddons
was then in her zenith, and was very tenacious of
rivalship. At the last moment, to the surprise of
everyone, she would not permit her daughter to
appear, giving for the reason that she was too young
and too delicate ; and Mrs. Siddons announced that
she would herself perform the character. This, her
friends prevailed upon her not to do, and another
was substituted. Excitement in the Siddons family
was intense ; and among other things to disturb and
perplex the father were the constant attentions of
Thomas Lawrence to this interesting girl, then about
eighteen, and he asked him if his intentions were
honourable. Lawrence answered that they were un-
doubtedly so, but that if Mr. Siddons meant with
respect to marriage, that would at present not be
possible, as he was scarcely established himself, and
had his own family yet dependent upon his exertions.
Old Siddons then desired that his visits should be less
frequent. Whether from disappointment or really
delicate health, this sweet girl died a few months 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 181 

after. Her death caused a general feeling of sorrow
and sympathy. 

This story was related to me by Lawrence him-
self when I renewed my acquaintance with him, after
a few years' interval, about the year 1828 ; and he
added that it was not true, and that he had only
heard it from the Duke of Cumberland a short time
before, when he called upon him to solicit a command
from some member of the Eoyal Family. He had
only been honoured upon one occasion by her Eoyal
Highness the Duchess of Gloucester sitting to him for
her portrait, and he was very anxious to obtain some
Royal patronage. The Duke answered that the Queen
had considered her portrait a failure, and that the
story of Maria Siddons was no credit to him ; and
there the matter ended. 

Mr. Hughes, manager of the theatre at Wey-
mouth, who was very intimate with Mrs. Siddons,
told the circumstance to Mr. Papendiek as I have re-
lated it, and added that soon after the death of the
daughter, Lawrence again found his way into their
house, and, with the Kembles, took the lead in many
of the arrangements. No doubt it was an intimacy
of advantage to both parties, but it ultimately led to
the separation of Mr. and Mrs. Siddons. He had not
kept pace with his wife in improving the inferior
talent he possessed,, and, therefore, when she, from
assiduity and perseverance, attained pre-eminence in 

180 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

season ; one before Easter, * the high-water mark,'
as Horace Walpole terms it, the second after that
holiday. Her daughter, Maria Siddons, was an-
nounced to appear on this second occasion in the
character of ' EmiUa Galotti,' and rehearsed the part,
admiration and approbation of her powers increasing
each time, and the night was looked to with the
greatest enthusiasm and expectation. Mrs. Siddons
was then in her zenith, and was very tenacious of
rivalship. At the last moment, to the surprise of
everyone, she would not permit her daughter to
appear, giving for the reason that she was too young
and too delicate ; and Mrs. Siddons announced that
she would herself perform the character. This, her
friends prevailed upon her not to do, and another
was substituted. Excitement in the Siddons family
was intense ; and among other things to disturb and
perplex the father were the constant attentions of
Thomas Lawrence to this interesting girl, then about
eighteen, and he asked him if his intentions were
honourable. Lawrence answered that they were un-
doubtedly so, but that if Mr. Siddons meant with
respect to marriage, that would at present not be
possible, as he was scarcely established himself, and
had his own family yet dependent upon his exertions.
Old Siddons then desired that his visits should be less
frequent. Whether from disappointment or really
delicate health, this sweet girl died a few months 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 181 

after. Her death caused a general feeling of sorrow
and sympathy. 

This story was related to me by Lawrence him-
self when I renewed my acquaintance with him, after
a few years' interval, about the year 1828 ; and he
added that it was not true, and that he had only
heard it from the Duke of Cumberland a short time
before, when he called upon him to solicit a command
from some member of the Royal Family. He had
only been honoured upon one occasion by her Eoyal
Highness the Duchess of Gloucester sitting to him for
her portrait, and he was very anxious to obtain some
Royal patronage. The Duke answered that the Queen
had considered her portrait a failure, and that the
story of Maria Siddons was no credit to him ; and
there the matter ended. 

Mr. Hughes, manager of the theatre at Wey-
mouth, who was very intimate with Mrs. Siddons,
told the circumstance to Mr. Papendiek as I have re-
lated it, and added that soon after the death of the
daughter, Lawrence again found his way into their
house, and, with the Kembles, took the lead in many
of the arrangements. No doubt it was an intimacy
of advantage to both parties, but it ultimately led to
the separation of Mr. and Mrs. Siddons. He had not
kept pace with his wife in improving the inferior
talent he possessed, and, therefore, when she, from
assiduity and perseverance, attained pre-eminence in 

180 COURT AND PKIVATE LIFE IN 

season ; one before Easter, ' the high-water mark/
as Horace Walpole terms it, the second after that
holiday. Her daughter, Maria Siddons, was an-
nounced to appear on this second occasion in the
character of * Emilia Galotti,' and rehearsed the part,
admiration and approbation of her powers increasing
each time, and the night was looked to with the
greatest enthusiasm and expectation. Mrs. Siddons
was then in her zenith, and was very tenacious of
rivalship. At the last moment, to the surprise of
everyone, she would not permit her daughter to
appear, giving for the reason that she was too young
and too delicate ; and Mrs. Siddons announced that
she would herself perform the character. This, her
friends prevailed upon her not to do, and another
was substituted. Excitement in the Siddons family
was intense ; and among other things to disturb and
perplex the father were the constant attentions of
Thomas Lawrence to this interesting girl, then about
eighteen, and he asked him if his intentions were
honourable. Lawrence answered that they were un-
doubtedly so, but that if Mr. Siddons meant with
respect to marriage, that would at present not be
possible, as he was scarcely established himself, and
had his own family yet dependent upon his exertions.
Old Siddons then desired that his visits should be less
frequent. Whether from disappointment or really
deUcate health, this sweet girl died a few months 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 181 

after. Her death caused a general feeling of sorrow
and sympathy. 

This story was related to me by Lawrence him-
self when I renewed my acquaintance with him, after
a few years' interval, about the year 1828 ; and he
added that it was not true, and that he had only
heard it from the Duke of Cumberland a short time
before, when he called upon him to solicit a command
from some member of the Eoyal Family. He had
only been honoured upon one occasion by her Eoyal
Highness the Duchess of Gloucester sitting to him for
her portrait, and he was very anxious to obtain some
Royal patronage. The Duke answered that the Queen
had considered her portrait a failure, and that the
stoiy of Maria Siddons was no credit to him ; and
there the matter ended. 

Mr. Hughes, manager of the theatre at Wey-
mouth, who was very intimate with Mrs. Siddons,
told the circumstance to Mr. Papendiek as I have re-
lated it, and added that soon after the death of the
daughter, Lawrence again found his way into their
house, and, with the Kembles, took the lead in many
of the arrangements. No doubt it was an intimacy
of advantage to both parties, but it ultimately led to
the separation of Mr. and Mrs. Siddons. He had not
kept pace with his wife in improving the inferior
talent he possessed, and, therefore, when she, from
assiduity and perseverance, attained pre-eminence in 

196 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

This was the first opportunity that Mr. Keate had
of returning the kindness of my father, and his atten-
tion to him was unremitting. He was also the means
of persuading the Queen to recommend my cousin
Hugh to the Duke of York, to fill the appointment
of Paymaster to the 58th Regiment, for which he had
petitioned, and obtained it, no doubt, through this
source. A third service he did us in naming my
brother as one of the civil surgeons, or surgeon to the
forces, a new appointment shown by Keate to be bene-
ficial to troops who were moving in order of battle,
that whenever they halted a hospital should be formed
where this new order of surgeons shoidd be stationed,
the regular army surgeons doing duty in the field. 

The first time of putting this efiective corps into
requisition was when Abercrombie was sent to the
Helder to efiect a landing on the coast of Holland in
1799. These surgeons wore a uniform, and were
under mihtary command. Both my brother and my
cousin went through their appointments with honour
to their patrons and credit to themselves, and to this
day subsist upon their respective allowances of retired
half-pay. 

Griffiths, as might be expected, broke oflT his ac-
quaintance with our family, but his sister, whom he
compelled to marry Stillingfleet after many years*
courtship, clung to us from this time throughout the
whole of her unhappy life. 

THE TD£E OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 197 

When I heard that my father was well enough to
walk about and be amused, I made arrangements for
passing a week in town. 

My Uttle girls had returned home some little time
before in excellent health and spirits, and in every
respect decidedly improved. My mother had been
very kind to them, and the fact of being away from
home for so long, and on a visit alone, had brought
them forward a good deal. My brother also had
very good-naturedly heard them read and spell, and
repeat out of their nursery books. They had learnt
to make their dolls' clothes from Miss Pohl, Eliza
being particularly fond of a doll. Charlotte had
practised her duets with my brother, who then
played Bach's and Schroeder's sonatas, and amused
himself with the popular tunes of the day, so I
determined to keep up their little employments by
sending them to Mrs. Roach on fine days, and while
I remained in town to stay there as boarders. 

All being well I went ofi* happily, almost con-
sidering it a point of duty. I was always a welcome
visitor at my old home, and in this instance contri-
buted, I hope, to beguile the time that my father's
arm hung in a sUng, and that the gout attacked him
in the knee on the opposite side. One afternoon,
when out walking alone, I met a man so like a Pa-
pendiek, just by the Thatched House Tavern, that
I knocked at HUniber's door to ask if the Easter 

198 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

messenger were arrived, and was told that he was,
and Charles Papendiek with him. I asked old Kohler
to take care of him, and to provide him with a bed at
my husband's lodging in Thatched House Court, teUing
him why he could not be received at St. James's.
George Papendiek was now doing well. The Got-
tingen University being very full on account of the
three English Princes being there, he was amply
supported by pupils, and begged to give up the 10/.
hitherto allowed him by us. The father caught at
this, and said that now we should be able to receive
Charles. I did not at all wish this, and proposed to
Mr. Papendiek to send this 101. to his father in addi-
tion to what he already allowed him. Whether he
wrote to make this proposal or not I cannot tell, but
at any rate here was Charles Papendiek unexpectedly
in this country, and must come to us on a visit, if not
for longer. 

I did not on this account shorten my stay in town,
and called, among other friends, upon the Lawrences,
as I was anxious to see the portrait of Miss Farren
finished after what I had heard at Zoffany's. The old
servant showed me straight into the painting-room, as
no onewas*then sitting, where certainly Miss Farren's
look met you as you entered. Such a Ukeness, such
an exquisite portrait, riveted me to the spot. I said,
*Zoffany yields the palm, to you, and does not mean
to exhibit his gem,' when Lawrence answered that 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 199 

he had been kind, and he considered himself obliged
to him. He then told me that he was in a dilemma,
which he proceeded to explain to me. Two gentle-
men, who had called to see his pictures, were so
struck with this portrait of Miss Farren when only
the head was done, that they offered him a hundred
guineas for it, with permission to exhibit it. He
answered that Lord Derby having seen it just before,
was so pleased with it that he at once said he would
purchase it for sixty guineas, the price Lawrence put
upon it. Lord Derby called often, being interested
in the progress of the picture, and Lawrence told
him of the offer made by these gentlemen. Lord
Derby could only say that he was prepared to keep
to his agreement — ^Mr. Lawrence could do as he
thought proper. 

The mother was of my opinion, that an agreement
ought to be adhered to, the father rather hankered
after the additional sum offered ; the friends of Law-
rence advised him to take the first line, which he
eventually did. The portrait was admirable. It
brought him great fame, but the cavil about the
price did not add to his credit, and my Lord Derby
never employed him after. 

Zoffany the following year painted another whole-
length portrait of this enchanting actress, leaning
against a pedestal, in theatrical costume, which was
most beautiful. The expression of her countenance. 

200 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

and the penetrating look of her lively eyes, was
fully as well portrayed as . by Lawrence, or even
more so. 

On my return home I got the red curtained room
ready for Charles Papendiek. A table, inkstand, &c.,
were requisite, and as we did not possess superflui-
ties of anything, these were all additional expenses,
although but trifling. He was to practise the flute in
his brother's room, and to use that as his study
whenever his bedroom would not suflice. 

I was just in time to take leave of the Stowes,
who were now quitting Windsor. I have not said
much about them lately, as there was no change
among us. The little' kindnesses passing between us
rather increased than diminished, and our mutual
friendship strengthened. They took lodgings in
Lower Berkeley Street, where they hoped by giving
good concerts to get into the society of the nobility,
which only partially succeeded. Miss Stowe was to
be presented, and to dance at court on the King's
birthday. This, as the Queen did not object, but
rather approved, was quite a success. We recom-
mended Noverre to teach the minuet. 

The spring was genial, and as the days lengthened
more amusement seemed necessary for the King than
the plan already laid down. The beautiful gardens
of Kew and Richmond, where the Royal pair, sur-
rounded by their children, used in former days to 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 201 

walk from six to eight on fine evenings, were now
recalled with regret; and to find a substitute for
them at Windsor was attended with insurmountable
difficulty, for with all the magnificent walks and rides
round the neighbourhood, not one that was private
could be found. The garden between the Upper and
Lower Lodges was more of a passage to both than a
retreat into the fresh air ; moreover, every window
looked into it. At length Qascoigne's house in the
Home Park was looked at, and their Majesties were
so pleased with it that it was at once arranged for
their reception for a few weeks. 

The house stood upon a hill, rather to the right
of the public path leading from Windsor to Datchet.
It contained two stories, each with bay windows, and
had a pretty garden, and all offices &c. requisite for
his station as one of the keepers. 

The Queen was so pleased with it that she with the
Princesses and her ladies often passed their mornings
there, taking new milk, an egg, and a rasher of home-
cured bacon for their lunch, and their cup of coffee
after, which Mrs. Qascoigne made excellently. The
Koyal party enjoyed it much for two seasons, and so
pleased were their Majesties with their accommodation,
that on quitting this charming retreat, permission
was given to the Gascoignes to let lodgings of such
rooms as they did not occupy if it could be of ad-
vantage to them. They were of course grateful, and 

202 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

adopted the plan. Their son was soon raised to the
position of head groom ; and on their fiftieth or
Golden Wedding Day, the King gave an entertain-
ment in the garden of the Lodge to fifty of each sex,
dinner, tea, and dancing, Mr. and Mrs. Gascoigne
leading off the first dance. 

We now advanced to the cheerful season, both
for London and the country. Baron Dillon arrived
from teland within a day or two of the birthday,
and I again went to London with the Jervois's, accom-
panied by the Baron, Mr. Papendiek taking the little
girls to St. James's, and I joining him at his lodgings
at Kohler's. We immediately went to Miss Pohl to
be equipped for the Abbey, where this year, 1790,
the cap was introduced that will be remembered as
bearing that name. Mrs. Jervois wore her purple
silk, cap blonde and gauze, black gauze cape, and
cloak elegantly trimmed with lace. Miss Jervois,
her gold worked muslin, white silk cloak trimmed
with lace, lawn and lace cap with purple ribbon.
The youngest gu'l had a mushn gown, and cloak and
cap like her sister. Miss Pohl had only Miss King
to assist her, so she undertook the cloaks, and for
the rest of the things required we repaired to Mrs.
Barlow, who had been recently married, and who
finished her work in a peculiar style of elegance. The
Baron, who went shopping with us, observed that to
see her was alone quite enough to attract, exclusive 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 203 

of the taste displayed in her millinery. I wore my
muslin with jacket, a new black gauze cloak, the
very one in Coss^'s family picture, and a lawn cap
with lace edges and purple ribbon. 

The first of this series of Abbey concerts took
place on May 28. The Jervois's tickets were for the
gallery, mine was for the middle aisle, and the
Baron being put at the head of the tenor chorus
singers was of course in the orchestra, and between
the acts he divided his attentions between us. 

Storace this year appeared as the new singer.
She sat in thfe centre and sang ' Dove sei/ On her
right sat Mrs. Billington, who sang ' Pious orgies,'
Cramer answering the sentences obbligato. It was
indeed sublime. Mara, on the left, sang ' Farewell, ye
limpid streams,' in a manner not to be described for
its excellence. The other singers of note all acquitted
themselves to perfection, duetts, quartetts, quintetts,
besides solos, being judiciously chosen, with superb
choruses, and the Coronation Anthem. 

It was a fine day, and we walked home through
the Park together at the side of the Eoyal carriages.
The Queen remarked to Mr. Papendiek at dinner that
our party had done honour to the Abbey meeting,
and she regretted that I had been alone in the aisle,
although she was sure I had been fully gratified ; as
indeed I was. 

We went also together to the Exhibition, the 

204 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Baron insisting upon the Jervois's getting their bon-
nets from Mrs. Baxlow. Mrs. Jervois's was silk with
a deep lace fall, and those of the girls were Leghorn
with purple trimmings. 

As far as I can recollect, Ralph West exhibited
this year his colossal figure of the Devil calling up
his Legions, from ' Paradise Lost ' ; Lawrence his por-
traits of Miss Farren, of the Duke of Portland, and
of Lord Abercorn's two sons in Vandyke dresses ;
Zoffany his two Indian pictures of ' The Tiger Hunt,'
himself being introduced, seated in all the pomp of
Eastern magnificence, and of the ' Cock Fight.' Of
the two men standing in the foreground, whose birds
are supposed to have been brought to the cruel
sport, one is a portrait of the late Colonel Martin, of
Leeds Castle in Kent, who on coming to this country
was introduced to the family of his friend Zoffany,
whose acquaintance he had made in India. He im-
mediately demanded the hand of Cecilia Zoffany in
marriage, she being then about sixteen or seventeen
years old, and beautiful in the extreme. The Colonel
was a fine, handsome-looking man, amiable and kind-
hearted, and of immense property. She, foohsh girl,
refused this eligible offer, and he retired to his castle
disappointed and mortified. He hved secluded, and
at his death left his riches to a family of the name of
Wykeham, strangers to him, as he had no relatives.
His castle became a complete ruin. ; 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 205 

Cecilia contrived to fall in love with Mr. Thomas
Horn of Chiswick, fearing that her father would
marry her to some one she could not bear, as she
termed it. He was an amiable man, but extremely
plain, and not very prepossessing. His habits were
retiring, and he devoted himself to the school which
his father kept at Chiswick with universal honour
and credit to himself. Both families entirely dis-
approved of the match, but Thomas Horn was
flattered by the preference of the young lady, and
they were united. Mr. Zoffany afterwards recom-
mended a general reconciliation on all sides, to
encourage the young people to do well ; and at last
they were received by both families. They had a
fine family, and went on remarkably well. Zoflany
painted a whole-length portrait of Dr. Horn, the
father, in his full canonicals, with spirit, and in his
first style of excellence. It was a capital likeness,
and was exhibited. 

The young couple after a time had the school,
which they continued upon the same plan at the
Manor House, where all for some time proceeded
well. Eventually, however, one circumstance and
another brought on most unfortunate disputes, and
the Horn family interfering too severely and very in-
judiciously, Cecilia left her husband, and they were
never again reconciled. 

Mrs. Zoffany had two more daughters after Mr. 

206 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

ZoflFany's return, now Mrs. Beachcroft and Mrs.
Oliver, and as they grew up they were injudicious
intruders at the Manor House, and it was principally
through the violence of their tempers coming into
collision with the equally bad ones of Mrs. Thomas
Horn and of Miss Horn, that the disputes began
which ended in the unhappy way that I have men-
tioned. It was never supposed by Cecilia's friends
that she acted criminally. Indiscreetly, certainly;
for as her beauty never faded with her increasing
years, her vanity kept pace with them ; but her un-
happiness arose more from her dreadfully passionate
temper than from any other cause. She evinced
resentment and vindictiveness to her husband and
her children, who gave him great trouble. 

The school diminished, not unnaturally. Thomas
Horn therefore gave it up, and retired to his living,
which was in the city of London. His wife died
early. 

To return to our sdjour in town. The Jervois's
would not remain over the birthday, principally on
account of its being a gala day at Eton, their son
being, as will be remembered, an Etonian. Mr.
Burgess and our party at home enjoyed the sight of
the boats &c. from Mr. Jervois's lawn, where they
were invited to partake of the gaieties. 

We went as usual to the dressing-rooms of the
Queen and Princesses — the little girls in their summer 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 207 

white frocks, sashes, the Princess's gifts, with ribbons
to match in their caps, and their new long best
gloves of a light colour, tied above the elbow ; I in
my Abbey dress. 

The Queen had been struck with the appearance
of the Jervois's, and asked me much about them.
I repeated to her Majesty what I knew about their
former life at Armagh, and about their arrangements
since they came over to this country, and she
answered that she thought they looked like rational
people. Then she said, *And Baron Dillon — why
did he join the chorus singers in the orchestra ? ' I
told her Majesty that it was from a feeling of respect
to the King, who patronised the Fund so liberally. 

Mr. Papendiek told me afterwards that the King
would never be on friendly terms with the Baron, nor
with any of his subjects who accepted honours from
foreign potentates, especially without his permission,
as in the Baron's and poor Zofiany's case. After all,
the title is no more than knighthood ; not hereditary. 

After the dressing-room visits and our dinner, I
went to see the company at the drawing-room. Mrs.
and Miss Stowe passed ; the mother in some second-
hand vamped-up dress ; the daughter in white silk,
with aerophane petticoat and trimmings embroidered
in silver, with blonde on the sleeves, neck, and stoma-
cher, her mother's pearls and lappets. Miss Stowe
was tall, of a lively, pleasing appearance, and looked 

208 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

remarkably well. Bell Stowe was with a friend in
the King's presence-chamber, with ourselves, to see
the company pass, and at night she sat with her
mother at the ball, where her sister danced the last
minuet with Lord Valletort, the present aged Earl of
Mount Edgcumbe. 

It was difficult to get ball-room tickets on account
of the small size of the apartment. The music-gallery
was opposite to the seats of their Majesties, the
Princes and Princesses, there being a gallery on each
side for the spectators. I had only been once before,
two or three years previous to the one I am writing
of, but I cannot recollect exactly which year, to see
the Prince Ferdinand of Wurtemberg, who had come
over to ask the Princess Augusta in marriage, then
certainly the most beautiful creature one could wish
to behold. On the Queen's birthday he danced at
Court, and in order to see his beauty and elegant
manner Mr. Papendiek got us tickets for the following
birthday ball. But, alas, in the meantime the King
had refused his suit, and he sat in the background
and would not come foi-ward. He was two removes
from the dukedom, besides which the King would
not let the younger Princesses marry before the elder.
Prince Ferdinand was in the Austrian service, and
signally distinguished himself in the taking of Bel-
grade from the Turks. 

The Stowes soon after this left London for their 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 209 

home in the North, and about three years later they
returned to London to present Bell, but she did not
dance at court. They went to the same lodging,
and when I called upon them I was received with the
same warmth of friendship. I was then with the
Queen, and had no home to ask them to, which they
were aware of, but which I regretted. They re-
mained only the one season, and then went back
to the North, where soon after their being settled in
their home the youngest married a Scotch baronet,
of the name of Kinloch. He had property quite
equal to hers, but was of an imbecile mind, and
much older than Bell Stowe. He died soon, leaving
an heir and two daughters. 

The widow now (1838) Uves in Eaton Place,
Belgrave Square. The young baronet. Sir David
Kinloch, studied under the Eev. Morrice, where my
eldest daughter's son, Adolphus Oom, at the same
time received part of his education. The eldest
daughter married, long after, a minister, Mr. Ryder,
and resided wholly in Yorkshire. 

As long as the mother lived these ladies never
visited London without calhng, at her express desire,
to see me, but since the death of dear, dear Mrs.
Stowe, I have totally lost sight of the daughters. 

I now had to get my little girls' summer bonnets,
and went to Mrs. Barlow's for them. They were
not expensive, the two being under a guinea. Mr. 

VOL. II. P 

210 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Barlow, on his marriage, did not give up his lucrative
business in Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, but
made Miss Wolfe sole superintendent of it ; a charge
which she was fully capable of undertaking. He
supplied from his shop the materials required by his
wife for her business, and the two concerns worked
together well. They were an industrious couple, and
brought up a large family respectably, the sons to
different trades, and the daughters apprentices to
their mother. 

We all missed Salomon's concert, which my
cousin told me was not full. Mr. Papendiek dined
with him one day after that, and handed him into
the carriage, when he set off for Vienna to engage
either Mozart or Haydn for the ensuing winter. 

Mr. Papendiek took Mr. Jervois two or three
times to hear the concerts at the Queen's House, and
the ladies of the family to see that elegant mansion
on one of the mornings when the Queen was out. 

Our visit to London was in all respects successful,
and we were met warmly again on our return home.
Charles Papendiek had hastened to London to be
present at the Abbey meeting, and to be fitted up
with clothes and linen. A good deal of his outfit
was done at home, so as to save expense, but this, of
course, gave me trouble and work. 

THE TBIE OOF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 211 

CHAPTER XX. 

Death of the Governor of the Round Tower— Mrs. Meyer and her sons —
John Meyer — Charlotte's music — ^Their Majesties propose vidting
Weymouth — Shaw House — The doctors and the King — ^Double
carriages with cane bodies — ^The Princesses — ^The Princess Royal and
her mother — ^The Papendiek girls constantly at the Lodge — John
Meyer taken ill — Sixpenny schoolmistress — ^First 'Royal mail' to
Weymouth — Princess Amelia at Eastbourne — The King benefited
by the sea air — Charlotte visits her grandmother — Dissolution of
Parliament — Mr. Papendiek becomes a 'Denizen' — The Queen's
punctiliousness — Mr. Montagu — Mrs. Papendiek's last visit to Ken-
sington — Dr. Majendie — Mrs. Trimmer — Mrs. Majendie — Domestic
disturbances — Terrific wind — Frightful storm at the end of November
— ^The chimney falls — Great damage done generally — Frederick
breeched — ^The joke &lls flat — ^The Blagrores — Mrs. Meyer and her
son — Rebeccai the artist — Amusing talent — Coloured sands — Hawes
— Miss Miers, a violin player — Famous breakfast rolls — ^The Widow
Hodgson — Death of notable personages. 

In the King's household the death of the Duke of
Montague made a vacancy, as he had been Governor
of the Eound Tower. His nephew, Lord Viscount
Brudenell, had made an offer of marriage to Lady
EHzabeth Waldegrave, which their Majesties favoured,
and the King created him Earl of Cardigan and gave
him the vacant post. Another acquisition was brought
to the Eoyal party by the appointment of Lady
Mary Howe to succeed Lady Elizabeth. 

P2 

212 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

The marriage, however, did not take place till
the beginning of the following year. 

Towards the end of the month (June) I received
a letter from Mrs. Meyer to say that she was coming
over to Eton to place her son William at the College,
and would dine with us, if so convenient, bringing
her son John. I was delighted, and I invited
Caroline from Mrs. Eoach's to meet her mother and
brothers. It was a Sunday on which she proposed
coming, but for so dear a friend I could not say nay.
The scholars are usually entered at Eton a month
before the vacation, that the masters may have time
to find out their acquirements and place them
accordingly before the re-opening of the school.
William was about fifteen ; John, a year or more
older, but he was designed for the East Indies, either
in the military or the civil service, and Mrs. Meyer
had not made up her mind how to fill up his time
in the interval. These hopefuls had just left Dr.
Crawford's school at the Manor House, and I beUeve
it was just about this time that Dr. Horn established
himself there. In looking round our house Mrs.
Meyer discovered the cubby-hole of a room ad-
joining the nursery, the fourth, as I have before
described, on that floor, and she said in a moment,
•• I wish you would take John, and let him sleep
here.' I pointed out every objection to the plan, but
with her engaging, persuasive manner she overruled 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 213 

them all, and I reluctantly agreed to take him at a
guinea a week. He arrived as soon as we were
ready to receive him, and did not prove at all an
agreeable inmate. He was very restless, never ready
for our meals, and inattentive to all my regulations.
I told him after a week that his remaining with us
would depend upon himself; that our time was laid
out in convenience to the hours at the Lodge, and
that from that moment I should never wait for him,
but should expect him to be exact to the stipulations
made with his mother. I put him in the way of
reading with dictionaries and maps, bought him the
books &c. that he required, and things then went
on better. 

The little girls passed their days at Mrs. Eoach's.
Frederick was teaching himself to spell by placing
the letters of the alphabet on the ground, and I
was always fully occupied. Poor Georgy could not
walk yet. He was never quite well, and suddenly
threw out an eruption all over him, of a hard, not
watery substance, almost like warts. Some spoke
of smallpox, but Dr. Mingay did not give it a name.
He very soon after inoculated him, but it did not
take, and he certainly never had that disease. We
kept him in the air as much as possible, and he got
better, but was far from strong. 

During Mrs. Eoach's hohdays, Charlotte con-
tinued her music lessons with Eodgers at home, and 

214 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

progressed nicely. The idea of learning music was
awakened in young Meyer's mind, and he began with
Rodgers also. When his brother went home for the
holidays, John accompanied him for a few days, and
on Mr. Papendiek going to Kew with the Eoyal
family, he called upon Mrs. Meyer to inquire her
opinion on our proceedings, when she expressed
herself as more than pleased, and said he was an
altered being. She confided to Mr. Papendiek that
she had discovered a growing attachment between
him and Miss Green, which could not be allowed to
go on, as she was at least five years older than he
was, and the family would think it a wrong thing
to be encouraged. 

On his return to us, poor fellow, I could not
help feeling an interest in him. Miss Green, though
very plain, was clever, lively, and engaging, and they
had grown up together from childhood. We pur-
sued the same rules as before, and I allowed him
to practise in the drawing-room in the afternoons. 

This season their Majesties were to pass six
weeks only at Weymouth, principally for the purpose
of sailing, and they were to visit only in the
vicinity. 

Before they started they were to pass single days
with the different noblemen near Windsor ; and a
day being appointed for the Eoyalties to go to Lord
Ailesbury's at Tottenham Park, Sir Joseph Andrews 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 215 

came over to Windsor to ask if they would stop at
Shaw to breakfast, or if they would honour him with
further commands. The Queen saw him, and ex-
pressed her thanks for his continued loyalty, and
fully explained to him her fears that on the King's
account it would be better not to accept his invi-
tation. Her Majesty, however, agreed that they
should changes horses immediately in froiit of Shaw
Lawn, which would give the company an oppor-
tunity of seeing them. 

It was a fine day, and the Royal Family were in
sociables, and stood up, bowing and smiling graciously
to the assembled multitude. The Andrews family,
the Mayor of Newbury, the principal townspeople,
the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood, with
two bands of music, made an imposing display. 

At that time we were not personally acquainted
with Sir Joseph, but in after days we became
intimate friends. He always spoke with pleasure of
the manner in which my father and Mr. Papendiek
received him at Windsor and introduced him to the
Queen. 

The present object of the doctors was to prevent
the King from dozing during the day, and also to try
and keep him from brooding over things too closely.
The French Eevolution was going on, and afiairs in
that country were becoming very serious. Holland,
too, was unsettled, and they were very anxious that 

216 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

his Majesty should be called upon to do as little
business as possible. 

The King could not be on horseback after 12
o'clock, as the heat of the sun on his head was much
feared. The Queen, therefore^ had three double car-
riages made with cane bodies, and covered in with
silk or oilskin, according to the weather, and thus
they were enabled to pay noon visits to the sweet
country seats near at hand, and beguile the time
until dinner, at four. 

It was during this year that on the Queen* being
told that she must devote her time to everything that
might benefit the King's health, her Majesty made
the foUowiog observation: 'Then I pity my three
younger daughters, whose education I can no longer
attend to.' 

I beheve we must all admit that it fell short of
that of the three elder Princesses, who after they had
left the schoolroom continued to be constantly
employed ; and from the excellent examples before
them of industry and unselfishness, combined with
their own perseverance and other good quaUties
which had been inculcated from their youth by their
mother, were rendered not only very clever women,
but thoroughly useful members of society. 

The Princess Eoyal, unfortunately, just at this
time, rather set herself against the Queen. She was
incensed at her constantly inviting to Windsor the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 217 

daughters of such famihes as were attached to the
Government party, saying that they could not amuse
the King, but only ran idly about the house, inter-
rupting everybody; and she desired her lady in
waiting to tell all these visitors that she never
received anyone in the morning. Her Koyal High-
ness now averred that she had never hked the Queen,
from her excessive severity, that she had doubted her
judgment on many points, and went so far as to say
that she was a silly woman. 

The Princess undertook to look after the in-
struction of Princess Ameha, and had she, poor thing,
enjoyed only tolerable health, she must have greatly
improved under the tuition of the Princess Koyal.
Charlotte was of the same age as Princess AmeUa,
and passed very many mornings with her in this
advantageous way, and improved rapidly. 

Madame de Lafitte attended at the Lodge three
times a week to teach the Princess Koyal German,
which -imprinted an awe on the minds of my girls of
the attention learning required. Her Koyal Highness
was also completing a set of drawings, and would
allow Eliza to come sometimes with her sister to see
her draw, and she would give h.er little easy bits to
try and copy, and so encouraged the taste she began
to show for that branch of art. She was indeed most
kind to them both, and the way in which our child-
ren were taken up at the Lodge gave them respect 

218 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

among many, although I truly hope and verily be-
lieve that they never at any time showed any feeling
of vanity or superiority among their young friends
on this account. 

One morning, a little while before the Eoyal
Family left for Wejnnouth, young Meyer, on coming
down to breakfast, complained of sore throat. In a
few moments Dr. Mingay was in the house, said it was
inflammation of the glands of the throat, and should
it increase within the next twenty-four hours he
would have him removed. He put a large blister on
from ear to ear, and bled him about the neck with
leeches. Then he arranged his bed so that the
window could be open during the day, and the door
shut. Spiced vinegar was to be constantly kept hot
about the passages, and as much air let into the
house as possible. At night all appeared to be going
on favourably. Dr. Mingay's assistant came round,
dressed and renewed the blisters, and gave directions
about the medicines, which were to be given by Mr.
Papendiek or myself. 

The following morning Dr. Mingay was with us
very early in dishabiUe — velvet cap, no wig, shppers,
and dressing gown, which at once proclaimed to the
neighbours that something was wrong. He was
satisfied with his patient, and now said that the
illness would not become infectious, although Meyer
was of a gross and unhealthy habit. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 219 

Within a week he was able to leave his room, and
then soon began to take short walks abroad, in which
I accompanied him, as Mr. Papendiek could not, and
the poor boy was not yet fit to go out alone. How-
ever, in another week or so, all was as it had been
before, except that I had taken my little Georgy to
Kensington, as I feared for him, being so excessively
deUcate, in the atmosphere of sickness, even though
the illness was pronounced to be not absolutely
infectious. 

As I could not spare my nurse, I got a girl who
had often been recommended to me, the sister of the
sixpenny schoolmistress, to take charge of baby,
under my mother's eye. She took him into the
gardens nearly aU day long, and was so attentive to
him, proving herself a most excellent, trustworthy
creature, that he decidedly improved under her care,
and my mother insisted upon keeping them a fort-
night longer than I had proposed. 

During this interval the preparations for the
journey to Weymouth had been going on, and some
time in the month of August the Eoyal party left
Windsor. The first two carriages were filled by
their Majesties, the three elder Princesses, and the
three ladies in waiting ; the equerries had their own
coach. Then followed Misses Burney and Planta in
a chaise ; Messrs. Bowman and Duncan in another
chaise ; and my father, my husband, and Messrs. 

220 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Kamus and Grieswell in a coach. The women,
Sandys, Mackenthum, Willes, and Turner went by
the mail, which was started this season for the first
time, and purposely for the accommodation of the
Eoyal Family, taking the title on this account of the
' Royal Mail/ It had, nevertheless, the privilege of
taking ordinary passengers and luggage if any
spare accommodation were found after Royalty was
served. 

The Royal travellers, with their suite, just enu-
merated, slept the first night at Andover, and the
following day proceeded to Weymouth. Princess
AmeUa had been for some weeks past at Eastbourne,
and the Princesses Mary and Sophia remained at
Windsor. 

There was nothing that I can recollect of any
particular interest to recount of this trip to Wey-
mouth, but it was successful as far as the King's
health was concerned, as his Majesty returned
considerably refreshed and invigorated by the
change. 

On the return home of my little Georgy, Char-
lotte went on a visit to Kensington for a month.
She resumed her lessons with Theodore Smith, and
my brother taught her, as before, much useful know-
ledge. She dawdled about, too, after her grand-
mother, and helped her to pick fruit and do many
little things in the house, and by this means caught 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 221 

sight of many female duties and employments, which
through life she never forgot. 

During the six weeks of the summer hohdays,
Mrs. Blagrove sent her boys with Mr. Burgess to the
coast, to give them sea breezes after the measles. 

We went on quietly at home, and not much of
incident occurred. The children took great pleasure
in walking every afternoon to see the mail start
from the King's Mews in St. Albans Street. Poor
little dears — they always thought it ran better when
a letter of ours to their dear father was in the basr. 

In one of these perambulations I met Mrs.
Clarke, who, it will be remembered, was with her
husband and family put into that excellent house
near the corner of Sheet Street, at the time that the
King had made John Clarke one of his junior pages,
and I believe their son and daughter are living there
to this day. 

As Mr. Brown and Mr. Montagu were in the
same house, neither had a vote ; nor had Grieswell,
who was put into a cottage within the yard belonging
to the Clerk of the Works' house. This was un-
fortunate, as a dissolution of Parhament was about
to take place, or had already come to pass, and it
was with the utmost difficulty that we could bring in
two Government members, the Eadicals having such
great interest, with Eamsbottom, the Queen's ale
brewer, at their head. Lord Mornington, the present 

222 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Marquis of Wellesley, was one of the new members,
but who came in with him I regret to say I cannot
recollect. We were delighted to hear the men of
the choir singing the glees and hymns composed by
his lordship's father and grandfather, as they passed
in the procession. 

The election did not take place till November, so
Mr. Papendiek was on the spot to give his vote, on
which occasion he became a * Denizen,' the only
reward for his long attendance in the King's illness.^
The Queen never approved of the King's doing any-
thing for her people ; yet John Clarke was her
footman, so we felt a little pang at not having that
desirable house, especially as his Majesty had once
intended to grant one. 

GriesweD at that time fully hoped to marry Miss
Mackenthum, so he secured the cottage at 11/. a
year, the rent being afterwards raised to 15/. Mrs.
Montagu did not come to Windsor on account of the
intrusion of Brown, so Mr. Montagu took his leisure
days at Kew, his services never being required at
Weymouth. 

After the return of the travellers, my father
would have me to pass the end of October with them 

^ The common acceptation of the word ' Denizen ' does not suggest
any idea of reward to our minds, but in days past it appears to have
borne another signification. Dr. Brewer, in his Dictionary of Phrase and
Fable, says : ' Denizen — a made citizen ; i.e. an alien who has been
naturalised by letters patent (old French, donaison, a free gift).' 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 223 

at Kensington, telling me that it would be my last
visit, as the three years' lease was drawing to a close,
and he did not think of renewing it. Mr. Papendiek
said he would spare me, so I took Eliza with me,
and we stayed near a fortnight. The weather was
heavenly, and those beautiful gardens were in the
autumn exquisitely charming. It was a hard parting,
and I could even now drop a tear at the recollection
of those days. 

The Queen, on being again settled at home, re-
sumed her accustomed duties, and Dr. Majendie, who
had been promised the living of Windsor, now under-
took the parochial business of the place, with every
due exertion. Dr. John Bostock, who then held it,
was decUning fast, and no longer left his room, and
the work of the parish was somewhat neglected.
Dr. Majendie came to the Queen to represent to her
the very unsatisfactory state in which he found the
schools, and advised her Majesty to request Mrs.
Trimmer to come down to Windsor to regulate
them. She shortly arrived with one of her daughters,
and was lodged with Madame de Lafitte. Mrs.
Thackaray, who had hitherto had the charge of the
schools, as I have before mentioned, was, no doubt,
an excellent woman, but having early lost her
mother, and being bred in the lap of affluence, she
seemed lost when adversity fell upon her, and in-
capable of exertion. Mrs. Trimmer soon set the 

224 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

whole in excellent order, and Madame de Lafitte,
taking an active part in the business, induced many
of the ladies of the neighbourhood to attend as
visitors, out of respect to the Queen. 

Mrs. Trimmer did not approve of our having re-
duced the Sunday School to a certain number ; but
as that had been suggested partly by me, I begged
Dr. Majendie to explain to her that the town of
Windsor itself contained a great many poor families,
and that with the horse and foot barracks in addition,
the number of children was at least six or seven
hundred — too many for a limited number of teachers
to look after properly. Three hundred was our
present number, the girls and boys being divided.
Each girl had a cap, tippet, and print gown given to
her to put on when she came to school at nine
o'clock on a Sunday morning, the parents being
desired to send their children cleanly washed, and
with decent shoes and stockings. They were taught
to read, and to repeat the Catechism, and were after-
wards taken to church, the same for a shorter time
being carried on again in the afternoon. 

Dr. Majendie, having seen all things settled, left
home for a short time, and before he went, he entreated
his wife, if she should go to the assembly, not to
dance, as he did not think her well. She was a tall,
very pretty, and very brilliant-looking woman, and
the officers and gentlemen were always a little jocose 

THE TIME OF QDEEN CHARLOTTE 225 

with the doctor for keeping her so closely quiet to
himself. This night, finding her only under the
protection of Miss Buckeridge, the lady patroness,
and the Lady Bountiful of the town, an old maid
living with her brother, affluent, gay, and overbear-
ing, Mrs. Majendie was beset, and at length prevailed
upon to dance. The consequence was that she was
taken ill in the night, and her constitution was so
weakened by this illness that most of the children
who were born after it died in decUne. 

She was a Miss Eoutledge, and with her widowed
mother and sister had come over from Ireland during
the troubles there. They established themselves in
the smaller house at the corner of Datchet Bridge,
and seeing a good deal of company the young ladies
were soon brought into notice. Dr. Majendie made
an ofier to the sister, who told him that her affections
were engaged, but that as he expressed so much
regard for their family she would candidly own that
her sister's heart was free. The proposal was
accepted, and she became the wife. Miss Eoutledge
was a quiet, interesting person, of an excellent under-
standing, with a sweet face, and a disposition rather
retiring than brilliant, Hke her sister, Mrs. Majendie.
She had fallen in love with Dr. Fisher, whom I have
already mentioned as having been for some time
engaged to a lady in Devonshire. Miss Eoutledge,
as will be supposed, never married. She assisted in 

VOL. II. Q 

226 C50URT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

bringing up her sister's children, to the no small
gratification of the doctor. When the living became
vacant he established himself with his family in the
Parsonage, immediately opposite to the parish church.
He fixed Mrs. Thackaray and her family in his house
in the Cloisters, reserving to himself two rooms for
his use when in residence. 

A curious incident happened in our family about
this time. One morning, our servant Milly knocked
at our door earlier than usual, and asked to speak to
her master, who went out to her in his dressing-
gown. Then she showed him that the parlour
window was open, and that a board had been fixed
from it over the railings, by which means our lad,
who was missing, must have escaped with his livery.
Mr. Papendiek at once went to the mother's house,
where he found the lad, who said, * I intended, sir,
in the course of the day to return the livery, which
I would not have put on had I had any other clothes.
I unfortunately fell in love with your nurse, and
though she is much older than myself I meant to
marry her ; but finding that she granted her favours
to Mr. Burgess as well as to myself, I determined upon
this step. I shall leave Windsor and service, and
hope, sir, never to trouble you ; but should my
mother ask your assistance, I trust you will befriend
her.' Poor things ! we never heard of them after,
and we determined to tell no one of the occurrence. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 227 

I did not look out for another boy at once, as
I did not wish to begin with a new servant before
Christmas ; but I sent for the girl I had taken to
Kensington, and by making a little fresh arrange-
ment of the work of the house, we went on very
comfortably. 

The autumn of this year, 1790, was the most
stormy season that I ever remember. The wind,
which scarcely ceased for weeks, blew at times
terrifically, and was accompanied by heavy showers
or torrents of rain, and continued flashes of lightning.
The lower ground round Windsor was entirely inun-
dated. 

Our house, which stood higher than those near it,
was much exposed, particularly to the south-west,
from which quarter the wind generally blew, and
during one particular night, of which I, unfortunately,
cannot recollect the exact date, but I think it must
have been towards the end of November, a storm
broke over us with great fury. We had proposed a
little merry-making for the young ones, and I invited
our relations from Mrs. Eoach's, and Miss Meyer,
to sleep at our house, as I was able to accommodate
them while Mr. Burgess and his charges were away.
Our little evening being over at about eleven, or
somewhat later, I saw them all safe in bed, and then
we retired also. It had been, as usual, a stormy
evening, but having undressed myself, and being 

Q2 

228 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

tired, I thought I should soon sink into sleep, but for
a time this was impossible. The night was too
dreadful, and at about one o'clock the thunder and
wind were both so loud and so incessant that you
could scarcely tell one from the other. The lightning,
too, went on at intervals, but, after a time, the storm
seemed to abate a little, and nature being overpowered
we slept. At about three o'clock, however, or rather
after, we were thoroughly roused, for the noise was
terrific. I took Georgy into my bed, while I sat up
in my dressing-gown, and Frederick remained sleep-
ing in the opposite comer. Mr. Papendiek went
round to all the rooms with candles. The nurse now
slept with Milly, but the young girl begged to come
in to me. Charles Papendiek's door was locked, and
he called out that he would rather encounter the
elements than open his door to anyone, and in the
morning he told us that his opinion was that people
were often in the night struck with evil spirits,
whence came murders and other horrors, so that he
fastened his door and never opened it upon any pre-
tence. The young ladies' door (Miss Meyer, my
sister, and Charlotte) Mr. Papendiek also found
locked, to our astonishment. He knocked and spoke,
but received no answer, so we determined to Usten
and watch, but not to disturb them. Their excuse
in the morning was that they had locked their door
fearincr the young men might come in for fun. 

THE TME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 229 

Charlotte had heard part of the noise and spoke,
but the others never woke, and she fell asleep again.
Meyer was glad of a Ught. That side of our house
not joining to any other was exposed to the full fury
of the elements, and his bed, with him in it, had
rolled upon its castors across the floor. Shortly
before five came the dreadful crash. The garret
chimney fell, and our house seemed shaken to its
foundations. After this, though the Ughtning and
rain went on, the thunder and wind somewhat
abated. Poor little Fred had wakened up at last,
and asked if I thought God were angry by sending
such a storm. I took him into my bed, and he kept
saying he would be good, but I tucked him up and
kissed him, and he soon fell asleep again. 

The house was now up, fires hghted and breakfast
laid. About seven Forrest called, being the first to
inquire after us. He said that he found our house
was in a direct line from his, and as the lightning
had struck one or more of his chimneys, had broken
several of his windows (the glass paintings having
fortunately escaped unhurt), and had carried off the
tops of trees and everything in its path, he feared
we might also have sustained some damage. From
him I learnt how the outside world had fared. The
small belfry tower just at the back of the Delavauxs'
house was destroyed, and many of their windows were
broken ; most of the lamps in the streets also ; and 

230 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

the water was rushing down with such force that
people could scarcely stand against it. In the night
the watchmen sprung their rattles, and everybody
was running about frightened. 

Jervois and others had been assisting More to get
out from their stables his two teams of barge-horses,
as they feared both fire and water. The poor animals
were so frightened that this was accomplished with
great difficulty, and then they were haltered in the
open air. At one time the water did rush in, but
in the course of the day it subsided, and all seemed
hushed into a quiet growling of the wind. 

Mrs. Trimmer mentions the storm in her Life,
and says that the water poured down the streets of
Brentford so violently that she could not cross over
to the school ; and I heard of considerable damage
being done in various parts of the country. 

Our fears appeased, we returned to our usual
employments, and on Christmas day we found our-
selves a quiet family party. 

On this day our dear Frederick was breeched, and
a total change of dress it then was for a boy. The
shirt was made like a man's, except that the collar
was large and frilled, and turned over the jacket
instead of being buttoned up. The jacket and trou-
sers were of cloth, the latter being buttoned over
the jacket, and the trousers only to the ankle bone.
Buttons, in number, size, and shape, to taste. Boots 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 231 

for children being then unknown, they had gaiters,
which went over the end of the trousers, and these
with strong shoes equipped them very properly for
walking. The greatcoat of the preceding year came
in again, but he had a new hat and cane, and the
sweet dear child looked, as he was, beautiful. 

After dinner on this Christmas day, his father
took him to the Queen and Princesses, and he was
then to eat plum pudding at the pages' table. Being
considered fond of eating, the whole pudding was
placed before him, when he laughed and said, * I am
afraid I cannot eat it all, but 1 will take a slice,' so
simply that the joke fell flat. About three of these
suits in a year, or five in two years, did very well.
Under-waistcoats and drawers were not then worn,
so I had the lining of the trousers made separate,
which ensured a proper cleanUness. Boys being in
breeches was a convenience in comparison to their
wearing frocks, or jean or nankeen tunics, which the
higher ranks usually kept on till their boys were six
or seven, my Fred being at this time scarcely four
years old. 

We now turned our thoughts to the nurse, on
whose uncle Mr. Papendiek called. He was greatly
incensed at the conduct of his niece, and quite agreed
with us that she should leave Windsor, as she could
not expect a character for respectability. Frowd, the
uncle, told Mr. Papendiek that it was the desire of 

232 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Burgess and this girl to get rid of Meyer, so the
one made mischief, or rather tried to make mischief,
by talking to old Delavaiix of my undue attention to
the boy, and the other by talking to people of her
own class. The niece did leave Windsor, but returned
to the place on her uncle's death some years after,
and took up his business, having married a relation
of the same name. She was always civil, and offered
her services to us, saying she should ever remember
with gratitude our kindness in not exposing her. 

When I was with the Queen, I had many oppor-
tunities of dealing with her for trifles, which her
Majesty always made a point of purchasing from the
smaller shops by way of encouragement, and for
these favours I always found poor nurse Frowd
grateful. 

Mrs. Blagrove wrote very soon to say that her
sons were to enter at Eton before the Easter recess,
where they would be lodged at a dame's, and
consequently would not return to us. She said
she hoped that their having remained with us a
year and eight or nine months had fully covered
the expense of furnishing the rooms for them. To
that observation I could but answer in the affir-
mative, and I added that I hoped she found them
improved generally, for with the exception of their
hours of study and exercise, they had passed their
time entirely with us, and I had endeavoured to 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 233 

give them nice ways and gentlemanly manners. I
also said that I hoped they felt the comfort of no
illness or delicacy remaining from the measles. Mrs.
Blagrove answered that she was satisfied^ but that
for the attendance and care which I had observed
Dr. Mingay had so liberally given, he had taken
care to charge amply. These Blagroves never showed
the slightest gratitude for my care, nor sent the
most trifling remuneration to my servants, or even a
remembrance to my children as playfellows of their
boys, who never called; and what is really extra-
ordinary, during their three years' residence at Eton
we never once accidentally met. 

Mrs. Meyer also wrote to tell us that she had
received letters from her son George, who was
anxious that his brother should sail with the first
ship, and that she was therefore using all despatch to
equip him as cadet, which would prevent his re-
turning to us. Thus we were at one fell swoop
liberated from all inconvenience and from all super-
fluous income ! 

During this autumn we had the celebrated Eebecca
at Windsor to paint the borders of the canopy and
throne-rooms in the Castle, and others of the state
apartments. This served as another amusement to
the King, who was constantly about with him watch-
ing the progress of his painting. In the evenings
Rebecca was generally in the music-room at the 

234 COURT AND PRTVATE LIFE IN 

Lodge, with West, Herschel, or anyone who had the
same privileges. His deceptive imitation of persons
and things was so wonderful that he caused con-
siderable amusement by this talent. I will mention
one or two anecdotes as illustrations of his power. 

On one side of the music-room all these chance
guests stood, while the other side was kept clear in
case the Eoyalties should come in from the card-room,
the harpsichord being in the centre, with the keys
turned towards that door, the musicians standing
round it in regular order. One evening Mr. Horn
appeared to be standing a little apart, with his hands
firmly clasped as usual, and in everybody's way. An
equerry came to request he would give room, as
the King was coming. He did not move till Eebecca
quickly darted forward, and carried the likeness to
the end of the instrument, and placing the Hghts
suitably, Horn then appeared to be standing there. 

Upon another occasion Horn was on the list to
perform, and at the moment that his turn came, he
appeared just upon the point of sitting down, with his
left hand throwing back the skirt of his coat, the
right hand being lifted up as if to steady the book. 

The King cried out, * Sit down, Horn — ^what, what ?
sit down,' when Eebecca peeped up and said, * He
will, your Majesty, as soon as I remove his efiigy.' 

Another evening when a small party was given at
the Castle after the embeUishments were completed. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 235 

the King went round with Eebecca to see the effect
when lighted up. In one of the rooms a large coal
was lying upon one of the superb new rugs, burning
and smoking as if fallen from the fire in poking.
The King called loudly, and turning to Harris, the
master of the Castle, said, ' I have so often told you
to be more careful of the fires.' Harris, of course,
quickly ran forward, and picking up the coal threw
it on the fire, shaking his hand as people do when
they feel the burn. Coming up to the spot Eebecca
said, * Did you bum your hand, Harris ? ' * Not
much,' he answered. ' Look again, and at the rug,'
then said Eebecca with a smile. *Poor feUow; it
was only a bit of paper which you burnt.' The
laugh, of course, was general. Many other jokes
were practised by Eebecca, but I have told enough
to show his cleverness. 

It was this season, too, I think, that Hawes, a
German, decorated the ceiling of the card-room at
the Lodge with coloured sands, from a design of
West's, which represented the four quarters of the
globe, with their different inhabitants and pro-
ductions, with Britannia in the centre, calling them
forth, as it were. This Hawes had been employed
by the great confectioners to decorate their plateaux,
and after a very short time had attracted universal
notice. He begged to be allowed to do this ceiling,
which was granted, and it lasted perfect for many 

236 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

years, only being destroyed when the Lodge was
pulled down in George the Fourth's time. His
manner of proceeding was to have sand of every
colour and shade put into small paper bags, folded
with a peak and a small aperture at the bottom,
through which he threw the sand on to a board
covered with strong cement. It was certainly a
wonderful art to judge exactly the effect that the
sand would produce, but as he worked from copies
for any performance of consequence there was no
evidence of original talent, and nothing great to
remain behind him, so his productions were soon
forgotten, though he attained considerable excellence
in his particular line. 

On the return of the Eoyal Family from Wey-
mouth, Mrs. Deluc was very anxious to introduce a
young friend of hers, a Miss Miers, then about sixteen,
a violin player, and begged Mr. Papendiek to contrive
a quartett, so that she should be heard. We fortu-
nately found an evening that the Griesbachs could
come, and with them she took the first violin parts in
some of the best of Haydn's and Mozart's quartetts, and
the second in others, and she could also take a tenor
in accompaniment. Her father was a Jew, a violin
player at Bath, and had taught his daughter since she
was ten years old. She was now an orphan, for her
mother, who was a Protestant and had brought up
her daughter in the same faith, had died soon after 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 237 

her husband, and while the girl was still quite a child.
The poor little thing was left under the guardianship
of an alderman of the city of London, named Smith,
who was a relation of the celebrated baker of that
name at Isleworth, for many years famed for a roll,
which was sought after far and near, and of which a
certain number were every morning put upon the
breakfast-table of their Majesties. Mrs. Deluc was
of Bath, though since her marriage she had lived at
Windsor, and this, together with the Isleworth con-
nection, probably led to the child being placed at
school there. My daughters can only remember her
as Widow Hodgson. 

Her playing was thought good as far ^s it went,
and had a professional tinge about it. The organist
at Isleworth was a good musician, and under him she
had continued to cultivate the talent she undoubtedly
possessed with great industry. 

It was Mrs. Deluc's object that Miss Miers should
play at the King's concert, and wished Mr. Papendiek
after hearing her twice to propose it to the Queen ;
but he naturally said that as Mr. Deluc was with
her Majesty every day, madame constantly with the
Princesses, and the young person her own friend,
why should he, Mr. Papendiek, make the proposal
and not themselves ? The fact was that they were
both too sly to venture upon what they knew the
Queen did not hke, but that Mr. Papendiek should 

238 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

bear the odium was what they would have liked.
The Misses Bumey and Planta were of the party
chez nous when Miss Miers played, and the latter
repeated the whole story to the Princesses, for them
to act in the matter as they thought best. They
considered that Mr. Deluc could do no harm by
mentioning the girl to the Queen ; but he would not,
and so the matter dropped, and Miss Miers went to
her guardian in London. 

About a year or more after, Mr. Hodgson, a Jew,
married her. He was in good business, had a town
house and a cottage at Clapham, but kept no
carriage. ' Mrs. Hodgson had eight children ; out of
all of them only the eldest and youngest boys lived.
The husband would not allow her to touch her in-
strument, but by stealth she endeavoured as much as
possible to keep it up. Her abilities, the very small
pittance they brought her, her subsequent mis-
fortunes and early death, are all well known to my
daughters, and need not be further described.
Before Mr. Hodgson died his business decUned,
which no doubt brought on his death prematurely.
Ultimately, of course, the house failed. 

During this year occurred several deaths .among
the great or noteworthy people of the world, a few
of which I will mention. 

Henry, Duke of Cumberland, the King's brother,
died in the summer, and Mrs. BiUington by his death 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 239 

lost a liberal protector. The King allowed the
widowed Duchess to keep Cumberland Lodge, at the
top of the Long Walk, in Windsor Great Park, but
all his Koyal Highness's fine instruments were sold by
pubUc auction. 

Joseph n.. Emperor of Germany, died this year
also. He was a kind friend to Mr. Papendiek while
at Vienna with Wendling, and to Zoffany while in
Tuscany and Vienna a great patron, conferring upon
him, as I have before mentioned, the order of Baron
of the Holy Roman Empire. His loss was much felt
in Germany, and he was deservedly lamented. 

Lord Heathfield died at Aix-la-Chapelle. He
was the renowned Elliot, Governor of Gibraltar, who
defended that stronghold in 1787 with red-hot balls. 

And the great comedian, Edwin, died in October. 

240 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Evening entertainment given by Lady Charlotte Finch to the younger
Princesses — Monetary difficulties — Frederick goes as a day scholar —
George at last walks — Anatomical fever — John Meyer turns out
badly — He dies on his way to India — Mrs. Blagrove and Mr. Papen-
diek — The servant Milly — Mrs. Papendiek losing health — Mrs,
Papendiek goes to London — The Royal Academy — Lawrences
picture — Artistes from Paris — Madame Krumpholtus — More Abbey
concerts— The Papendiek boys visit the King — David — Mrs. Roach
and Miss Albert — Regret at leaving the house at Windsor — Miss
Knissel — Mr. Cumberland — Miss Frederica Mackenthum — Dismissal
of Miss Bumey — Violent storm — Sad death of Mrs. Pick — The
Papendieks take a house in Dean's Yard— They settle down — ^Dif-
ficulties with Delavaux — The Queen's observations. 

The old year closed quietly and happily, and the
new year of 1791 opened favourably as to health
and the comforts around us, and a continuance of
such blessings as called for our grateful thanks to an
all-merciful Providence. 

To the younger Princesses and their schoolroom
attendants Lady Charlotte Finch gave an evening en-
tertainment on the first of January. Their Majesties
and the elder Princesses were also of the party. The
Pieldings and others of their friends acted a short
play, after which dancing finished the evening. 

The supper was excellent and elegant. A trifle 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 241 

was considered a new year's dish, and to make the
supper interesting this was served on a plateau by
Hawes. This depicted the principal events that had
taken place during the preceding year of pleasurable
recollection : — the Mornington election ; the glees
printed on ribbons ; Bebecca with his palette, copied
from an original of his own; a rowing match at
Eastbourne ; the Eoyal Weymouth Mail, and many
other devices. The trifle reaching the whole length
of the table within the plateau and being entirely
white, the contrast was brilliant and the effect new.
Deep Wedgwood* dishes, all of the same size, being
placed close together with the froth carried over the
edges, the divisions were not seen, and they had the
effect of one long dish. 

Highly delighted were the juvenile branches of
the famiUes present, and on the whole the intention
of the hostess was successful. 

I do not remember any occurrence among our
friends, either as to Christmas meetings and fes-
tivities, or in any other way, that calls for any
particular comment before the Eoyal Family left
Windsor for the birthday. I went up with the chil-
dren to take leave, telling the Queen and my friends
at the Lodge that I could not this time manage the
going to town. Mr. Papendiek took K5hler's second
floor, and his brother went with him, but they were
only a very short time absent. 

VOL. IK R 

242 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Now, being alone, I took the opportunity of
looking into our monetary affairs. I laid my bills
before me, which I well knew could not be paid this
quarter, and calculated how best to arrange matters. 

On Mr. Papendiek's return we settled to pay the
small ones, and Webb, who was grocer, butterman,
tallow chandler, &c., was to be paid in part, and the
same with Delavaux for coals and wood. 

He, as I expected would be the case, was very
unkind about it, spoke of his recommendation of
Burgess and the Blagrove boys, and added that if we
could not settle his account then it must accumulate,
and we should find it still more difficult. Of course
I knew this was true, but there are certain things
one must have, and I hoped to see my way a little
more clearly in the future. 

Our income was still the same, 200/. a year for
the page's appointment, lOW. for chamber bond, 25/.
allowed for lodging, with certain regular perquisites,
two and a half dozen of pitcher wine per annum, two
tallow candles a night in winter and one in summer,
besides a few chance perquisites from the Princesses*
room, shared equally with Duncan. 

We determined not again to take inmates, al-
though the furniture was there and paid for, but to
resume our former mode of living, with two maids
and a helping man. My nice little maid found our
work too much for her, which I feared would be the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 243 

case from her delicate health, occasioned by scrofula.
I engaged another servant, who settled with us, but
as I cannot recollect who she was she cannot have
excited any great interest.. 

We further determined to send Frederick as a
day-scholar to Mr. Ward's, and to keep the girls at
home under my tuition, not paying Mrs. Eoach any-
thing for the next quarter, which intelligence she
received with her usual friendliness. Eodgers was
still to give his 2s. Qd. lesson twice a week. 

We confined ourselves to one fire in the parlour,
where stood the pianoforte, and one in the nursery.
The cradle was brought during the day into the
parlour, as George did not yet walk, and I could
leave him sitting in it with his playthings and Fred
as his guard while I was busied near at hand. 

One day I heard loud talking, rocking, and laugh-
ing, and hastily running to see what had happened I
found George out of the cradle, which Fred said he
had managed by himself, standing by its side and
rocking it violently. He tried in a passion to tell me
something against Fred, whom he called Pletty, the
only word he attempted to say for some time, but he
was firm on his feet, and from the day of this event
he walked alone. The exercise seemed to improve
him, and he gradually gained strength. 

Frederick now began going to school. He
begged to be allowed to walk there alone instead of 

R 2 

244 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

being sent with a maid. Accordingly Mr. Papendiek
stood at the door to watch him safely across the
road, when he turned to the bridge in mistake, but
soon recollecting himself he looked at his hands to
be sure which was right and left, and then proceeded,
Mr. Papendiek following at a distance unperceived.
Dear child, he knocked at the door and entered
cheerfully, and on his return at twelve o'clock he
told us he was placed among the best-looking boys,
and was pleased with the whole concern. 

Fortunately the usher was a Frenchman, just
arrived from the Academy in Paris, very clever and
of good manners, as the French usually are. His
name was Deltit. He took a fancy to Frederick, and
immediately began Latin with him, and Mr. Ward
told us that at Easter he should put him to writing
and to begin figures, for that his capacity was so
good and his mind so eager for employment that they
scarcely knew how to fill up the school hours. I
begged Mr. Ward, nevertheless, to feel his way with
him and not to urge him too forcibly, as the child
was only now barely four years old. 

While the days were short and the weather not
favourable afternoon school was often unattended,
and when Charles Papendiek came back there was
generally a fire in the small parlour, which gave
ample room for play when he was not in it. 

Until Lent their Majesties and the elder Prin- 

THE TIME OP QUEEN CHARLOTTE 245 

cesses were at Windsor from Friday till Monday in
each week, and most of these days Charles Papendiek
dined at the Lodge with his brother and the one or
two other pages who came down in attendance. 

About this time my brother was seized with the
anatomical fever, and was considered in great danger
for several days. Mr. Ijong and the hospital phy-
sician attended him, and one of the nurses, termed
sisters, of the establishment was sent to take care of
him. An assistant of Mr. Devaynes, named Middle-
ton, also took particular interest in his recovery, and
the few nights that he was at the worst, this friend
would sit up with him as well as the nurse, as it was
necessary to give him nourishment constantly in the
smallest quantities, to bathe his nostrils with port
wine, to pour it down his throat with a quill, and
to watch him incessantly. 

In about three weeks the fever had quite left
him, and he was taken into the country, where he
rapidly recovered, even to increased cheerfulness.
Every precaution was taken to disinfect and purify
the rooms he had used. They were well ventilated
with fire and free air, and with burnt spices, vinegar,
and tobacco leaves, his clothes, bedding, &c., being
all washed in Ume water or destroyed. 

After his recovery he would not come to Wind-
sor, preferring to remain nearer London for the
benefit of medical advice. When he returned to his 

246 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

duties at the hospital, we were surprised and alarmed
at hearing that he was taken at once to the dis-
secting rooms ; but Mr. Long assured us it was best,
as, should he be affected by it, they would at once
remove him, and no harm could happen; but the
much more serious evil of being obliged to relin-
quish his profession, for which he had shown great
abihties, this, I am thankful to say, did not occur,
and the fever left no ill effects. 

Mr. Papendiek, during one of his attendances in
London, went down to see Mrs. Meyer at Kew, who,
to his surprise, seemed hurt that he had not acted
more as a guardian to her son while he was with us,
as he had got through a larger sum of money than
she had been prepared for. 

Mr. Papendiek pointed out to her clearly that his
duties never gave him time to look after any chance
inmates of his house, scarcely even his own family ;
that I had done my utmost to amuse him in a
rational way at home, either with cards or back-
gammon, of an evening when no music was going
on or no friend had dropped in ; that in his hours
of study I had endeavoured to help him in his
reading by advice and sympathy ; and that as far
as any knowledge of his expenses went, he had not
so much as given the smallest doticeur to any of our
servants. 

She seemed to feel this account sensibly, and Mr. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 247 

Papendiek would not leave her till she was fully
convinced how much she had been in error with re-
spect to our care and friendly treatment of one who
now proved to have so little deserved it ; for I regret
to add that he had turned out a great trial and
trouble to his mother. 

He came down to Windsor to say adieu, and I
was glad to see him, for I was sincere in all I had
professed, both to him and to his dear mother, and I
hoped the new life in India would give him a new im-
petus to well doing, and an opportunity for breaking
through bad habits and connections. 

Soon after he sailed, but a few days before the
ship reached her destination, he died, having been
seized with a return of that affection of the throat
from which he suffered when with us. This brought
on fever, and he sank under it. 

His brother George wrote, as may be imagined,
most affectingly to his mother, transmitted the sum
she had expended upon his outfit, and added 4,000/.
more for the benefit of his family. William Meyer
finished his term at Eton. We repeatedly asked him
to dine with us on days that we knew he could ac-
cept the invitation, but he constantly refused, and
during the three or four years he was at school, he
never even called. 

When the Blagroves arrived, Mr. Burgess was
with them for a month, during which time he called. 

248 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Mr. Papendiek gave him fully to understand that he
was surprised at his conduct, both as regards the
situation he held as a guardian of youth, and domes-
ticated as he had been in our family. He affected at
first not to understand to what Mr. Papendiek al-
luded, and then would not admit any wrong on his
part. He complained of the partiality we had shown
to Meyer, when we had to remind him that he would
never allow him to join in his walks, nor in the
evening practices with Delavaux and Forrest when
the smoking was so great that they always ad-
journed to Burgess's parlour, thus throwing Meyer
back on my hands. 

At that time Ealph West frequently came in, and
then we read, or drew, or played piquet; but the
moment he smelt the fumes of tobacco off he flew,
and Jervois the same, for neither of them would sit
at supper with Delavaux. 

Burgess had formed his opinion upon the whole,
and had quietly been making his plans, and now said
that as the boys were to have no private tutor, he
was no longer necessary to the family, and should
return to the West Indies, from whence he came.
Mr. Blagrove's estate as a planter was in Jamaica,
and Burgess had some connection with him. A fare-
well shake of the hand separated us, and we never
met after. 

Lady Day being now near, we began to consider 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 249 

what we should do with respect to our house, for
five inmates having left us, after no inconvenient ac-
commodation, it stood to reason that it must have
been too large for our own immediate family. If
the Cutlers, our landlords, had been willing to let us
have the house on lease at 251. a year, we might
have been tempted to stay on, but as they said they
would not lower the rent from 35/., which we had
given as yearly tenants, neither would do aity repairs,
which it began to need, we determined to look out
for a smaller house, but we had time before us and
hoped to find some place where we could be happy
and comfortable. 

An incident occurred about now that worried me
more than such things should do. It was the loss of
our excellent servant Milly, who came to us soon after
the birth of Eliza. The season had been, as I have
said, unusually wet and stormy, and she being a
rheumatic person had suffered more than she had
ever done before, so on that plea she said she wished
to leave. 

The fact really was, that the Misses Heath, who
kept a Dame's house at Eton, and who knew of Milly
through my former nursemaid who lived at Dr.
Heath's, had enticed her to go and live with them
under the pretence that they had a recipe for the
cure of rheumatism, and offered her a few other ad-
vantages as to the position of her room &c. 

250 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

When the ladies came to inquire into her charac-
ter, as agreed, I told them what Milly had told me,
and pointed out that Eton was more damp than
Windsor, and that their house was situated near a
creek of nearly stagnant water ; and when they began
to ask about her quaUties, I answered that as they
had enticed her from our situation, they must be
perfectly well acquainted with all the particulars
that they wished me to detail to them. I added that
their conduct was actionable, but that it would not
be followed up, as Mr. Papendiek was not that sort of
person ; that Milly was now ill, of which they were
aware, and that as they proposed to cure her, I
would send her the following day in a sedan. 

They were astonished, looked frightened and pale,
either from fear or passion, and retired discomfited. 

Poor Milly; she was hurt and surprised, but I
convinced her of the error both parties had com-
mitted, and assured her of my friendship, my good
opinion and respect ; told her that she would be wel-
come at our house day or night, and that she might
depend upon my good word and assistance should
she ever require them. 

I settled with a charwoman to remain till I got a
cook, in which I soon succeeded. She was too old,
and six weeks parted us. Then I got one from the
country, who did very well in all farmhouse business,
but I could never civilise her to answer the door or 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 251 

wait upon us in the parlour decently. However, we
bustled on, and managed for a time as well as we
could. 

At this time I seemed to be losing my health.
Whatever was the cause, the effect was miserable. I
felt such a lassitude and want of energy that I was
frequently obliged to lie down in the afternoon to
recruit. Dr. Mingay was constant in his visits, but
his medicines seemed to have no effect. I lingered
on, sometimes better, sometimes worse, especially
when anxiety intervened, till the weather became dry
and genial. Then I improved, and in time became
myself again. 

After the return of the Eoyal Family to London,
Mr. Papendiek was anxious that I should spend a few
days with him at his lodgings, but as I did not like
leaving the children with strange servants, and heard,
moreover, that we were to have an Abbey concert, I
put it off for the present, so that one visit might do. 

Baron Dillon came over in the spring, as usual,
and urged the Jervois's to go to the Abbey once
more, but as they had determined to leave England
with their family on the commencement of the Eton
vacation, they declined it, and merely went to London
for a few days for the Exhibitions, and to do a little
business. 

When the time came, in order to join this sweet
party I sent my little girls to Mrs. Eoach's, the boys 

252 COURT AND PRIVATE UFE IN 

I took to St. James's with my favourite Datchet Lane
servant, and I intruded myself on Mr. Papendiek's
second floor, at Kohler's, 5 Thatched House Court.
There the baron constantly came to practise his
pretty airs, and made me scribble them down for Mr.
Papendiek to correct and make fair copies of them.
Mrs. Kohler contrived to get her lodgers out of the
first floor, and when we came home one night, with-
out a word being said, we found our pianoforte
placed in the drawing-room, the other three rooms
being appropriated to meals, sleeping, and dressing,
and we were to pay nothing in addition for one
month. Truly this was kind. 

At the Exhibition the principal attraction was
Lawrence's picture of the Devil calling to his Legions,
his leading performance of the year. We thought it
ill-judged of him to exhibit this the year after the
one of the same subject by Ealph West, but he said
he wished to show his knowledge of the human
figure, having studied hard and attended punctually
the lectures upon anatomy of Sheldon, the surgeon,
appointed lecturer to the Eoyal Academy. 

Ealph West did not exhibit this year, or ever
after. 

Sir Joshua Eeynolds's fine portrait of Philippe
EgaUt^ was looked at by crowds. It was painted
for the Prince of Wales, who sat in return for this
vile fellow to Madame le Brun, who had lately come 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARI.OTTE 253 

to England. Other artistes both in music and paint-
ing were flocking over from Paris, where the direful
Eevolution was gaining ground. 

Salomon's benefit we attended with our Windsor
party, where he introduced Madame Krumpholtus, a
German whose harp playing was in every respect
perfect. She invented the pedals for different keys,
which wonderfully improved the effect of the instru-
ment. What rendered her performance more in-
teresting was that she was a most elegant little
woman, not handsome, but so beautifully formed, and
her taste so exquisite that she was consulted by the
nobility about their superior dresses for drawing-
rooms, balls, routs, &c. Her harp was made a proper
size for her, as she was too small to use a full-sized
one with comfort and grace. 

She was first heard in a duet with Dussek, of his
own composition, variations on the * Plough boy,' the
popular air of the day, of which the words were
political. The melody of the song was simple, and
easily sung. Dussek played upon a pianoforte of
Broadwood's, with the four extra notes in the treble.
In the second act Madame Krumpholtus played an
air of Haydn's with variations, the last two prestis-
simo. She at once established herself by the great
superiority of her talent, her amiable deportment,
and her punctuality in her public appointments. 

This year my mother went with me to the Abbey, 

254 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

which we were told would not be full, nor the selec-
tion good. We therefore did not hurry, and the
consequence was that when we did arrive the middle
aisle was full. We sat under the gallery, front row,
but next to such an interesting East India family
that we did not mind it, and long before the conclu-
sion we got into the aisle. We were intensely grati-
fied, and so far from its being an inferior selection
the whole of the music was perfectly enchanting.
We had Mara, Billington, Storace, and the inimitable
David, tenor, who sang, *Thy rebuke hath broken
my heart,' with a long recitative, both that and the
air being so scientifically performed that there was
scarcely a dry eye in the Abbey. Mrs. Kennedy,
who had a contralto voice melodiously sweet, joined
with David in delicious bits of duo, and there was
nothing in the performance to be wished for. 

The birthday was magnificent. My boys went
down to the Eoyal Family with me, and the King was
pleased with the lively manner in which they took
his kindly gracious play. 

My dress was now rather at a low ebb. My
striped India muslin gown, a petticoat, and my round
gown with jacket frill, were for best ; and I had the
print from Weymouth, white ground and small
bunches of flowers, made up for second best. My
Dunstable bonnet was done up with blue ribbon, and
I also had a new fashionable dark-green silk bonnet 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 255 

for gala occasions to match capes, sashes, and so
forth. 

Princess Augusta, having observed my extreme
deUght at David's singing, gave me a ticket for the
second performance, the end seat of the south gallery,
where the Princess could see me, and which pleased
me, as I could look straight along the line of the
principal singers. Baron Dillon took me in his car-
riage, and, being one of the tenor chorus singers, was
near enough to me to talk at intervals. David that
day began his first allotment with the recitative,
*Lord, remember David,' &c., and that and every
other thing he sang was so perfect and to the heart,
that it was almost too affecting. 

On my thanking the Princess the next morning,
she said it had added to her gratification to see mine,
and she was happy to have given me the ticket. 

Having seen all my friends, and enjoyed my visit
to London, I returned home with my boys, but it
grieved me to leave poor Mrs. Htinnemann in
trouble. She had just lost her beautiful little girl
in the measles, at which the poor father was in-
consolable. 

My girls came home and greeted us with pleasure,
but I had to hear a sad tale of quarrelling from Mrs.
Eoach, who hesitated whether to expel my sister and
Miss Meyer, or to overlook the circumstance altoge-
ther. The latter had never settled down comfortably. 

256 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

and since the departure of her brother for India
had been very refractory, which in a school destroys
the few comforts and indulgences which otherwise
might be enjoyed. Dr. Mingay as a joke had been in
the habit of calling Mrs. Eoa.ch the Empress Catha-
rine, and himself Prince Potemkin. The teachers
being young, and these girls, Miss Meyer and my ill-
graced sister (getting on to sixteen or seventeen),
laid hold of this nonsensical joke and talked in a
very foolish way, complaining that Mrs. Eoach was
always amusing herself with company -and neglecting
the schoolroom. When reproved, my sister certainly
struck Mrs. Roach in her passion, which, of course,
made a terrible commotion. We were naturally very
much upset by it all, but, upon my sister making a
most humble apology Mrs. Roach very kindly let the
matter drop. She, however, made certain changes in
her arrangements, and in her staff of teachers. 

As the time drew near for us to leave our house, it
seemed to look prettier and better than ever. Miss
Delavaux had recommended a method of refreshing
and cleaning the paint that entirely surpassed scouring
it. In those days all doors were black, the panels
white, except sometimes, as an ornament, there was a
raised panel painted blue or light-green. The skirt-
ings also were black, and in places where the paint
was worn, we made it look beautiful with one coat
of fresh paint. The Venetian blinda I had new strung 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 257 

at home with silk ferret, and the bars painted to
match — one coat. 

The house was now ready to quit, but as yet we
had not found another one to suit us. We had
cooled a little too soon in our search, on hearing
from Dr. Mingay that there was a chance of our
being able to have a house belonging to hia wife in
St. Alban's Street, then occupied by Cole, the town
clerk. 

This was such a charming Uttle place, and would
have suited us so exactly, that it was not unnatural
that we should pause to hear the result of so tempting
a plan. But alas, the tenant would not be dislodged,
and we had to give up all idea of that house. We
wished, if possible, to find one nearer the Lodge than
our present abode, so as to avoid Thames Street Hill
and the Hundred Steps. 

My first visitors after my return home, to my
surprise, were Miss Knissel, from Hanover, with her
protector, Mr. Hassler. She was a tall woman, with
a slim, pretty figure, and, as an actress generally is,
fascinating and agreeable in manner. She was dressed
in white satin, with the transparent hat of the day,
and introduced herself by saying that she had a letter
to Mr. Papendiek to request that he would present
her to the Duke of Cumberland. 

It was about six o'clock in the afternoon, and
Frederick Griesbach came running down to point out 

VOL. II. S 

258 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

to Hassler how wrongly he had acted in bringing such
a person into a gentleman's house. He then recon-
ducted them to the inn. 

She was the mother of the crippled and diseased
young man who hved at Kew under the name of Mr.
Cumberiand. The child was brought up in the
Duke's apartments in St. James's, and educated at
Westminster as a day scholar, whither he went and
returned in the Duke's carriage. 

It was said that he fell from the phaeton, which
caused his diseased back. The Duchess in after times
was kind to him, but he died young, after having led
a solitary hfe, the Duke not allowing anyone to show
him attention. 

The Duke found a home for Miss Knissel, but it
was never known where. Before she left Windsor,
she begged to see me to thank me for my very kind
reception. I could not refuse, and she came once
again. She told me that a public performer losing
her character at Hanover was immediately dismissed,
but that she had hoped that as her connection had
been with a Royal Duke her case would have been
differently considered. Hassler said he was on his
way to St. Petersburg to study under the Abbe Foghler ;
but I never more heard of either of them. 

Miss Frederica Mackenthum came over in the
same vessel, in the hope of obtaining a post with the
Princesses, for as the Queen was about to dismiss 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 259 

Miss Burney, there would shortly be a vacancy in
the household. It was the Princess Eoyal's wish
that Miss Mackenthum should be raised to the vacant
situation with the Queen, and that the younger sister
(Frederica) should come to her; but the Queen
would not hear of it, and sent over Mrs. Deluc to
find some German lady who would suit all parties, as
Miss Hagedom hafl previously done. 

What gave rise to the change was Miss Bumey
telling the Queen that she had written a third novel ;
that it would gratify her much if her Majesty would
permit her to read it ; that if approved her Majesty
would title it, and grant Miss Bumey the honour
and indulgence of dedicating it to her. 

The Queen immediately replied that she could do
neither, as it would not be consistent with her feel-
ings to encourage or even sanction novel writing,
particularly under her own roof She added that
she perceived a want of cheerfulness and pleasurable
attendance in Miss Burney, and always felt certain
that whenever she rang her bell, the pen was laid
down with regret ; and that she thought Miss Burney
would feel happier to resume her writing for the
public than to continue in a situation that did not
appear to suit her, and of which the duties were irk-
some and uncongenial to her. 

Poor thing, she bowed out; and not being in
good circumstances as to pecuniary matters in her 

S 2 

260 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

home with her father, Dr. Burney, it was a severe
blow. 

The midsummer holidays now began, but Mrs.
£oach having something to do to her house, remained
there nearly a fortnight after her inmates were gone,
and during this time I had much pleasant intercourse
with her. I went over to her house once or twice to
assist her with some needlework, 'as she wished to
improve her wardrobe. 

One particular day which I spent with her to help
her make a cloak like my black gauze cloak I re-
member for the intensity of the heat. We sat in the
dressing-room, and so hot was it that we actually
loosened our dresses. 

Before eight o'clock Mr. Papendiek came running
down to fetch me home, saying that it was lightning
vividly, and a great storm was coming on. The
oppression of the atmosphere was something quite
unnatural, and so intense was the heat that as we
passed along the streets we saw people, who had not
a garden or an outlet, sitting before their doors on
the pavement. The storm did not come on with
violence till towards morning, when the rain fell in
torrents. 

The town on the previous night was in a great
state of excitement at hearing of the beautiful Mrs.
Pick being struck with a locked jaw, and in convul-
sions, within a few weeks of her expected confinement. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 261 

She was the newly married wife of our clarinet and
very fine trombone player, of the King's band, who
lodged at Brooker's, in the Dean's Yard. The medi-
cal men soon assembled, but they could do but little
for * her, and looked on almost hopelessly. Dr.
Mingay discovered an aperture in the mouth through
the loss of a tooth, and through that, by the in-
genious use of a quill, they got liquid down her
throat, which they hoped might at any rate alleviate
her sufferings. Poor thing, she lived in this state for
several days, but at last succumbed. It was sup-
posed that she was too weak to bear the intense heat
of that ever-memorable day. 

We continued all this time to search for a resi-
dence, and looked at the three newly built houses
next to Mrs. Hopkins's, with whom lived the beautiful
Miss Guards. These houses, except in price, were
just the thing for us, but 40Z. a year, with the ad-
dition of the heavy taxes of that time, was a sum
that we could not meet. 

Isaac Clarke, the appointed gentleman of the wine-
cellar upon the resignation of old Stillingfleet, had
taken the centre house, having obtained the King's
permission, upon the plea of delicate health, to drop
the town duty ; and now called to offer the house in
Dean's Yard that they were on the point of quitting.
I felt rather indignant upon the subject. Neverthe-
less I fixed a time to call upon Mrs. Clarke to look at 

262 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

it. 20/. a year was the rent, and at the end of a term
of three years, Mr. Round, the lawyer, intended to re-
pair it thoroughly, both usefully and ornamentally,
at an increased rent of only 5/. We paused for a
few days — the entrance was so objectionable. 

Mr. Papendiek called upon the Dean, who, being
but seldom at Windsor, had let the yard and stables
to Dr. Douglas, the Bishop of Salisbury. He, with his
usual kind-heartedness, told Mr. Papendiek that he
would speak to his coachman, who had lived with
. him for years, to render as much accommodation as
possible. A path from the street through the gate-
way could not be railed off, as two horses abreast
could scarcely enter as it was, but gates had been
made already to roll the carriage into the coach-house
direct from the street. 

While we were yet reflecting, young Seeker, the
lawyer, called, introduced by Dr. Mingay. He politely
said that he had been told that we were certainly
going to leave the house in which we were then re-
siding, and that he had, in consequence, offered to
purchase it from the Cutlers, as it exactly suited his
views. This they had gladly assented to, but it dis-
tressed me, as it took away all chance of our ever
regaining a residence in a house we so greatly liked.
Seeker took the fixtures upon the usual terms, and
bought the drawing-room furniture for the same price
that we had given for it two years before. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 263 

We now decided upon and engaged the house in
Dean's Yard, and as it suited all parties, we agreed
to move into it on September 1, before Mr. Papen-
diek left for Weymouth. The rooms were small,
but there was an excellent-sized hall, and the stair-
case was more than proportionably good. There
were two parlours, one of which had a large glass
door, by which one could step out into the garden.
This was really a pretty one, and pleasant enough on
fine days. On the left of the house door were the
kitchen and other offices, all so completely and
conveniently arranged, that, although in miniature,
we never felt the want of space. From the kitchen,
up a few stairs, was a bedroom for the servant.^ 

The young person who had lived with the Clarkes
for seven years said it was perfectly comfortable,
cool in summer and warm in winter. She was a tall,
well-grown woman, but when my servant Sally Pear-
son, a little under-sized mortal, was shown her apart-
ment, she objected on the plea of its being close.
Besides this, we had four very fair-sized bedrooms, in
which we settled down very comfortably. My two
girls slept with the servant, as Charlotte, the eldest,
was not eight years old till the following November,
and too young to be left alone. Fred was in a Uttle
room out of ours, and Qeorgy had a small bed at
my side. He was just three years old, and now ran
about and played with the others. He was pretty 

264 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

well in his health, but did not altogether overcome
his peevishness. 

One servant was to do for us ; the two we had
of course left us, and this Sally Pearson, who was well
recommended by friends, we engaged. In the house
next to us lived Widow Brooker, whose lodgings,
after the death of Mrs. Pick and the consequent
departure of Mr. Pick, were let to Minney, of the
Silver Scullery. His wife, on the birth of their son,
the only child, obtained the favour of the Duke of
Cambridge's sponsorship, and they requested me to
be the godmother, which I did not refuse. The son
of Widow Brooker was a helper in the kitchen wing
of the Upper Lodge, and her daughter one of the
housemaids. 

The third and largest house in this yard belonged
to old Delavaux, who let it to Charles Horn, who,
besides two or more sons and one daughter, had his
wife's German mother and sister living with them. 

Different as the change was, it did not affect us as
much as I thought it would have done. We seemed
more at our ease, our garden less public, and close to
every desirable walk, without having to encounter
Thames Street Hill or the Hundred Steps. Mr. Papen-
diek, too, benefited by the change, as he was at home
in - a moment from the Lodge, of which we had an
unobstructed view from the house and garden. 

Before we left Thames Street, my mother came 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 265 

down once more to see us, leaving my sister to keep
house with my brother in London. Our friends
called to regret with us the loss of our nice house,
which would put an end to concerts and many little
happy meetings. Among others Delavaux called,
and said he was sorry the Horns had a lease of his
house, which was, he said, far superior to the one we
had taken. 

I spoke to him upon the quantity of coals re-
quired to be put in for the winter, when he told me
that until we had paid our bill, he should only send
in sufficient for our monthly consumption, that he
might have the profit instead of us. 

We got into our new abode before the Eoyal
Family left Windsor for Weymouth on the 1st of
September. The Queen's observation about our
change was that she was sorry we had no entrance
from the street ; but that as far as the size of the
house went, it was quite as respectable to have one
suited to our income, as to have a larger and to be
obliged to call in assistants to aid in the payment of
the rent. 

Charles Papendiek was to return to Germany
with the Michaelmas quarterly Hanoverian messenger,
and meanwhile, after remaining a short time with me,
he was to go to Weymouth, and lastly to Kohler's, in
Thatched House Court. So anxious was Mr. Papen-
diek to keep him in this country, that he asked the 

266 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

King, unknown to me, to put him into his band at
Windsor, or the St. James's Palace band. Both were
refused. 

Poor fellow, he determined never to go back to
his parents, and settled himself with a bleacher and
printer of linens, at Hamburgh. The 15/. that Mr.
Papendiek allowed to his family, he entreated might
be shared with Charles. Christian was gone to the
East Indies, and George Papendiek was again at
Hanover. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 267 

CHAPTER XXTT. 

Mrs. Deluc, Miss Jacobi, and Miss Winkelmann — ^Madame Schwellenberg
makes difficulties — Palsa and Thurschmid — Lunch at the Herschels'
and music — Quartett party — Description of Miss Winkelmann —
House-warming — Nomination of the parish organist — Marriage of the
Duke of York — ^The Duchesses household — Description of the Duchess
— Invitation to Windsor for Christmas — Miss Tilderley — Consider-
able public anxiety — Incendiary fires — Wyatt — Riots in Birmingham
— Deaths of notable personages — Soliloquy — Education — Female and
household duties — Close of the year 1791 — D^but of Princess Mary —
Drawing-room dresses — Court days — Interesting ballets — Serious
accident — ^The Haymarket Theatre — Great cold — Arrival of Haydn —
Eliza*s illness — Early history of Haydn — Tom Paine — Pernicious
effects of his works — The Bench of Bishops — The militia embodied —
Dress — Games at cards — Salomon*s concerts — Salomon's kindness —
Arrangement of the performers — Reflections on the English public —
Haydn*8 first public appearance — Great enthusiasm — Haydn's talent
—Seditious meetings at Windsor— * Duty '—Death of Mrs.
Papendiek. 

The six weeks' excursion to Weymouth was success-
ful, and the party returned safely to Windsor. 

Mrs. Deluc arrived soon after with Miss Jacobi,
and her niece Miss Winkelmann as her companion, in
the suite of the German messenger. On being pre-
sented to the Queen she appeared to make a favour-
able impression, but on better, or rather on longer,
acquaintance, she was no favourite. She was of a
leading German family, both as to position and talent, 

268 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

and cousin of Baron Jacobi, Prussian minister or
ambassador in this country. She was a tall, well-
looking woman, ladylike in appearance, manner, and
disposition ; but being unaccustomed to the obse-
quious politeness of a court (possessing only that of
the heart) the Queen thought her not refined, and
she was also annoyed at Miss Jacobi's difficulty of
hearing. 

Madame Schwellenberg would not permit the niece
to dine at her table, which caused some confusion,
but on the Queen's desiring that it might be so,
Madame consented reluctantly, on the ground that
Miss Winkelmann was only acting for a time as lady's
maid, till one could be engaged. At the end of the
month, when the servants' perquisites of tea, sugar,
wine, and candles were given out, Mr. Garton waited
upon Miss Jacobi for her orders, when she desired that
Miss Winkelmann should receive the same allowance
as the others. Now old Schwelly became highly en-
raged that her dignity should be thus degraded. She
would not suffer Miss Winkelmann any more to enter
her rooms ; for by taking the allowances in common
with the other ladies' maids, she had proved that she
attended her aunt (Miss Jacobi) in that capacity.
Her meals, dinner and supper, were sent from the
great table — i.e. Schwellenberg's — ^breakfast and tea
were served in their own rooms, of which they had
three elegant ones. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOITE 269 

Schwellenberg would not allow that Miss Jacobi
should be the Queen's private treasurer, but on the
departure of poor Miss Burney, this appointment, from
which nothing was to be gained but the trouble of it,
was put into the hands of Miss Planta, on the plea
that Miss Jacobi was a stranger, although she wrote
and spoke English well. These several people after
some Uttle time became settled, but neither agreeably
so or confidentially. 

During the spring and summer we had often met
the Herschels, either at our house or theirs. Young
Pitt was often at Slough, too, for change of air, as he
was getting into delicate health, his mother being
made to see it with great difficulty, and in the sum-
mer he spent six weeks there, after which he returned
to Paternoster Row greatly recruited. 

During this year, too, we were agreeably surprised
by a visit from the famed French horn players, Palsa
and Thurschmid. They arrived too late in the season
to appear at the Musical Fund concert, but were in
time for the oratorios, where they were heard and
approved by thundering applause. They were im-
mediately seized upon and engaged for the Bath
season, which in those days began at Easter, continu-
ing for the six or eight following weeks. On their
way they stopped at Windsor and called upon us iu
the hope of getting a command to perform to their
Majesties ; but on having it explained to them that 

270 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

• 

the King and Queen were only at Windsor for a few
days in private, the band remaining in town, they
were satisfied, and gave us their company instead,
playing to Mr. Papendiek the ' Themas ' and portions
of the different movements they meant to perform,
with accompaniment. Their instruments were of
silver, and the mouthpieces silver gilt. The softness
and mellowness of the tone is not to be described.
The slow movements drew tears that often could not
be suppressed, the notes striking upon the ear like the
plaintive sounds of the dove. 

The next morning we proceeded with them to
Slough to introduce them to Dr. Herschel, whose
brother Alexander was first violoncello in the estab-
lished band at Bath, and who we thought might
be of use to these gentlemen. The Doctor re-
ceived them with his usual welcome, and in the
kindest manner showed them all that could in any
way interest them. The hospitality of Mrs. Herschel
followed, and during luncheon not a word about
music was spoken, except the request of a letter of
introduction to Mr. Herschel at Bath. The repast
was hurried and they took leave, saying they would
walk to the carriage. A moment after, the most en-
chanting sounds were heard, and of course we all ran
out. This was intended as a surprise, and a delight-
ful one it was, and then, repeating their thanks to
Dr. Herschel for his kindness, they said they would 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 271 

play as long as he could spare time to listen to them.
These three great men parted with mutual expressions
of gratification at the pleasure they had experienced
in each other's society, and only regretted that the
meeting had been of such a short duration. 

Palsa and Thurschmid, after having fully estab-
lished their fame at Bath, travelled during the summer
over the principal counties of England ; and in London
the following season they were generally engaged,
Salomon having secured them for his subscription
concerts, at which Haydn was to be conductor and
composer. 

As soon as we could get the Griesbachs, we sum-
moned the Lodge party to a quartett, and Mr. Papen-
diek asked Miss Jacobi, with Miss Planta and Miss
Bumey, who had often honoured us with their com-
pany. Miss Jacobi pleaded being a stranger as an
excuse, and proposed Miss Winkelmann accompany-
ing Miss Planta, which of course we were pleased to
accede to. 

The evening went ofi* very well, and, with the two
downstairs rooms, we managed very comfortably.
Miss Winkelmann had a tall, slim figure. Youth and
a florid complexion set her ofi*, for she was not pretty,
and with her dejected air, at which no one could be
surprised, from her unkind reception and from the
unpleasant situation in which she was placed, she did
not excite much interest. 

272 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Our next party was more a house-warming. The
Mingays, Horns, Forrests, and Delavaux to tea at six
and supper at nine, which was partly hot. The
singing men dropped in, and the catch and glee sing-
ing was perfectly delightful. 

Mr. Horn was a kind-hearted, friendly man, with
a fair talent for music, and he was a good deal with
us ; but his wife could only be admitted by invitation,
for her mind and manner remained in their original
capacity, those of a servant. 

Horn was now to teach the Princesses the piano-
forte, recommended by Dr. Parsons. The Queen had
determined to try young Rodgers, but, poor fellow,
although he possessed first-rate abiUties for teaching,
his dehcate health and unfavourable appearance
prevented the Queen from engaging him ; but she
promised that he should not be forgotten in a situ-
ation that might suit him. 

Upon the new window in St. George's Chapel
being put up, of which circumstance I cannot recol-
lect the exact date, and the old Chapel being re-
newed and beautified, the King ordered a new organ
and gave the old one to the parish church, reserving
to himself the nomination of the organist. 

This met with great opposition, for they said it
would involve the parish in expenses they did not
wish to incur. After several meetings, Simpson the
churchwarden, who kept a biUiard-table in our lane, 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOrfE 273 

requested Mr. Papendiek, privately, to urge Dr.
Majendie, who then held the living of Windsor in
addition to his Prebend's stall, to be firm and to
settle the acceptance of the King's gracious donation.
Mr. Papendiek entreated the Queen to bring Rodgers
to the King's notice, which was done, and he was
proposed as organist. After some opposition, he
was finally appointed to the post at a salary of 25/. a
year, and oL for teaching the boys. The King paid
the expenses of the organ loft, of fixing and repairing
the organ, and the keeping it in tune for one
year. 

The Duke of York having married in October
of this year, 1791, Princess Frederica Carlotta Ulrica,
the Princess Royal of Prussia, and her Eoyal High-
ness's sister having on the same day married the
Hereditary Prince of Orange, now King of Holland, it
became necessary to consider how these ladies could
accomplish the journeys to their respective homes in
safety, for as the horrors of the Revolution in France
were increasing rather than diminishing, and all
order was subverted, it was at best a journey of some
anxiety. 

However, it was safely accomplished, and about
the middle of November the Duke and Duchess of
York, with their suite, arrived in the evening. The
Prince of Wales received them, letters from the Royal
Family greeted them, and the following day their 

VOL. II. T 

274 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Majesties and the three elder Princesses went to
London to welcome the bridal pair. 

Lord Melbourne's house in Whitehall had been
taken for them. The back looking on the Parade
was thought open and pretty ; it was near Carlton
House, and very convenient for the Duke, who then
had one of the regiments of Guards. 

Lady Anne Fitzroy, and a second lady whose
name I forget, were appointed as the Duchess's atten-
dants, and went over to accompany her on her
travels, and she also had two dressers. Miss Blumen-
thal and another, with her, besides Mr. Silvester, who
had been for some years her page and hairdresser.
Among other appointments was that of Sir Herbert
Taylor, who though at that time of greatly inferior
rank in the army, yet was to be general attendant ou
the Duchess, her treasurer, and ako treasurer to the
household. Her Royal Highness's companion and
friend, Mile, von Verac, also accompanied her. The
Duke's page, in constant attendance on his Royal
Highness's person, was Mr. Pascal, only brother of
Mrs. Theilcke. 

The ceremony of re-marriage according to the
rites of our Church was performed by the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury very soon after their arrival
in this country, all the Royal Family being present
on the occasion. 

The young Duchess was particularly high-bred 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 275 

looking and amiable, and had a most winning manner,
so it is not surprising that she quickly became very
popular in England. She was tenderly attached
to her husband, which makes his cruel treatment of
her all the more despicable, and she bore her troubles,
which began almost immediately after her marriage,
as long as it was possible to do so. In about six
years, however, they separated, after which she lived
in retirement. 

A drawing-room was held soon after the marriage
ceremony, registration, &c., in order to introduce the
Duchess, which was very fully attended, and then a
play was commanded at both houses, to which the
Duke and Duchess went in state, the box opposite to
that of their Majesties being suitably fitted up for
the occasion. 

An invitation was given by the King and Queen
for Christmas, with the desire that they should stay
at Windsor as long as they found it agreeable. The
Duke and Duchess accepted the ofier, and arrived
with Mile, von Verac, apartments at the Castle
having been prepared for their reception. Herbert
Taylor ranked with the equerries, and took his meals
with them; Pascal and Silvester joined the pages,
and the two dressers were boarded at the Castle,
by the good nature of Mr. Garton. 

These ladies passed their leisure time with the
Mackenthums, who brought them to get through an 

T 2 

276 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

evening with us. This turning out rather agreeable
to them, was repeated, and I visited them to show
them about a little. 

The Duchess complaining of indisposition, the
visit to Windsor was not wholly completed. 

At Christmas our children assembled for their
holidays, and brought Miss Tilderley with them from
Mrs. Eoach's to spend some time with us while her
parents were establishing themselves at Hampton
Court. The father had been removed from the
situation of Clerk of the Works at Windsor on
some misunderstanding with the King, and Mr.
Leach, who was not at all equal to the appointment,
was placed in Mr. Tilderley's house with every
advantage connected with that eligible office. 

This girl, sixteen years old, was so intractable
and so dangerous a young person, frightening the
children after I had left them in their beds, that I
could not keep her, and Mrs. Mingay, who had the
second sister, said she would also take the elder girl,
but she soon despatched them both home. The
father not long after became an invalid, and at his
death the widow retired with her large family, on a
small pension, to her friends. 

However, while this schoolfellow was still with
us we had our usual Christmas party for the young
ones, which was very successful, and gave them
infinite delight. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 277 

We did not go to town for the birthday, so that
the girls went often to the Lodge, and we ended the
year in cheerful comfort, visiting our friends and
making the most of present happiness, knowing that
Mr. Papendiek would have to be more in town than
usual during the coming winter. 

The year now drawing to a close had been one
of considerable public anxiety on political grounds,
the spirit of RadicaUsm showing a great tendency to
spread in many districts, fostered no doubt by the
seditious pubhcations which were of late unhappily
gaining ground. The sad results of this Democratic
movement in France made people in authority dread
the smallest inclination towards the same spirit at
home, and riots and other signs of the subversion of
the law were looked upon with great alarm. 

Fires had been frequent by incendiaries. The
Albion Mills, close to Blackfriars Bridge, of most
curious and useful construction, for corn, built by
James Wyatt, were burnt to the ground. 

Wyatt was called by Walpole the fashionable
architect of the day. Certainly he had made a name
for himself by building the Palace at Kew, and after-
wards the Pantheon, then used as a dancing and
concert hall. He was taken to Rome when quite a
youth by Lord Bagot, there to study ancient archi-
tectural art, and returned to England a few years
after the accession of George III. 

278 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Many of his works still stand to bear witness to
his abilities. 

But to return. Dr. Priestley's house, near Bir-
mingham, with his Ubrary and valuable manuscripts,
was burnt, and all his effects utterly destroyed ;
Eylands also, belonging to Lady Carhampton, mother
of the Duchess of Cumberland ; and many others. 

The riots in Birmingham and the neighbourhood
in the month of July were very serious, and lasted for
several days. They originated in the circulation of
an inflammatory paper which contained articles
relating to the Bastille, and also from a supposed
idea of the monopoly of corn. Several houses were
destroyed, and the riots were only at last quelled by
the interposition of the military, horse and foot. 

Richmond House, in Privy Gardens, Whitehall,
was also destroyed by fire ; but this was accidentally,
on the return of the family from a ball. Being
morning, people were about, and fortunately the
whole of the valuables were saved. No lives were
lost, but the house was a complete ruin. 

Upon the death of Duke Henry of Cumberland,
his library and all his musical instruments were sold
by public auction. Mr. Braddyl was a liberal pur-
chaser, and he also upon the Duke's death became
the protector of Mrs. Billington. 

The Lady Howard of Effingham, friend of the
Queen, and one of her ladies of the bedchamber, died 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 279 

during this year. Lady Sydney was appointed in
her place, and her daughter, the Honourable Miss
Townshend, was made housekeeper at Windsor Castle
upon the death of Lady Mary Churchill. 

Our friend. Dr. Charles Bostock, was created a
baronet, and took the name of Eich, having married
an heiress of that name. 

These events that I have just enumerated are all
that I can recollect as having occurred during the
year 1791, besides those that I have mentioned in the
course of my narrative. I now pause to take a short
review of our life at that time, and recollecting the
change in our circumstances between the close of
that year and the preceding one, I soUloquise thus. 

We were thrown back upon our own resources ;
our income was by no means increased. Our children
were growing up, and their education becoming a
matter of importance ; and then followed the con-
sideration of how this was best to be accomplished. 

My own education had been excellent and Uberal,
but having married at the early age of seventeen and
a half, what had been sown and nurtured with care
had not had time to fructify, and since my marriage,
opportunity had failed me to cultivate knowledge in
a sufficient degree to impart it to children of so much
talent as our dear offspring, evinced. 

Schools at that time, for girls as well as boys, 

280 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IX 

were resorted to for every rank, from the nobility
to the lowest classes. Leading retailers, as well as
bankers, merchants, and gentlemen of means, often,
to show their consequence and riches, sent their
daughters as parlour borders, for which they paid
double the usual school fees, the advantages gained
being that they took their meals with the governesses,
joining in any company that there might be out of
the schoolroom, and partaking of any occasional
indulgences that might occur. 

Others, again, of smaller means, sent their daugh-
ters as half boarders, for which they paid half fees,
and by giving some assistance in the school, these
girls received the advantage of lessons from the visit-
ing masters free of charge. 

My desire was that my girls should remain as day
scholars with Mrs. Roach, where they would continue
under my guidance, and I could watch their daily
progress, knowing at the same time Jthat they were
with a woman of strict principle if not altogether of
the ornamental manner of good breeding. In addition
to this very great advantage, we were surrounded
by superior masters in all branches of education, of
whose talents and instruction we could avail ourselves
without difficulty. 

Frederick for the present was going on remark-
ably well at Mr. Ward's, and we hoped to be able to
keep him there. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 281 

Female and household duties that had been early
inculcated at Streatham, and not neglected at home, I
hope I followed up, not only from the bent of my
mind, but from the desire of acting rightly; and
these duties I looked forward to imparting to my
girls as soon as they were old enough to profit by my
instructions. All these desires, I am thankful to say,
I have been enabled to fulfil, and I am sure that my
daughters will give me credit for having done my
best to bring them up as useful and right-minded
members of society. 

Up to the time of which I am writing, Uttle
change had taken place in the luxuries of living, or
in the mode of looking forward to the means of meet-
ing the exigencies of a family. Society was not kept
up with so much ceremony as to engross an undue
proportion of time, and it was still the custom for
the mistress of a household to assist in all the superior
part of the manage, so servants were only required for
the actual labour of the house. 

In starting young people in the world it was
necessary then, as now, that they should have a good
education or some fortune. As we could not amass
the latter, we determined that our children should
have as good an education as we could possibly
manage to give them, and in this matter I assisted as
far as in me lay. I was constantly looking after the
progress they made, urging them to perseverance. 

282 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

and exhorting them against any inclination to indo-
lence, idleness, or self-will. This earnestness in me
may be termed severity, and perhaps it savours of it,
but to do my duty was ever my favourite theme. I
loved my children more than life — I wished them to
excel, and if I made them sometimes unhappy or
uncomfortable they know now, indeed they knew
then, that all was done in affectionate zeal for their
welfare, and that I sincerely regret any undue
impetuosity. We have rubbed on through life as
friends and with great affection, which as I draw
near the end of my life is a source of the greatest
comfort and happiness to me. 

I have been led to make this little retrospection
of my feelings at that time from the coincidence that
as I write of the close of one eventful year of my life
I have just arrived at the close of another one. 

I am now nearly seventy-four years of age, and
though I am thankful to say that I still enjoy the
blessings of health and vigour, I feel that each year
may be my last. I am at the present time at ray
eldest daughter's house, now Mrs. Planta, wife of the
Eight Honourable Joseph Planta, Conservative mem-
ber for Hastings. All my surviving children are
kind and loving to me, and when I leave them I
trust that I may rejoin those that have gone before. 

I hope I may be able to finish the story of my
life, as I feel sure that my daughters and grand- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHA.RLOTTE 283 

children will like to read the farther record of those
stirring events with which I was so intimately
connected ; but for a short time I must now pause. 

Charlotte Papendiek. 

Faiblight : December 81, 1888. 

I resume the writing of my reminiscences in
January 1839, thanking God that I have been spared
to see the beginning of another year. 

The year 1792 opened quietly upon us. There
was no celebration of the day either at the Castle
or at the Lodge ; and the Royal Family, yet unac-
quainted with the disposition and habits of the
Duchess of York, formed no plans of amusement
until they should find out during her visit to them
at Windsor what would be the most agreeable ; and
that visit being shortened, little was done beyond
inviting the neighbouring families. 

To prepare for the birthday, on which occasion
the Princess Mary was to be introduced, their
Majesties and the six Princesses left Windsor for
the season earlier than usual. The Princess was
anxious to take a few lessons from Denoyer in a
court hoop and train, in order that all might be
perfect in appearance, for the beauty of Princess
Mary was exquisite, both in figure and grace, with
a very handsome face and sweet expression of
countenance. 

284 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

The dress was always white for the first public
entrie at the drawing-room ; and as the one on this
birthday was to be attended by all parties out of
compUment to the bride, Prussia being then our
strong ally, the dresses were splendid and the Court
magnificent. 

The Duchess of York wore a white dress, ele-
gantly embroidered, with her father's present of
jewels, and that also of her father-in-law, our King.
She looked dignified and royal, although by no
means handsome, and the exaggerated style in
which her head was dressed did not improve her
appearance. The ordinary mode of dressing the hair
at that date, with high toupie^ large chignon^ and
pinned curls, was unbecoming to most people, and
for a person of such diminutive stature as was her
Eoyal Highness it was especially so. She was well
proportioned, but of too small a size, with china blue
eyes, a quantity of light hair, powdered, and she was
slightly marked with small-pox. Her conversation
was animated and clever, her manner perfectly
polite, and her actions all lady-like. She was indeed
a Princess, well-bred. 

The Prince of Wales having announced his in-
tention not to marry, the Yorkites were considered
presumptive heirs to the throne, or rather, I should
say, his Royal Highness, and the Princess wife and
consort. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 285 

Two drawing-rooms were appointed to be held
at St. James's in the usual state by the Duchess of
York, to give the nobility and others the opportunity
of presentation to her. The four elder Princesses
attended, with their ladies, in full costume, and
with Court etiquette. They were presented, and a
few minutes after having paid this compliment, they
retired and returned home. 

These two Court days took place before Easter,
and were exclusive of the Queen's pubUc days. The
Duchess did not dance at the state ball, but attended
and took a lively interest in the forms and ceremonies
of the Court, especially on the birthdays, January 18
and June 4. 

I was wrong in stating that a play had been com-
manded at Drury Lane before Christmas, for the
house was being rebuilt, and the Drury Lane
company had obtained a licence to perform at the
Haymarket Theatre four nights in the week; the
other two, Tuesdays and Saturdays, having been
bespoken by the proprietors of the King's Theatre
for the opera, on the destruction by fire of the in-
terior of the Pantheon, where the performance had
taken place the two preceding seasons. The Hay-
market was tastily fitted up with every convenience,
for the subscribers in particular and the public in
general. 

It was at this theatre that I saw the two very 

286 COimT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

interesting ballets of * Orpheus and Eurydice' and
* Telemachus in the Island of Calypso.' In the former
the character of Orpheus was taken by Vestris, the
father of the one who afterwards married Miss Bar-
tolozzi. He played a beautiful polacca on the lyre
when descending to the infernal regions to awaken
his Eurydice and charm all the unhappy spirits to
let her depart with him. 

Of Telemachus, D'Egville had first become the
ballet m9.$ter, and himself performed the Mentor,
Vestris taking the part of Telemachus. On the
night that I was present an accident occurred in the
concluding scene, when the Mentor throws his pupil-
into the sea as the only means to get him away from
the enchanting island, and then jumps in after him.
The scene-shifters had by mistake removed the safe-
guards, and poor D'Egville came upon the edge of a
board that they moved up and down to represent
waves, and his groans were pitiable. He was a large
man, and had fallen heavily. Very soon, to a house
crowded with company and silent with anxiety, the
manager came forward and assured the assembled
multitude that no dangerous symptoms had appeared.
Two ribs were broken, which would easily be set,
and the patient was perfectly sensible and even
cheerful upon the cause of the accident. 

D'Egville did soon recover, but in resuming the
character of the Mentor he changed the last and 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 287 

concluding scene, in future taking Telemachus in his
arms, and just at the moment when he appeared as
if on the point of throwing him into the sea, the
curtain dropped. 

This theatre, the Hay market, was just of a size
to hear and see Mrs. Siddons to perfection, and I did
have the pleasure of seeing her there in many of her
best characters. 

To give a sanction to the house, a play was com-
manded, when their Majesties, the six Princesses, and
their Eoyal Highnesses of York attended in state.
The theatre was small and the crowd great, so that
the Bow Street runners, and the Guard, horse and
foot, usually attending, could not keep order. Dread-
ful confusion ensued, and one gentleman, of the name
of Smith, was killed from falUng down and being
trampled upon. 

To bring the Opera House into repute, a new room
had been added for concerts, of much larger dimen-
sions than the Hanover Square Rooms, but much the
same as WilUs's, which were usually engaged for
balls. 

This season, however, passed without its being
completed, and all public entertainments proceeded
as before, the Ancient Concert being held at the
rooms in Tottenham Court Road. 

To revert to our own humble concerns : the winter
having set in severely, with frost and snow upon the 

288 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

ground, we found our house very cold, much more
so than the one that we had quitted, which I could
not account for, as the new one was so much the
smaller of the two ; but Dr. Mingay soon pointed out
the cause. We were fully exposed to the east, with
no shelter on that side of the house, and the sun,
on account of the intervening stable, did not shine
fully into the only bedroom which looked to the
west. 

Up to this time we had not had the misfortune of
illness that directed our attention either to the aspect
of a house or the temperature of a room, so these
particulars had been overlooked. We now wofully
felt the want of fireplaces, and to make up for that
loss of comfort, the three children took it in turns to
sleep with me during Mr. Papendiek's absence, the
others being undressed by my fire, and then running
up to their little beds, wrapped up as warmly as we
could. Dear little things ; I did all I could for their
health, comfort, and amusement, walking abroad
when possible, or letting them run up and down the
garden with their hoops. 

The weather kept those of the Eoyal Family in
town who usually passed a few days of the week at
Windsor for the hunt, as already described. The loss
of this enUvenment was a greater drawback to us
than before, as we were now more shut out from the
occasional opportunities of society which we had 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 289 

formerly enjoyed ; added to the long absence of Mr.
Papendiek, who was in continual attendance upon
the elder Princesses. 

Haydn, long expected, now at last arrived. 

Salomon naturally supposing that he would bring
with him the symphonies that he intended to open
his season with, convened his friends to meet on a
.fixed morning, and Mr. Papendiek wrote to desire me
to go up to hear the performance. 

I at once made arrangements to place the three
elder children with Mrs. Roach (our present servant
being too great a stranger for me to leave them in
her charge), from whence Frederick would go daily
to Mr. Ward's as usual, and I intended to take
George to St. James's. All my plans were made,
when, on the morning of the day on which I was to
start, the maid came into my room to tell me that
Eliza was far from well. I sent for Dr. Mingay, who
came quickly, knowing of my little project for going
to London, and hoping to put her right in time for
me to leave by the two o'clock post coach. However,
though it only turned out to be a bad bilious attack,
I could not leave the poor little thing that day, so
the coach took, instead of my person, a letter to
Mr. Papendiek explaining matters. 

Letters in return came, regretting the cause of
my non-appearance, but telling me that beyond the
fact of not meeting my friends there was no cause 

VOL. n. U 

290 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

for disappointment, for there was, after all, no per-
formance on the day specified. 

Haydn, immediately on his arrival, told Salomon
that he should stay the summer in England, and that
as he heard there were to be twelve concerts and
two benefits during the season there would be ample
time for him to compose his first symphonies after he
had had the opportunity of studying the taste of the
English. He was determined that his first pro-
duction should both amuse and please the musical
public and rivet him in their favour. 

Joseph Haydn was born in about the year 1733,
at a small place on the borders of Hungary, of poor
parents. He very early showed a taste for music,
and a fertile talent for composition. He became a
chorister at St. Stephen's, and after that was fortu-
nate enough to meet with Prince Esterhazy, who
took him up and gave him the opportunity of
studying the art to the full bent of his mind. After
coming to this country the University of Oxford
conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Music. 

The alarming state of the times kept the King
and Royal Family in town, for as the French Eevolu-
tion gained ground, so revolutionary principles spread
here. In almost every town and borough societies
were formed, against Government authority, of dif-
ferent ranks and classes of people. In London some
of these meetings were called ' The Debating Socie- 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 291 

ties,' 'The Corresponding Societies,' * Nights of the
People,' &c. 

Tom Paine's works were published and widely
circulated, and were read with avidity. He was a
most vigorous writer, but his opinions were very re-
volutionary, and coming just at this time his works
had a most pernicious effect. Early in this year,
1792, the second part of his famous pamphlet, en-
titled * The Rights of Man,' was pubhshed, and this
was the cause of the proclamation against * Wicked
and seditious pubHcations,' announced during the
reign of George EH. A prosecution against Tom
Paine, as the author of that work, was commenced
by the Attorney-General, but he, making his escape,
went over to France, where being termed Uhe
friend of Uberty,' he was received with ovations
and was made s, citizen of Paris. He, notwithstand-
ing his Democratic views, voted against the sentence
of death at the trial of Louis XVI. ; and had this
powerful writer fallen into good hands when he first
became an author instead of going to America as he
did, where his opinions were formed, he might have
done as good service in the cause of the Government
as he endeavoured to do against it, in which he was
happily frustrated by the prompt measures of the
Attorney-General. 

But to return from this digression. The Bench
of Bishops were vigilant in their respective dioceses. 

u 2 

292 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

Dr. Moore, the Archbishop of Canterbury at that
time, attended the councils daily at Buckingham
House, and Porteus, of London, was indefatigable.
The Lord Mayor called a weekly meeting of the city
authorities. Common Council, &c., to be on the
watch to prevent mischief if possible, and to be ready
to meet it and suppress it on the first onset. The
city trained bands were put into requisition, and the
Artillery Corps, to which my son Charles in later
years belonged, then with old Curtis at the head,
was also in readiness at a moment's call. 

He, Curtis, afterwards created a baronet for his
steady adherence to his King and country, presented
his corps with their finest and largest cannon. 

All other cities and towns of any note followed
the example of London, as is usual. The mihtia was
embodied ; attendance was required for practice a
given number of days in each month, and they were
kept in constant military order so as to be also ready
at call if required. 

Mr. Papendiek was drawn for the county of
Berkshire, and in conformity to the regulations had
to find two substitutes, as he could not attend him-
self. Hatch, the lawyer at Windsor, settled the
whole affair for us for 15^., a small sum for the
business, but to us a sad drawback. 

In about a fortnight after the first disappoint-
ment Haydn was ready, and I was summoned to hear 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 293 

the first performance. One child could be received
at St. James's, so this time Eliza was named, in the
hope that the change would bring her about. I put
a person into our house on whom I could depend
to assist the servant to take care of it, and particu-
larly of the dear boys, but Charlotte I deposited
with Mrs. Eoach, thinking it the most prudent
measure. 

My dress had now to be considered, which had
come down to the two musHns and the printed cam-
brics already described, the puce satin being at its
last gasp. My blue satin cloak was quite new, and
trimmed with a beautiful dark fur. I consulted Mrs.
Barlow, who said it was most elegant to wear as a
wrap when cold, and on warmer evenings just to
hang on more loosely, and she thought that till
Easter it would be a dress suitable for any pubUe
amusement. A cap to suit I purchased of her
for 35^., and Kead dressed my hair for 2^. 6d. as
usual, charging the same price if he pinned on. 

I sojourned with my husband in his lodgings at
Yates's, the perfumer, in Queen's Kow, Pimlico,
where we could have our breakfast and find a fire
on returning there at night, but no other accommo-
dation. I could not, therefore, take either of my
children there, and in all weathers had to go to
St. James's to dine, to dress, and to wait till called for
of an evening. 

294 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

It was nevertheless very happy, with our nice
meals, our pool at quadrille or round game of com-
merce or Pope Joan. 

Salomon gave my aunt and family a free admit-
tance to the series of concerts; the same to the
Janssen family, the son and daughters being good
musicians. The eldest some few years after married
Dr. Jackson, of Hanover Square, widower of our
Mr. Ernst's sister. She was an excellent woman,
and very kind to the two daughters of the doctor by
his first marriage. 

The youngest Miss Janssen, one of dementi's
favourite scholars, afterwards married Bartolozzi, the
great engraver, and is mother of Madame Vestris,
who certainly inherits the talents of both parents,
and as far as acquired knowledge goes, particularly
the ornamental branches, does honour to her mother's
instruction. 

Salomon also offered the same liberal kindness
to us, but as I did not live in London I did not think
it fair to accept tickets for seats that I might not
always be able to use, so declined this, but asked
that I might be admitted alone or with a friend
whenever I could avail myself of the permission on
production of my visiting card. I may add here that
our friendship continued unclouded till his death
in 1815. 

The wished-for night at length arrived, and as I 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 295 

was anxious to be near the performers I went early.
Mr. Papendiek followed from the Queen's House, and
I got an excellent seat on a sofa at the right-hand
side. The orchestra was arranged on a new plan.
The pianoforte was in the centre, at each extreme
end the double basses, then on each side two violon-
cellos, then two tenors or violas and two violins, and
in the hollow of the piano a desk on a high platform
for Salomon with his ripieno. At the back, verging
down to a point at each end, all these instruments
were doubled, giving the requisite number for a full
orchestra. Still further back, raised high up, were
d.rums, and on either side the trumpets, trombones,
bassoons, oboes, clarinets, flutes, &c., in numbers
according to the requirements of the symphonies
and other music to be played on the different
evenings. 

The concert opened with a symphony of Haydn's
that he brought with him, but which was not known
in England. It consisted of four movements, pleas-
ing, lively, and good. Our singers were Mara and a
very interesting young woman, a Miss Chaun, David,
and Tasca, and others of the day ; also, when they
were at liberty, one or two from among Storace, the
Misses Abrams, Parke, Poole, Mrs. Kennedy, Har-
rison, and others, were chosen for each of the
concerts. Among the instrumental solo or quartett
performers were Madame Krumpholtus and Dussek, 

296 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

and as the first professors were in the orchestra, one
or other of them always performed in duo or in
concerted pieces. 

The second act invariably opened with a new
symphony composed for the night. Haydn of
course conducted his own music, and generally
that of other composers, in fact all through the
evening. 

The Hanover Square Rooms are calculated to 

hold 800 persons exclusive of the performers. By 

the beginning of the second act we concluded that 

all had arrived who intended to come, and though 

we knew that Salomon's subscription list was not full, 

we had hoped for additions during the evening. But 

no ; and I regret to make this observation of my 

countrymen, that until they know what value they 

are Hkely to receive for their money they are slow 

in coming forward with it. An undertaking of this 

magnitude, bringing such a superior man from his 

own country as Haydn to compose for an orchestra 

filled with the highest professional skill and talent, 

should have met with every encouragement, first to 

show respect to the stranger and then to Salomon, 

who lived among us and had done so much for the 

musical world, in this case having taken such infinite 

trouble and incurred so much risk. 

Now the anxious moment arrived, and Salomon
having called * attention ' with his bow, the company 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 297 

rose to a person and stood through the whole of the
first movement. 

The effect was imposingly magnificent. The
instruments might all be said to have an obbhgato
part, so perfectly was the whole combination con-
ceived and carried out. One of the movements was
to imitate the London cries, and * live cod ' was to
be traced through every instrument that could pro-
duce the effect. The cry began the piece and ended
it, and Salomon was wound up to a pitch of enthusi-
asm beyond himself The applause was great. The
public were satisfied, and Haydn was very properly
taken up. 

His great talent is too well known for me to com-
ment upon it. His twelve grand symphonies were
composed expressly for this series of concerts, and
he stands unrivalled in this style of composition.
His grand oratorio, * The Creation,' was also written
while he was in this country and added greatly to
his fame, and he was sought after far and wide. In-
deed, his amiabiUty, his unbounded talent in many
ways, and his humiMty withal, his liberahty, and his
every virtue could but bring him friends. 

He was then the leading professor of modern
music, and his works must and surely will always be
considered among the greatest of their class. 

My object for leaving home being now completed,
I returned thither within the week, leaving EUza 

298 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

with my mother, as the warmer air of London seemed
to suit her, and my brother was always glad to have
any of my children near him, pleasing himself in
amusing them, and showing them that kind of atten-
tion that bespoke a kind heart. 

On my return I found Dr. Majendie, our vicar, in
trouble over his flock, as they were holding seditious
meetings in Windsor, and organising branches of the
Corresponding and Eepublican Societies. He was,
however, most zealous in the performance of his
several duties, as were all the clergy of the neigh-
bourhood, and all did their best, by precept and ex-
hortation, to quiet down the unsettled minds of their
parishioners. 

Amongst other things, Dr. Majendie walked daily
through the schools, and not being satisfied with the
manner in which they were conducted, he came to beg
of me to assist him in getting them into better order.
Madame de Lafitte being in town, and Mrs. Thackaray
very Uttle more enlivened, the gu'l's department was
again becoming disorganised. 

I could not refuse to give a small portion of my
time to so good a work, and during the few hours
that I could devote to it, I hope I did my best.
Such, at any rate, was my intention, and I think I
did succeed in getting more order, regularity, and
tidiness into that branch of the estabhshment. The 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 299 

work was not congenial to me, but I strove to do my
* duty ' — ^my motto then and always. 

Thus abruptly does the manuscript written by
Mrs. Papendiek close, and it is a matter of regret
that the further record of those stirring times, with
which she was so intimately connected, to use her
own words, was never chronicled by her pen, but
death stepped in and closed the earthly labours of
that earnest and energetic character. She passed
peacefully away within two months of her last entry
in the volume of reminiscences which she was pre-
paring as a labour of love, her cheerful happy
nature remaining bright and trustful to the last. 

300 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE EST 

CONCLUDING CHAPTER BY THE EDITOR 

Further records of Mrs. Papendiek's life — ^Her sppointmentB at -the Ck^urt
of Queen Charlotte as Assistant Keeper of the Wardrobe and
Reader — Outline of the history of her daughter Mrs. Oom, afterwards,
Mrs. Planta— Of Adolphus Kent Oom— Of Mrs. Papendiek s other
children — Mr. George Arbuthnot — Marriage of the Prince of Wales
— Birth of Princess Charlotte of Wales — ^Temporary unpopularity of
the King— Marriage of the Princess Royal— Mr. Papendiek transferred
to the Queen 8 own household — Character of Mr. Papendiek — ^His
death — The King's health, mental and bodily — His fiuling sight and
subsequent blindness — The regency established — ^The King's piety and
resignation — ^The Queen — Her sad position — Death of Princess Char-
lotte of Wales — The Queen s declining health — Her suffering — Her
patience — Her death and burial — Mrs. Papendiek's affection for her
Royal mistress — ^The remainder of her life passed in retirement — ^Her
death. 

Not much in the way of family records remains to
tell of the further life of Mrs. Papendiek, but from
the few sources of information open to me I gather
that she obtained the appointment at the Court of
Queen Charlotte, which she held for some years,
shortly after the occurrences narrated by her in the
closing pages of her memoirs. 

It was probably in the year 1797 or 1798, I can-
not ascertain the exact date, that she was appointed
Assistant Keeper of the Wardrobe, the same post as
that previously held by Miss Burney, though Mrs. 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 301 

Papendiek did not immediately succeed her. Later on
she became Header to the Queen also, which position
brought her into close contact with her Majesty, for
whom she appears to have entertained a sincere
affection, and from whom she experienced from first
to last the utmost kindness and consideration, as also
from the King, and, I may say, all the Koyal Family. 

Her children grew up in the atmosphere, so to
speak, of the Court, but the regard and interest in
their welfare uniformly manifested by their Majesties
and the Princes and Princesses, did not result in any
appointments being given to any members of Mrs.
Papendiek's family, either at the Court, or in the
service of King George EH., or of either of the suc-
ceeding sovereigns, except in the case of her eldest
daughter, Charlotte Augusta, who, after twice be-
coming a widow, was given the post of occasional
Eeader to her Boyal Highness the Duchess of Glou-
cester, which she retained until her death. 

This daughter married first, in 1802, Mr. Thomas
Oom, a Eussian merchant, who was then in a good
position and wealthy; but a failure in his business
occurring shortly after his marriage, Mrs. Oom at
once determined upon undertaking the care and edu-
cation of a few young ladies in order to augment her
income. Being a remarkably well-informed, clever,
accomplished woman, besides being a musician of
more than the usual calibre of an amateur, this ven- 

302 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

ture succeeded, and she was enabled by her exertions
to live in the same style of comfort and refinement to
which she had been accustomed, and to educate her
son at Eton. 

Her first child, Thomas, died in infancy, but the
second son and only other child, Adolphus (so named
after the Duke of Cambridge, one of his godfathers)
Kent Oom, grew to manhood, and was for many
years well-known in society and in the Foreign Office,
being much respected throughout his career in that
office, and at his death in 1858 being sincerely
mourned by his many fidends. 

Mr. Oom eventually recovered his income and
connection, and lived in comfortable circumstances
till his death. 

Within a few years his widow married the Eight
Honourable Joseph Planta, son of the Mr. Planta
who was at one time Secretary of the British Museum,
and nephew of the Misses Planta, constantly mentioned
in the foregoing pages. Mr. Planta was Conservative
member for Hastings for many years, and at different
times held various posts in the Government — Secre-
tary of her Majesty's Treasury, Under Secretary of
State for Foreign Affairs, &c. He died in 1846,
when Mrs. Planta was given apartments in Hampton
Court Palace, where she lived till her death in
1854. 

Mrs. Papendiek's second daughter, Elizabeth 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 303 

Mary, died in 1801, at the age of fifteen, having
been delicate from her birth. 

Frederick Henry, her eldest son, took orders, and
became Vicar of Morden in Surrey, but he could
have enjoyed this position but a very short time, as
he died early in 1811, having only just completed
his twenty-fourth year. 

George Ernest, still a baby at the time that the
memoirs cease, eventually settled in Germany, and
married. He died in 1835, leaving two sons and a
daughter, the latter being still living. 

These are the four children of whom we have
heard so much in Mrs. Papendiek's reminiscences.
Subsequently she had two more children born to her,
Charles Edward Ernest, who also died in 1835, and
my mother, Augusta Amelia Adolphina, so named after
their Eoyal Highnesses the Princesses Augusta and
Amelia, and the Duke of Cambridge, her godparents.
She was born in September 1804, married in 1828
to Mr. George Arbuthnot, of the Treasury, and
died in February 1853, leaving three sons and two
daughters, all still living. My father, Mr. Arbuthnot,
was in her Majesty's Treasury for upwards of forty-five
years, and during his career in the Civil Service, he
held various private secretaryships and other appoint-
ments, the last of which, termed Auditor of the Civil
List, he retained until his death in 1865. Through-
out the whole of his long official life he was greatly 

304 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

and universally respected, being considered a very
able man and a most valuable public servant. 

Of public events, the first of any moment after
the year 1792, when Mrs. Papendiek's narrative
ceases, was the marriage of the Prince of Wales with
his cousin. Princess Caroline of Brunswick. This
event, which took place on April 8, 1795, and the
unhappiness of the Princess of Wales which followed
this ill-starred union, the birth of their child,
Princess Charlotte, and the subsequent separation
of her parents, besides the disputes of the Prince
with Pitt upon the question of the payment of his
debts, are all matters of history, as is also the
general feeling of discontent which at this time per-
vaded the whole country, and the temporary unpopu-
larity of the King. He was shot at in October 1795,
while proceeding to the House of Lords, and again
in 1800 on entering the Royal box at Drury Lane
Theatre, several indignities being offered to the Queen
also during this period of public disaffection. 

Upon the marriage of the Princess Eoyal with
the Prince of Wurtemberg in June 1797, Mr.
Papendiek's appointment to her Royal Highness
ceased, but he accompanied her to Germany in the
first instance, remaining with her for a short time
more in the light of a friend. Upon his return to
this country he was transferred to the Queen's own
household and continued his attendance upon her 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 305 

Majesty till his death, which occurred very unex-
pectedly in Germany while on a visit to his relations
in that country. 

Mr. Papendiek was a peculiarly amiable man, his
great characteristic being his general kind-hearted-
ness and tenderness, especially to women, though he
had a hasty, almost passionate, temper. He was
very simple in his tastes and habits, and to the last
retained many of the manners and customs of his
native country. I have heard my mother say that
he never lost his foreign accent, and that though he
spoke English fluently and well, there were certain
words of which he could never acquire the correct
pronunciation. In person he was handsome, with a
fine figure and of great muscular strength, of which
an anecdote I have heard my mother repeat is
illustrative. Carrying upon some occasion a small
piece of china to his daughter's house in a paper
parcel he, in his endeavour to convey it with the
utmost care, crushed it in his hand with such force
that on arrival it was found to be in fragments. He
was a good husband and father, and particularly
devoted to his children, who in return revered and
fondly loved him. 

Within a few years the King's health became
again a source of anxiety, but his first attack of
illness being entirely caused by a cold and being
apparently unaccompanied by mental derangement, 

VOL. IL X 

306 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

the alarm for a time passed away, and his Majesty
continued to transact business as usual. He did
not, however, during the season of 1801 hold any
levees or attend any theatres, public concerts, or
other entertainments, the Court festivities being on
his account almost entirely given up, only small
private parties being held. 

Returning much recruited from his sojourn at
Weymouth, which had now become almost of annual
recurrence, the King was enabled at the end of
October to open Parliament in person ; but his con-
valescence was, unhappily, not of long duration. 

The Royal Family continued during this and
several succeeding years to live very quietly, and
almost entirely at Windsor, his Majesty's health,
both as regarded his bodily ailments and the state of
his mind, becoming daily more and more unsatis-
factory. His sight also at this time began to fail,
and the rapid advance towards bhndness added
greatly to the deplorable condition of the poor King.
The climax came in the year 1811, when the
Regency was established, which lasted till the close of
this long and troubled reign ; for his Majesty's mind,
although he had many lucid intervals of longer or
shorter duration, never sufficiently regained its tone
to make it advisable that he should be troubled with
the cares of sovereignty. 

From private sourzes, however, I glean that the 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 307 

King's sad malady never assumed a condition of
actual insanity, it being caused more by a loss of
mental power than an aberration of intellect ; and
many very pathetic stories are told of his Majesty's
own knowledge of his state and of his fervent prayers
to the Almighty for restoration to health, coupled with
a simple and pious resignation to the Divine will. 

During this long, dreary period the Queen's
position was a very melancholy one. She was
affectionately attached to her husband, and to watcli
the gradual decay of one so beloved was in itself
most distressing, added to which she was constantly
placed in very trying circumstances from her official
position as custodian of the King's person. 

Later on came the political difficulties and other
troubles occasioned by the long war, when her
Majesty shared some of the ill-will shown by the
populace to all members of the higher circles of tlie
community. 

The death of the Princess Charlotte of Wales in
November 1817 was a great shock to the Queen,
and her own health, which had already begun to fail,
now rapidly gave way. 

Patient to a degree, and to the last thoughtful
and considerate to her family and to all those in
attendance upon her, the critical condition into
which her Majesty had fallen was not realised by
those about her till very shortly before her death. 

X '2 

308 COURT AND PRIVATE LIFE IN 

She suffered a great deal at the last, and awaited
her approaching end not only with resignation, but
with an earnest longing for freedom from all earthly
cares. On November 16, 1818, Queen Charlotte
passed calmly away at Kew, the Prince Regent,
the Duke of York, Princess Augusta, and the Duchess
of Gloucester being present. Her Majesty was
buried at Windsor. 

I cannot ascertain how long my grandmother
held her Court appointment, but I believe she was
with the Queen almost, if not quite, till the time of
her death. The close and intimate intercourse that
subsisted between them during this long period of
trouble and anxiety cemented the affection that had
for many years been entertained by Mrs. Papendiek
for her Royal mistress, after whose death she lived in
comparative retirement^ principally at Kew, in a
house, now pulled down, that had been granted to
her within the Royal domain ; but she died, and was
buried at Windsor in 1839, retaining to the last
the affectionate regard of those of the Princes and
Princesses who remained in tliis country, as did also
then and for some years longer her eldest and
y^oungest daughters, Mrs. Planta and my mother, the
only children then left to her. 

As each member of the old Royal Family passed
away, a link of the connection and, if I may venture
to use the term, the friendship which had for so long 

THE TIME OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE 309 

existed between them and my mother's family was
broken ; and now all intercourse has entirely ceased,
though in my childhood I frequently with my mother
visited Princess Augusta, she being also my god-
mother ; and my brothers and I spent many happy
days at Gloucester House witli Princess Mary of
Cambridge, now H.R.H. the Duchess of Teck. 

INDEX. 

ABE
ABEL, Mr., i. 66. 76, 133, 160, 

163, 16*, 166, 186, 202, 207, 

231
Abercom, Lord, i. 7; il 133, 166, 

204 

— Marchionese of, ii. 132, 133
Abercrombie, Qeneral Sir Ralph, 

ii. 196
Abington, Mra., i. 137, 148, 189, 

204, 250
Abrams, Mr., ii. 96 

— Miss. ii. 296
Addington, Dr., ii. 13
Adolphus Frederick (Duke of 

Cambridge), i. 63, 64, 90, 103;
ii. 19, 93, 302, 303 

Atrnew, Mrs., ii. 149 

AilesbuiT, Lord, ii. 72, 116, 214 

Aiton, Mr., ii. 62 

Albert, Mr. Frederick, i. 1, 4,6, 13,
16, 16, 19, 23, 24, 26, 30, 36,
38, 39, 44. 46, 64, 66, 69, 60,
66,67,68,70,71, 76,79,101,
110, 119, 121, 123, 126, 127,
129, 130, 139, 140, 141, 146,
146, 147, 151, 160-163, 166, 

167, 173-176, 178, 191, 198,
200, 201, 207, 212, 226, 227,
228. 239, 240, 241, 244, 246,
260, 266, 269, 283, 285, 300,
301, 306. 30J), 316; u. 6, 12,
60, 70, 72-77, 112, 123, 164, 

168, 176, 189, 191-197, 219,
222 

— Mrs. Frederick, i. 24,28, 29,31,
37-40, 64. 69, 60, 66, 68, 70,
101-104, 110, 118, 121, 122,
123, 129, 130, 139, 140, 141, 

167, 166-169, 174, 176, 178,
183, 189, 200, 206, 207. 226,
246, 249. 260, 266, 267, 280,
283, 286, 297, 300, 816,316;
ii. 67, 72, 163, 164, 191, 197,
219, 220, 263, 264, 264, 298
Albert, Qeorge (eldest son of
the above), i. 26, 28 

— Georure Edward (second aon),
i. 39, 40 

— George Frederick (third son),
i. 46, 60, 68. 70, 76, 77, 78,
96, 146, 147. 166, 176, 176,
179, 192, 193, 197, 200, 225,
246, 249, 282-287, 291, 300,
301, 316; ii. 67, 71, 72, 84,
123, 163, laS, 191, 192, 193,
196, 197, 220, 245, 246, 266,
298 

— Charlotte Louisa Henrietta,
eldpst daughter (afterwards
Mrs. Papendiek), L 37-42,
44, 46, 64, 63-78, 7«h-79,
81,82, 96-112, 114, 116-119,
121-126, 129, 180, 131, 136-
14;i, 146-148, 160, 161, 166,
167,158,161,162, 164-177 

— Sophia • Dorothea (second
daughter), i. 46, 46, 69 

— Sophia (third daughter), i. 70,
71,72,129,131,145, 156,176,
176, li»3, 194, 200, 201, 225.
249, 297, 300 ; ii. 35, 100, 191,
227, 228, 266, 266, 266 

— Mr. Louis (brother of the
above), i. 63. 59, 104, 176, 176,
179, 200, 226; ii. 28, 41, 42,
169, 172, 189-192 

312 

INDEX 

ALB' 

Albert, Mre. Louis, i. 166, 176,
179, 199, 200, 226; ii. 40,41,
42, 77, 169, 172, 294 

— Hugh (eldest 8on),i. 211,267;
ii. 189, 196 

— William (second son), ii. 189 

— Charlotte (eldest daughter),
i. 107, 167, 176, 200 ; ii. 37, 40,
41, 42, 77, 106, 171. 172, 189,
210 

Alfred, Prince, i. 130, 310
AUegranti (comedian), i. 110, 

189
' Alvensleben, Baron, ii. 48
Amelia, Princess (aunt of the 

King), L 267 

— Princess, i. 197, 221, 222,246;
ii. 74, 123, 161, 216, 217, 220,
240,283,287,308 

Amherst, Lord, i. 120
Ancaster, Duchess of, i. 6, 10, 16, 

22,144
Andrews, Sir Joseph, ii. 214, 215
Anson, Lord, i. 6, 7
Arbuthnot, Mr. George, i. 66, 

801 ; ii. 303 

— Mrs. George, i. 66, 186, 296,
306; ii. 146,146,303,308 

— Miss Ann, i. 66
Ame, Dr., i. 19
Aston, Harry, ii. 169
Augusta, Princess, i. 41, 127, 

199,218, 219,264, 806; ii. 8,
29, 33, 39, 66, 72, 74, 87, 102,
112, 161, 168, 174, 188, 206,
208, 216, 219, 240, 244, 266,
274, 283, 286, 287, 289, 303,
308,309 

Aujfustus Frederick, Prince (see
Duke of Sussex) 

Aylett, Mr., i. 308 

Aylward, Dr., ii. 97, 109, 188 

BAUELLI (actor), i. 110, 136,
189 

Bach, Johann Christian, i. 66, 76,
76,77.102,106,107,109,117,
133, 134, 136, 138, 142, 143,
160-166, 233, 317 ; ii. 41, 190 

— Madame, i. 109, 138, 152, 163,
233 

BOS 

Bagot, Lord G., ii. 277
Baker, Dr. Sir George, i. 297,
298; u. 7, 10, 18 

— Betsy, ii. 79
Bald¥nn, Mr., i. 286, 299
Banks, Sir Joseph, i. 253, 254, 

276,282,299; ii. 148
Banner, Mr., ii. 160
Bannister, Mr., i. 190
-r- Mrs., ii. 137
Barclay, Mr., i. 19, 20, 21, 23 

— the Misses, i. 21
Barlow, Mr., if. 210 

— Mrs., ii. 202, 203, 204, 209,
210, 293 

— Barrington, lx)rd, ii^ 115
Barth^lomon. Mr., i. 149
Bartolozzi, Mr., ii. 294 

— Miss, ii. 286
Barton, Miss, i. Ill, 171
Bath, Marquis of, ii. 116
Batty, Mrs., i. 323
Bautebart, i. 161, 279
Beachcroft, Mrs., ii. 206
Bedford, Duke of, i. 96
Beethoven, Louis von. i. 165
Belgrave, Lord, i. 232
Bellamy, Mr., i. 109, 167
Bella/<v8e, Lady Charlotte, i. 324 

— Lady EiizaWh, i. 324
Benser, Mr., i. 102; ii. 41
Hentinck, Lady Harriet, i. 12
Ftefisborough, Lord, i. 216
Billington, Mrs., i, 233, 234, 239, 

266; ii. 173, 203, 238, 254, 

278
Bishop, Mr., Mrs., and Miss, ii. 

117
Blackman, Mrs., i. 191
Blagrove, Mrs., ii. 176, 221, 232, 

233 

— sons, ii. 105, 106, 140, 158,
176, 227, 232, 238, 242, 247 

— Mr., ii. 248
Blick, Dr., i. 286
Blomfield, Dr., i. 42. 70, 71
Blount, Miss, i. 56
Blumenthal, Miss, ii. 274
Boney, Monsieur, ii. 78
Borghi, i. 187 

l^rrien, Madame, ii, 169
Bosenberg, Mr., i. 138 

INDEX 

313 

BOS 

Bofltock, Rev. Charles, i. 316, 318,
330; ii. 139.279 

— Dr. John, ii. 223
Bowes, Miss, i. 76
Bowman, Mr., ii. 91, 112, 219
Boyoe, Captain, i. 112, 116 

— Dr., i. 19
Braddjl, Mr., ii. 278
Brent, Miss, i. 137
Bridgetower, Mr., ii. 134-141, 

146, 163, 164, 166, 177, 178,
179 

— Ralph West, ii. 134-141, 146,
166, 177, 178, 179 

Bridgewater, Dachess of, i. 143 

— Earl of, i. 281
Bristol, Bishop of, i. 63
Broadwood, i. 13, 134; ii. 184, 

263
Brooker, Mrs., ii. 261, 264
Broughton, Captain, i. 190, 191
Brown, Mr.,i. 121, 126, 127, 128, 

269 ; ii. 27, 121, 122, 127, 169, 

221, 222 

— Mrs., i. 121 

— Mr., ii. 170 

— Miss, ii. 172
Brudenell, Viscount, ii. 211
Bruhl, Count, i. 61, 128
Brun, Madame le, ii. 262
Brunswick, Prince Ferdinand of, 

i. 43 

— Princess of, i. 44 

— Princess Caroline of, iL 304
Bruyftre, Monsieur de, i. 73
Buckeridge, Miss, ii. 226
Burke, Mr. Edmund, i. 163
Burgess, Mr., ii. 106, 106, 140, 

168, 169, 176, 206, 221, 226,
227, 232, 242, 247, 248 

— Mrs., ii. 146
Burney, Mrs., ii. 149 

— Dr., ii. 260 

— Miss, i. 17, 62, 96,113,206,207,
209, 219, 306, 310, 312, 316,
329; ii. 3, 4, 6, 29, 32, 40, 72, 77,
112, 114, 142, 168, 219, 238,
259, 260, 269, 271, 300 

Bute, Lord, i. 22, 23, 27, 33, 49
Butler, Mr., i. 180
Byron, Lord, i. 66 

— Mr., i. 274 

CHA 

CALVERT, Mr., ii. 33
Cambridge, Duke of, i. 63, 64, 90,
103; u. 19, 93, 264, 302, 303 

— Princess Mary Adelaide of, ii. •
808 

Campo, Marquis del, i. 261 ; ii. 

104
Canon, Miss Susan, 329
Canterbury, Archbishop of 

(Seeker), i. 11,19; ii. 84 

— (Moore), ii. 274, 292
CantUo, Miss, i. 109, 136, 142, 

143, 160, 161, 162, 168
Carbonel, Mr., ii. 138 

— Miss, ii. 138 

Cardigan, Earl of, i. 324 : ii. 211 

Carhampton, Lady, ii. 278 

Carmarthen, Marquis of, i. 274 

Caroline of Brunswick, Priucess
of Wales, ii. 169, 304 

Caroline Matilda, Queen of Den-
mark, i. 32, 36 

Carter, Mrs., ii. 92, 93 

(^atalani, Madame, i. 214 

Catley, Miss, iL 158 

Catherine, Empress of Russia, i.
252 ; u. 129 

Cavallo, Mr., ii. 149 

Cervetto (pianist), i. 94, 136, 156,
202, 203, 223, 231 

Chamberlain, Mr., ii. 11, 92 

Chambers, Sir William, i. 42, 46,
92 

Chapman, Captain, i. 70 

— Mr., i. 27, 96 

— Mrs., i. 28,41,61,96 

— Miss, i. 28, 112 

Charlotte Sophia, Queen, i. 2-34,
36^39, 41, 43, 46, 46, 48, 60,
64, 68, 69, 71, 72, 76, 78, 90,
94, 102, 106, 124, 126, 130,
144, 146, 147, 161, 152, 163,
160, 161, 162, 174, 178, 179,
181, 189, 193, 197-202, 212,
217-224, 228, 229, 238. 241,
246, 248, 266, 268, 269, 261-
266, 269-273, 293, 297, 301,
803-806, 306, 308-316, 318,
326-4?29; ii. 2-18, 20, 23-30,
82, 33, 34, 38, 89, 63, 66-60,
62-66, 68, 72-75, 84, 87, 92-96,
08-104, 111-116, 120, 123,126, 

3U 

INDEX 

CHA 

128, 130, 133, 134, 136, 141-
144, 148, 149, 162, 163, 169,
160, 163, 168, 174, 181, 186,
186-189, I»a-196, 200-203,
206-211, 214r-217, 219-224,
281, 232, 236, 237, 238, 240,
241, 244, 268, 269, 265, 267-
270, 272-276, 283, 286, 287,
300, 304-308 ^ 

CharlotteAiigxiBta,Prince88 Royal,
i. 38, 127, 199, 218, 219, 229,
246, 264, 266, 298, 299, 305,
310; ii. 8, 29, 39,66, 72,74,
87.92,93, 102,112, 150,161,
168, 174, 186, 206, 207, 216,
217, 219, 240, 242, 244, 268,
269, 274, 2a3, 286, 287, 289,
304 

— of Wales, Princess, i. 74, 76,
106,162; ii. 123, 304, 307 

Charles, Prince (of Mecklen- 

burgh), L 167
Chatham. Lord, i. 22, 228
Chaun, Miss, ii. 296
Chaworth, Mr., i. 66 

— Miss, i. 56 

Cheshire, Mr., i. 318-321, 823 

— Mrs., i. 818, 319, 320. 323 

— the Misses, i. 819, 320, 323,
324, 325 

Chesterfield, Lord, i. 80
Cheveley, Mr8.,i. 61,62, 74, 127, 

130, 221
Choie, Monsieur, i. 257
Churchill, Lady Mary, i. 73 ; ii. 

279
Clarke, Mr. Isaac, ii. 261, 263 

— Mrs. ii. 261, 263 

— John, i. 266, 290 ; ii. 84, 121,
221, 222 

— Mrs. John, ii. 221
Clarence, Duke of, i. 37, 41, 42, 

61, 73, 104, 268, 269
Clay, Mr., i. 123, 126, 176, 177,
212. 213 

— Mrs., i. 176, 182
Clement, Mr., ii. 121
Clementi (pianist), i. 155, 203; 

ii. 41, 140, 172, 189, 294
Clewly, Mr., i. 52
Cobb, Mr., L 246
Cole (Town Clerk), ii. 257 

DEL 

CornpDn, Mr., i. 73, 74, 127, 130,
104, 199; ii. 11,20,21,28 

Cooper, Mr., i. 285 

Copland, Mr., i. 267 

Corelli, i. 165 

Coss^, Mr., ii. 203 

Coultsworth, Miss, i. 47, 61 

Courtenay,Dr. (Bishop of Exeter),
i. 74 

Courtown, Earl of, ii. 121 

— Lady, ii. 26, 30, 121, 144
Coventry, Lady, i. 149
Cox, ii. 11 

Cramer, pianist, i. 65, 76, 94, 133,
134, 149, 161, 156, 207,236;
ii. 179, 184, 203 

— John, ii. 41, 179, 184, 203
Crawford, Dr., ii. 212 

— Mr., i. 186,203 

Cremome, Lady, ii. 132, 133, 144
Crosdill, pianist, i. 94, 133, 135,
155, 231, 234, 236 

— violoncellist, i. 202, 203, 223,
236, 316 

Cumberland, Ernest Augustus,
Duke of, i. 46, 103, 293, 30i> 

— Henry, Duke of, i. 35, 37,
233 ; ii. 20, 57, 181, 238, 239,
257, 258, 278 

— William, Duke of, i. 11, 33 

— Duchess of, ii. 230, 258. 278 

— Mr., ii. 268 

Curtis, Sir William, ii. 292
Cutler, Messrs., ii. 249, 262 

DACRE, Miss, i. 74
Davenport, Mr., i. 227 

— Mrs., i. 227 

David (singer), i. 256 ; ii. 254, 

255,295
Dawes, Mr., ii. 166
Day, Sir John, i. 90, 100 

— Lady, i. 90, 160
Deerhurst, Lord, i. 171
D'Egville, Monsieur, ii. 286, 287
Delany,Mr8,i.206; ii. 149, 150
Delavaux, Mr., i. 244, 272, 289, 

2{^; ii. 105, 109, 127, 1&6,
163, 170, 229, 232, 242, 248,
264, 265, 272 

— Mrs., i. 235, 237, 272, 289 ; 

INDEX 

315 

DEL 

ii 109, 127, 156, 168,170,229, 

272
Delavaux, Miss, i. 320 ; ii. 256
Deltit, Monsieur, ii. 244
Deluc, Mrs., i. 250, 310 ; ii. 236, 

237, 259, 267
Denmark, King of, i. 43, 144 

— Prince Royal of, i. 32 

— Queen of, i. 35 

Denoyer, Monsieur, i. 64 ; ii. 283
Derby, Lord, i. 148, 149, 150; 

ii. 199
Dere, Mr., ii. 78 

Devaynes, Mr., i. 71, 179 ; ii. 245
Devonshire, Duke of, i. 211, 212, 

215 

— Duchess of, i. 105, 115, 209,
212,215; ii. 164 

Digby, Admiral, i. 104 

Dillon, Baron, ii. 80, 81, 82, 96,
106, 110, 135, 139, 202, 203,
204, 207, 261, 252, 255 

Disbrowe, Colonel, i. 9 

Dixon, Miss, i. 65 

Dodd, Dr., i. 79, 80, 81. 124, 125 

Dorset, Duke of, i. 149, 150 

Douglas, Captain, iL 113 

— Mr., ii. 150 

— Miss, ii. 150 

— Dr. (see Bishop of Salisbury)
Downs, Mi8s,i. 30, 37
Doxatt, Mrs., i. 88 

Dressier, Dr., i. 78, 164, 183 

— Miss, i. 1(55
Drummond, Mr., i. 6
Duberly, Mr., i. 183, 197, 290, 

291,292,295; ii. 170 

— Mrs., i. 292, 296
Dubourg, Mr., i. 76 

Duck, The Misses, i. 61 ; ii. 32
Duncan, il 111, 112, 142, 219, 

242
Dundas, Mr., i. 72
Duport, Monsieur, L 187, 203
Dussek (pianist), i. 156, 316; ii. 

184, 185, 188, 253, 295
Dutton, Mr., i. 7 

EARLE, Dr., i. 286
Edward Augustus, Prince (<ee
Duke of Kent) 

FIB 

Edwin (actor), ii. 173, 239
Effingham, Lady Howard of, i. 

65,74; ii.278
Egerton, Colonel, i. 92, 143, 281 ; 

ii.l21 

— Mrs., i. 281
Elliot, General, ii. 239
Elizabeth, Princess, i. 45, 127, 

218, 219, 264, 265, 272, 292,
293, 805, 309, 310 ; ii. 8, 29,
89, 56, 72, 74, 87, 112, 150.
161, 168, 174, 188, 190, 200,
216, 219, 240, 244, 274, 283,
285, 287, 289
EDglebardt, Mr., i. 51 ; ii. 45 

— Mrs., i. 53 

Ernest Augustus, Prince (see
Duke of Cumberland) 

— Prince (see Mecklenburgh)
Ernst, Mr., i. 105, 156, 160, 306. 

309; 1111,52,90,91,294
Esterhazy, Prince, ii. 290
Eveleigh, Miss, i. 55, 58, 66, 98
Evelyn, Mr., ii. 97
Eves, Miss, i. 193
Exeter, Bishop of, i. 74 

FARHILL, Mr., i. 73 

Farren,Miss,L 187, 148, 149, 150,
173, 190, 244, 249, 250; ii,
166,175,108,199,200,204 

Fauconberg, Earl, 303, 319, 323,
324 

— Lady, i. 823, 324
Ferdinand, Prince (tee Wiirtem- 

berg) 

— Prince (see Brunswick)
Relding, Captain, i. 270 ; ii. 16 

— Mrs., i. 270 ; ii. 16 

— the Misses, i. 270 ; ii. 16, 17,
240 

Finch, Lady Charlotte, i. 47, 73,
127, 179, 219, 268-270, 273 ;
ii. 6, 16, 27, 72, 172, 189, 240 

— Miss, i. 270
Finlay, Mr.,i. 53 

Fischer, i. 66, 143, 144, 155, 186,
203, 207, 224, 231 

— Dr., ii. 109,147, 148, 152 

— MiB., ii. 110, 111, 147, 148 

316 

INDEX 

FI8 

Fisher, Dr., ii. 226 

— the llev. John {see Biahop of
Salisbury) 

Pltzgerald, Captain, i. 160 

— Lord Robert, ii. 17 

— Lord Edward, iL 17
Fitzherbert, Mrs., i. 257, 268,269
Fitzroy, Liuly Anne, ii. 274
FojrWer, Abb^, i. 266 ; ii. 268
Folfitoue, the Misses, ii. 136, 137, 

143 144
Ford, Dr., i. 180
Forrest, Mr., i. 278, 316; ii. 38, 

39, 40, 98, 139, 146, 166, 229, 

248, 272 

— Mrs., U. 118, 166,272
Forsyth, i. 302
Fortnum, ii. 28
Foster, Miss, i. 826 

Fox, Mr. Charles, i. 36, 36, 166,
209-212, 228, 297 ; iL 33, 69,
70,86 

Fox-Strangways, Lady Susan, i.
12 

Frame, Mr., i. 62 

Frederica Charlotte Ulrica, Prin-
cess Royal of Prussia {eee
Duchess of York) 

Frederick, Prince (Me Duke of
York) 

Frisker, i. 279 

Frowd, ii. 166, 231, 232 

— , Mrs., ii. 232 

Fnr, Mr., i. 66, 66, 111,117, 170, 

~Mrs.,i. 66; ii.l07 

— Miss, i. 66,66,66,107,108,171
Fr?er, Dr., ii. 166-168
Fuhling, Mr., i. 129, 187 ; ii. 25 

— Mrs.,!. 129 

— Miss, i. 129 

Fuller, Mrs. Thomas, ii. l46
Fuseli, Mr., ii. 166-168 

GAINSBOROUGH, i. 106, 114, 

116, 271, 272
Gale, Miss, i. 106
Galli, Mademoiselle, i. 109
Ganas, i. 134
Gardel, i. 110,189
Garrick, i. 204, 205 

OOL 

Garth, General, ii. 131 

Garton, Mr., ii. 160, 162, 288, 

276
Gascoigne, Mr. and Mrs., ii 201, 

202 

— the Misses, i. 267
Gates, i. 290, 291
Geor^ IL, KiD^, i. 2 

— III., King, i. 2, 4, 8, 10-14,
17-26, 30, 32-^, 42, 43, 49,
60. 66, 66, 78, 94, 103, 106,
120, 121, 124, 126, 144, 160-
163, 189, 193, 196, 202, 205, 

206, 213, 216, 217, 219, 221,
222, 225, 230, 239, 241, 246,
254, 257-262, 264, 270, 271,
272, 275, 277, 297, 298, 303,
304, 306, 309, 810, 311, 312,
318, 326, 327, 328; ii. 6^1,
33, 34, 54-67, 61^68, 71-75,
81-84, 87-93, 97-101, 104,
105, 108, 112-116, 120, 122,
126, 127, 129, 132, 134, 136,
149, 160, 169, 160, 168, 174,
185-190, 200, 202, 203, 207,
208, 211, 214-217, 219-222,
233-237, 239, 240, 244, 254,
265, 266, 267, 272-276, 288,
287, 290, 291, 292, 300, 301,
304-307 

— IV., King, i. 26, 29; ii. 33,
236 

— Augustus Frederick, Prince
(m« Prince of Wales) 

Geminioni, i. 166 

Germany, Emperor of, i. 84, 184 ; 

ii. 80/81, 127, 239
Giardini, i. 133, 149, 189, 200, 

207, 234 ; ii. 179 

Gibbons, the Rev. Canon, i. 288,
326 

— Mrs., i. 326
Giffiud, Mr., i. 232
Giffiudi^re, Monsieur, i. 64
Gloucester, Duke of, i. 11,27; 

ii. 113 

— Duchess of, ii. 181, 301, 308
Goldsmith,!. 114
Goldsworthy, General, i. 272 ; ii. 

38 

— Miss,i. 61, 01, 130, 273; ii.
6, 13, 16, 26, 72 

INDEX 

517 

GOX 

Oomm, MisB, ii. 74
Goner, i. 279 

Goodall, the Rev. S., i. 1P7
Gordon, DuchesA of, ii. 101 

— Lady Charlotte, ii. 169 

— Lord George, L 118, 119
Gore (singer), i. 289, 310; ii. 139, 

166
Gosset, Mrs., ii. 149
Graeme, General, i. 2, 5, 6, 8
Grafton, Duke of, i. 8
Graham, Mr. and Mrs., ii. 40 

— Mrs., i. 317
Grant, Captain, i. 320
Grape, Mr., i. 309 

— Mrs.ii. 137 

— the Rev. Canon, ii. 137
Grasse, Count de, i. 156, 165
Green, Miss, ii. 77, 78, 214 

— Mr., i. 61 

— (organ builder"), ii. 98
Greene, Mrs., i. 137, 190
Gretiville, Lord, ii. 7, 55
Grevilie, Lady Louisa, i. 12
Griesbach, Messrs., i. 142, 288, 

31(5, 826, 327, 328, 330; ii.38, 

126, 135, 162, 236, 257, 271
Grieswell, iL 4, 11, 92, 112, 220, 

222
Griffiths, Mr., ii. 192, 193, 194, 

196 

— Miss, ii. 92, 196 

— Mrs., i. 38
Grosvenor, Lord, i. 232
Grove,Mr., i. 96, 101 

— Mrs., i. 96, 101, 116, 171
Guard, the Misses, i. 317 ; ii. 

261
Guest, Miss, i. 162, 263
Gunning, General, i. 295
Gwyn, Mrs., i. 48 

II AGEDORN, Mademoiselle, i. 6, 

13, 26, 304 ; ii. 259
Haines, Major, L 143 

— Miss, i. 281 

ITallum, Mr. and Miss, ii. 150
Hamilton, Duchess of, i. 5, 22,
149 

— Lady Anne, i. 12 

— Lady Betty, i. 149 

Hamilton, Miss, i. 127 

Handel, i. 19, 155, 188,316.328; 

u. 110, 184
Harcourt, Earl, i. 6, 272 ; ii. 72 

— Lady Elizabeth, i. 12
Hardwicke, Lord, i. 4
Harper, Miss, i. 190
Harris, Mr., i. 126, 137 

— Mr., ii. 235 

— Mrs., i. 271
Harrison, Mr., ii. 95 

— Mrs., ii. 96, 296
Harrop, Miss, i. 189
Hassler, Mr., ii. 257, 258
Hastings, Mrs., ii. 37
Hatch, Mr., ii. 202
Haverfield, Mr., i. 62, 145, 187 

— Mrs., i. 106, 129, 139, I45,
156, 187 

— John, i. 62 ; ii. 62 

— Thomas, i. 62 ; ii. 52
Hawes, ii. 236, 241
Hawkins, Dr. Caesar, i. 49 ; ii. 122 

— Dr. Pennell, L 49, 74, 270;
ii. 122 

— , Mre., ii. 45 

Haydn, i. 156, 289, 316; ii. 136, 

190, 210, 235, 263, 271, 289, 

290. 292, 295-297
Hayley,Mr.,i.286
Healey, ii. 91
Heath, Dr., i. 283; ii. 249 

— the Misses, ii. 249, 250
Heathiield, Lord, ii. 230
Heberden, Dr., i. 298 ; ii. 7, 149, 

162 

Henderson, Mr. (actor), i. 189,
204, 205, 206 

Henry, Prince (gee Duke of
Cumberland) 

Herschel, Dr., i. 246, 261-266,
263, 275, 282, 288, 299, 300,
816, 330; ii. 126, 129, 189,
147, 149-163, 234, 260-271 

— Miss, i. 246, 261, 263, 276,
282 299 

— Mr^., i. 800, 816 ; ii. 129, 147,
168, 269, 270 

— Alexander, i. 253; ii. 270
Hesse-Cassel, Prince of, i. 267
Hesse-Homburg, Landgravine of, 

U. 172 

318 

INDEX 

HKX 

Ilexter, Mrs., i. 197
Hicks, Captain, ii. 17
Hill, i. 314
Hodgson, Mr., ii. 238 

— Mrs., ii. 237, 238
Hoffham, Mrs., i. 164, 166
Holdernewe, Countess of, i. 128, 

274 

— Earl of, i. 274 

Holland, KinR: of, i. 292; ii.
273 

— Queen of, i. 292 

— Loid, L 228 

— Sir Nathaniel, ii. 77 

— Lady, ii. 77
Hollis, i. 52 

Hood,Lord, i.209,210
Hopkins, Mr., L 317 

— Mrs., ii. 261
Hoppner, Mr., i. 232, 296 

— Mrs., i. 296 

Hordenberg, Baron and Baroness, 

i. 263
Horn, Dr., ii. 205, 212 

— Mr. Thomas, ii. 205, 206 

— Mrs. Thomas, i. 88 ; ii. 206,
206 

— Mr.,ii. 190,234 

— Miss, ii. 206 

— Mr. Charles, i. 255, 256; ii.
169, 264, 265. 272 

— Mrs., i. 256; ii. 264, 265,
272 

House, Messrs., i. 211
Howard, Lady Betty, i. 74 

— Lord, ii. 20 

Howe, Lady Mary, ii. 211
Hewlett, Miss, i. 157
Hughes, Mr., ii. 181
Hulmandel, i. 316, 317, 326 ; ii. 

41, 188
HiUse, Colonel, i. 92, 159, 160, 

258,274
Hummel, i. 155
Hiiniber, Madame, i. 169 

— Mr., ii. 197
Hiinnemann, Mr., 200, 230, 236 ; 

ii. 170, 171 

— Mrs., 293; ii. 170, 171, 255
Hunter, Dr., i. 130 

Hurd, Dr. (sm Bishop of Wor-
cester) 

INGRAM, Miss, ii. 159
Isham, Mr. and Mrs., i. 96 

JACKSON, Dr., ii. 294
Jacobi, Baron, ii. 268 

— Miss. u. 267, 268. 269, 271
James, Mrs., 57, 110, 171
Janssen family, ii. 294 

Jarvis, Mt., i. 277 ; ii. 88, 39, 40,
98 

Jervois, Mr., i. 318, 325.326 ; ii. 36,
37, 82, 96, 136, 138, 139, 202,
203, 206, 210, 2iK), 248, 251 

— Mr. (jun.), 1.325 

— Mrs., i. 318, 326, 328, 329,
330; ii. 36, 37, 82, 96, lOo,
106, 202, 203, 204, 207, 210,
251 

— the Misses, i. 326 ; ii. 82, 202,
203, 204, 210 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, i. 96, 100, 

112,113,114
Jordan, Mrs., i. 232, 260 ; ii. 173
Joseph II. (see Emperor of Ger-
many) 

KAMAZUSH, General, ii. 120, 

130, 147
Kamm (flutist), L 231
Kamus, Mr., 90, 160, 163, 170, 

306; ii. 11, 90, 112, 126, 127, 

220 

— William, i. 91
Kaufmann, Angelica, 1. 114
Kay, Mrs., i. 55, 56, 58. 98, 108, 

118, 168, 170, 171 ; ii. 107 

— Miss, i. 56, 111,172
Mr., i. 55, 117, 170, 172 

Kead, i. 173, 175, 178, 186, 199, 

222,237,292; ii. 171, 293
Keate, Mr., ii. 193-196 

— Robert, ii. 196 

Keene, Mr. Whitshed, ii. 33
Kellner, i. 203, 223. 231, 316
Kemble, Mr., ii. 133, 181 

— Mrs., ii. 133, 173, 181
Kennedy, Mr., i. 225 

— Mrs., i. 256; ii. 254, 295
Kennett (Lord Mayor), i. 23, 121
Kennicott, Mr. and Mrs., i. 310 

INDEX 

319 

KEN 

Kent, Duke of, i. 30, 61, 73, 268
Keppel, Admiral, i. 101 

— Lady Elizabeth, i. 12
Kerr, Ladv Essex, i. 12
Khrone, Dr., i. 220
Kiflfr, Mr., i. 123, 126. 182
—Mrs., i. 182 

— 1.260 

— Miss, ii. 202
Kinloch, Sir David, ii. 209
Kirby,Mr.,i. 47, 106, 129
Knight, Mr., ii. 195
Knissel, Miss, ii. 257, 268
Knyvett, Mr., i. 66, 102
Kohler, Mr., ii. 165,198, 202,241, 

262, 266 

— Mrs., ii. 262
Kotzebue, ii. 167
Kozebucb, i. 316-^27 ; ii. 169
Kmmpholtus, Madame, ii. 185, 

253,295
Kuffe, Mr., L 30 

LAFITTE, Madame de, i. 310; 

ii. 136, 143, 153, 217,223, 224, 

298
Lake, General, i. 92, 159,160, 258, 

274
Lang, Mr., i. 285, 286
Langford, Dr., i. 197 

— Mr., i. 98 

— Mrs., i. 98, 108, 172
Lascelles, General, ii. 159
Laverocke, Miss, i. 10, 303, 304
Lawrence, Mr., ii. 131, 132, 176, 

199 

— Mrs., ii. 131, 132, 176, 199 

— Sir Thomas, i. 116; ii. Ill,
129-l;i4, 136, 141, 142, 143,
145, 146, 167, 168, 166-168,
170, 175, 176, 180, 181, 198-
200, 204, 252 

I^each, Mr., ii. 276 

I^nnox, Lady Sarah, i. 12, 35 

— Colonel (afterwards Duke of
Richmond), ii. 99, 100, 102,
103, 159 

Leoni, i. 137 

Lewis, Lee, i. 125, 126, 190, 250 

Lind, Dr.. ii. 147-149 

— Mrs., ii. 147-149 

MAR 

Linley, the Misses, i. 94, 109,
188,207 

— Mr., i. 188
Llandaff, Bishop of, ii. 67
Lockley, Mr., 186, 257, 304 

— Mrs., 186 

London, Bishop of, ii. 84, 186, 

187, 292
I^ng, Mr., ii. 204, 206
York, Duke of, i. 11, 36 

— Frederick, Duke of, i. 31, 61,
94, 131, 132,232, 268; ii. 9,
67, 69, 66, 99, 102, 103, 166,
196, 196, 273-276, 284, 287,
807 

— Duchess of, u. 273-276, 28i^-
286, 287 

— Archbishop of, ii. 67, 84
Young, Miss, 1. 190, 206, 260 ; ii. 

173
Younge, Sir William, i. 309 

ZOFFANY, Mr., i. 82-89, 109,
136,138, 147, 160, 161, 1 66, 173,
182, 184, 281 ;ii. 117, 137-141,
176, 198-200, 204, 206, 207,
239 

— Mrs., i. 86-89, 109, 136, 184,
266,281,302,306,316; ii67-
69, 76, 76, 116, 176, 206 

— Theresa, i. 184, 302, 316; ii.
36, 116, 140 

— CecUia,!. 184, 302, 316 ; ii. 86,
116, 140, 204, 206, 206 

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* Who win gfttnny that Walpole is an EngUih Classic ? With the exception of Jamee "EawtHl 1m
WM, in point of time, the flnt of Bogllflh lettor-writerB. That he ie first in literal? rank tba
niajoiitj of readers will resdilj admit. With fancy and imagination enoagh for a poet, lesmiag
snfflcient to hare eetabUshed his reputation as a scholar* wit equal to both, and a social poaitJoa
which pat him in possession of all the gossip of the day, what wonder is it that Honoe Walpola
shonld shine pre-eminent as a letter-writer? His style, modelled upon thoee sparklinir FVeDch
xrriters whom ho so delighted in, is perfect in its ease ; and his pictnres of society oomtiine at oooe
the truth of Hogarth and the grace or Watteau. In his deUghtfal oorrespondoioe one maj read
the political and social history of England from the middle of the reign of George the Second to the
hrealdng out of the flnt French Berolotion. This edition contains not only all the Letters hitherto
pabllshed, arranged in chronological order, and many now first collected or flnt made pubUc. bat
also the notes of all the iirevioua editors, among whom are Lord DoTer, Mr.Oroker, tbs lOsaas Berry,
and the Rst. John Mitford.^NoTD and Qusrid. 

' His inoompaxable letters.*— Lord Btbon, Preface to * ICarino FUiero.' 

* The best letter-writer in the English langoage/— Sir Waltkb Soott, * Life of Hotvoe Walpote.* 

'Read, if yon have not read, all Horace WalpoIe*8 Letters whererer yon can flnd them. The
best wit ever published in the shape of Letters.'— Bey. Btdnbt Smith, Letter No. 186. 

*I refrain to qaote from Walpole, for those charming Tolnmes are in the hands of all who lore
the gossip of the last century. Nothing can be more cheery than Horace's Letters ; fiddles sini; all
through them ; wax lighu, fine dresses, fine jokes, fine plates, flne equipages glitter and sparkle ;
there nerer was suoh a brilliant jigging, smirking Vanity Fair as that through which he leads os.* 

Thacksrat. 'George the Seoood.' 

* Walpole's epistolary talents have shown our language to be capable of all the graces and of all
ttas charms of the French of Madame de Seyigne.'— Miss Bbrbt. ^/Q 

* Of letter-writers by profession we hare indeed few, although Horace WalpolC hMht, fresh,
quaint, and glittering as one of his most precious flguras of Dresden china, is a ho« inJnmaelf.* 

• Miss HiTFOBD, * BecoUecdons of a library Life.' 

* What, then, is the chsrm. the Irresistible charm, of Walpole's writings? It consist*, we think,
in the art of amusing wicboat exciting. He rejects all but the attractlTe parts of his subjects ; bs
k-eps only what is in itself amusing, or what can be made so by the artifice of his diction. He eets
o>it an entertainment worthy of a Roman epicure— an entertainment consist] ng of nothing bat
delicacies ; the brains of singing birds, the roe of mullets, the snnnv halres of peaches. We own
tiiet we espcct to see frdh Humes and fresh Burkes before we again fall in with that peculiar com«
biiiation of moral and intellectual qualities to which the writings of Walpole owe their extraordinary
iwpularity.'— Lo-d Macaulat, Edinburgh RfHew, 

' Horace Walpole will be long known to posterity by his Incomparable letters— models as they
sro of every variety of epii^tolary excellence. Bat it is not only for the merits of his style that
Walpole's Letters are, we think, destined more surely perhaps than any other work of his or our a^ie
to immortality. This correspondence is, in fact, a perfect encyclopiedla of information f^m the
Tcrv b«8t sources— politics from the fountain-head of parties, debates by the bestof reports*. forH<m
afl'airsfroman hnbitui uf diplomatic society, sketches of public characters by their intimate acqnaint-
ani'e or associate, the gossip of fashionable life from a man of fashion, literature from a man of
letters, the arts from a man of taste, the news of the town from a member of every club in St. James's
Street ; and all this related by a pen whose vivacity and graphic power is equalled by nothing but
the wonderful Industry and perseverance with which it was plied through so long a series of years. 

* Horace Walpole may decidedly daim pre-eminence for ease and liveliness of expression, tersenvs
of remark, and felicity of narration above almost all the epistolary writers of Britain. His remini>
scenc:e8 of the reigns of George I. and II. make us better acqoainted with the manners of those
Princes and their Courts than we should be after perusing a hundred heavy historians ; and futurity
will long be indebted to the chance which threw into his vicinity, when age rendered him communi-
cative, the aooomplished ladies to whom these anecdotes were communicated. The letters of Horace
Walpole are indeed masterpieces in their way ; they are the entertaining and lively register of the
gay and witty who have long fiuttered and fiirted over the fashionable stage till pushed off by a new
race of pfrtijleurt. Their variety, as well as their peculiar and lively diction, renders them very
entertaining. We shall look in vain to history for i$uch traits of character as those which Horace
Walpole records of stout old Balmerino when under sentence of death. We quote from Mr. Bentler's
general edition of Walpole's Letters : a collection into one view and regular order of that vast corre-
spondence which, besides its unrivalled beauty and brilliancy, has the more important merit of being
the liveliest picture of manners, and the be<t epitome of political history, that not only this but any
other country poseesses.'— John Wilrox Ciw)kkr, Quarterly lUvieu. 

London: RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, New Burlington Street.

19th Century “Men of Mark” book

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Men of Mark:
Eminent, Progressive and Rising:

Electronic Edition.

Simmons, William J., 1849-1890


Funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities
supported the electronic publication of this title.


 

 

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Source Description:
(title page) Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising
REV. WILLIAM J. SIMMONS, D. D.
1138 p., ill.
CLEVELAND, OHIO:
GEO. M. REWELL & CO.
1887.

Call number 326.92 S592M (Perkins Library, Duke University)


The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

Languages Used:

  • English

LC Subject Headings:

  • African Americans — Biography.
  • African American men — Biography.

Revision History:

  • 2000-11-15,
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    revised TEIHeader and created catalog record for the electronic edition.
  • 2000-10-30,
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[Title Page Verso Image]


MEN OF MARK:
Eminent, Progressive and Rising.

BY

REV. WILLIAM J. SIMMONS, D. D.,
President of the State University, Louisville, Kentucky.

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR BY REV. HENRY M.
TURNER, D. D., LL. D., BISHOP A. M. E. CHURCH.
Illustrated.

CLEVELAND, OHIO:
GEO. M. REWELL & CO.
1887.


Page verso

COPYRIGHT
GEO. M. REWELL & CO.
1887.
PRESS OF W. W. WILLIAMS, CLEVELAND, O.
MURRAY & HEISS, ENGRAVERS.
THIS BOOK IS SOLD EXCLUSIVELY BY SUBSCRIPTION, AND IS NOT
FOR SALE IN BOOK STORES.


Page 3

THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
TO
THE WOMEN OF OUR RACE,
AND
ESPECIALLY TO THE DEVOTED, SELF-SACRIFICING
MOTHERS
WHO MOULDED THE LIVES OF THE SUBJECTS
OF THESE SKETCHES, LABORING AND PRAYING
FOR THEIR SUCCESS. IT IS SENT FORTH WITH
THE EARNEST HOPE THAT FUTURE MOTHERS
WILL BE INSPIRED TO GIVE SPECIAL ATTENTION
TO THE TRAINING OF THEIR CHILDREN, AND
THEREBY FIT THEM FOR HONORABLE, HAPPY
AND USEFUL LIVES.

THE AUTHOR.


Page 5

PREFACE.

TO PRESUME to multiply books in this day of excellent writers and learned book-makers is a rash thing perhaps for a novice. It may even be a presumption that shall be met by the production itself being driven from the market by the keen, searching criticism of not only the reviewers, but less noted objectors. And yet there are books that meet a ready sale because they seem like “Ishmaelites”–against everybody and everybody against them. Whether this work shall ever accomplish the design of the author may not at all be determined by its sale. While I hope to secure some pecuniary gain that I may accompany it with a companion illustrating what our women have done, yet by no means do I send it forth with the sordid idea of gain. I would rather it would do some good than make a single dollar, and I echo the wish of “Abou Ben Adhem,” in that sweet poem of that name, written by Leigh Hunt. The angel was writing at the table, in his vision.
The names of those who love the Lord.
Abou wanted to know if his was there–and the angel said “No.” Said Abou,
I pray thee, then, write me as one that loves his fellow-men.


Page 6

That is what I ask to be recorded of me.
The angel wrote and vanished. The next night
It came again, with a great awakening light.
And showed the names whom love of God had blessed.
And lo! Ben Adhem’s name led all the rest.

I desire that the book shall be a help to students, male and female, in the way of information concerning our great names.

I have noticed in my long experience as a teacher, that many of my students were wofully ignorant of the work of our great colored men–even ignorant of their names. If they knew their names, it was some indefinable something they had done–just what, they could not tell. If in a slight degree I shall here furnish the data for that class of rising men and women, I shall feel much pleased. Herein will be found many who had severe trials in making their way through schools of different grades. It is a suitable book, it is hoped, to be put into the hands of intelligent, aspiring young people everywhere, that they might see the means and manners of men’s elevation, and by this be led to undertake the task of going through high schools and colleges. If the persons herein mentioned could rise to the exalted stations which they have and do now hold, what is there to prevent any young man or woman from achieving greatness? Many, yea, nearly all these came from the loins of slave fathers, and were the babes of women in bondage, and themselves felt the leaden hand of slavery on their own bodies; but whether slaves or not, they suffered with their brethren because of color. That “sum of human villainies” did not crush out the life and


Page 7manhood of the race. I wish the book to show to the world–to our oppressors and even our friends–that the Negro race is still alive, and must possess more intellectual vigor than any other section of the human family, or else how could they be crushed as slaves in all these years since 1620, and yet to-day stand side by side with the best blood in America, in white institutions, grappling with abstruse problems in Euclid and difficult classics, and master them? Was ever such a thing seen in another people? Whence these lawyers, doctors, authors, editors, divines, lecturers, linguists, scientists, college presidents and such, in one quarter of a century?

Another thing I would have them notice, that the spirituality of this race was not diminished in slavery. While in bondage, it may have been somewhat objectionable, as seen in the practices of our race, it must be remembered that they copied much from their owners–they never descended to the level of brutes, and were kind, loving and faithful. They patiently waited till God broke their chains. There was more statesmanship in the Negro slaves than in their masters. Thousands firmly believed they would live to be free, but their masters could not be persuaded to voluntarily accept pay from the government, and thus save the loss they afterwards bore through the “Emancipation.” They went to war and fought “the God of battles,” but the slaves waited, humbly feeding the wives and children of those who went to battle to rivet their chains. To my mind, one of the most sublime points in our history is right here. We never harmed one of these helpless women and children–they testified of that themselves. And yet


Page 8they tell stale lies of ravishing now, when the war is over, and freedom gained, and when the men are all home. No, God has permitted us to triumph and through Him. He implanted in us a vigorous spiritual tree, and since freedom, how has this been growing? Untrammelled, we have, out of our ignorance and penury, built thousands of churches, started thousands of schools, educated millions of children, supported thousands of ministers of the Gospel, organized societies for the care of the sick and the burying of the dead. This spirituality and love of offspring are indubitable evidences that slavery, though long and protracted, met in our race a vigorous, vital, God-like spirituality, which like the palm tree flourishes and climbs upward through opposition.

Again, I admire these men. I have faith in my people. I wish to exalt them; I want their lives snatched from obscurity to become household matter for conversation. I have made copious extracts from their speeches, sermons, addresses, correspondence and other writings, for the purpose of showing their skill in handling the English language, and to show the range of the thoughts of the American Negro. I wish also to furnish specimens of Negro eloquence, that young men might find them handy for declamations and apt quotations. It was hard to draw the line in making many selections, and I do not claim that a better selection might not be made. Indeed I am aware that many are entitled to a place here, and the reader may think I did wrong in selecting some of my subjects; but I ask no pardon for the names I present. They may be the judgment of a faulty brain, and yet there is


Page 9much to admire in all. The extent of our country makes it impossible to secure all who may be “eminent, progressive and rising.” I trust I have presented a representative of many classes of those who labor. The book may therefore be a suggestion for some one to do better.

The illustrations are many, and have been presented so that the reader may see the characters fact to face. This writing has been a labor of love, a real pleasure. I feel better for the good words I have said of these gentlemen. There is no great literary attempt made. I have not tried to play the part of a scholar, but a narrator of facts with here and there a line of eulogy. The book is full; and has already passed the limit of first intentions. I am in debt to many gentlemen for their kindness–especially to Rev. Alexander Crummell, D. D., for the use of books; Hon. James M. Trotter for the loan of cuts taken from his work ‘Music and Some Highly Musical People;’ Rev. R. De Baptiste for assistance in securing sketches; Rev. B. W. Arnett, D. D., loan of books; Hon. John H. Smythe for assistance in sketches and pictures of E. W. Blyden and President W. W. Johnson; General T. Morris Chester, for picture of Ira Aldridge and facts on his life; Professor W. S. Scarborough for many kind helps; Rev. J. H. Greene, for cut of Augustus Tolton and facts in his life; William C. Chase, John W. Cromwell, T. McCants Stewart, Hon. D. A. Straker, Marshall W. Taylor, D. D., Hon. P. B. S. Pinchback, Hon. H. O. Wagoner, Rev. Rufus L. Perry and many others, and pre-eminently do I feel grateful to Bishop H. M. Turner, my distinguished friend, who trusts his own good name by associating it with this poor effort. May God


Page 10bless him for this kind act to a beginner in book-making. This book goes out on the wing of a prayer that it will do great good.

WILLIAM J. SIMMONS.

May, 1887.


Page 11

CONTENTS.

  • CHAPTER I.
    HON. FREDERICK DOUGLASS, LL. D.
    Magnetic Orator–Anti-Slavery Editor–Marshal of the District of Columbia–First Citizen of America–Eminent Patriot and Distinguished Republican . . . . . 65
  • CHAPTER II.
    REV. W. B. DERRICK, D. D.
    Minister of the A. M. E. Church–Pulpit Orator . . . . . 88
  • CHAPTER III.
    PHILIP H. MURRY, ESQ.
    Phrenologist–Editor–Philosopher . . . . . 97
  • CHAPTER IV.
    CRISPUS ATTUCKS.
    First Martyr of the Revolutionary War–A Negro whose Blood was given for Liberty–Blood the Price of Liberty . . . . . 103
  • CHAPTER V.
    GRANVILLE T. WOODS, ESQ.
    Electrician–Mechanical Engineer–Manufacturer of Telephones, Telegraph and Electrical Instruments . . . . . 107


    Page 12

  • CHAPTER VI.
    HON. JEREMIAH A. BROWN.
    Legislator–Carpenter and Joiner–Clerk–Duputy Sheriff–Turnkey–Letter Carrier . . . . . 113
  • CHAPTER VII.
    WILLIAM CALVIN CHASE, ESQ.
    Editor of the Washington Bee–A Vigorous and Antagonistic Writer–Politician–Agitator . . . . . 118
  • CHAPTER VIII.
    REV. JAMES W. HOOD, D. D.
    Bishop of the A. M. E. Zion Church–Church Organizer and Builder–Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction–His many Contests for Civil Rights on Steamboats and Cars . . . . . 133
  • CHAPTER IX.
    HON. SAMUEL R. LOWERY.
    Silk Culturist–Lawyer–Editor . . . . . 144
  • CHAPTER X.
    WILLIAM STILL, ESQ.
    Philanthropist–Coal Dealer–Twenty Years Owner of the largest Public Hall Owned by a Colored Man–Author . . . . . 149
  • CHAPTER XI.
    PROFESSOR J. W. MORRIS, A. B., A. M., LL. B.
    President of Allen University, Columbia, S. C.–Professor of Languages . . . . . 162
  • CHAPTER XII.
    HON. ROBERT SMALLS.
    Congressman–Pilot and Captain of the Steamer “Planter.” . . . . . 165
  • CHAPTER XIII.
    HENRY OSSAWA TANNER.
    A Rising Artist–Exhibitor of Paintings in the Art Galleries–Illustrator of Magazines . . . . . 180


    Page 13

  • CHAPTER XIV.
    REV. ANDREW HEATH.
    A Minister of the Gospel, Eminent for his Piety . . . . . 185
  • CHAPTER XV.
    H. C. SMITH, ESQ.
    Prominent Editor–First-Class Musician–Deputy Oil Inspector of Ohio–Song Writer–Leader of Bands–Cornetist . . . . . 194
  • CHAPTER XVI.
    REV. JOHN BUNYAN REEVE, A. B., D. D.
    Distinguished Presbyterian Divine–Professor of Howard University Theological Department . . . . . 199
  • CHAPTER XVII.
    THOMAS J. BOWERS, ESQ.
    The American “Mario”–Tenor Vocalist . . . . . 202
  • CHAPTER XVIII.
    REV. NICHOLAS FRANKLIN ROBERTS, A. B., A. M.
    Professor of Mathematics–President of the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina–Moderator of One Hundred Thousand Baptists . . . . . 205
  • CHAPTER XIX.
    HON. THEOPHILE T. ALLAIN.
    State Senator of Louisiana–Agitator of Educational Measures and Internal Improvement–Contractor for Repairing Levees . . . . . 208
  • CHAPTER XX.
    DENMARK VEAZIE.
    “Black John Brown”–Martyr . . . . . 231
  • CHAPTER XXI.
    PROFESSOR J. E. JONES, A. B., A. M.
    Professor of Homiletics and Greek in the Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va.–Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention . . . . . 234


    Page 14

  • CHAPTER XXII.
    JOHN WESLEY TERRY, ESQ.
    Foreman of the Ironing and Fitting Department of the Chicago West Division Street Car Company–Director and Treasurer of the Chicago Co-operative Packing and Provision Company–Director of the Central Park Building and Loan Association . . . . . 240
  • CHAPTER XXIII.
    WILLIAM E. MATTHEWS, LL. B.
    Broker–Real Estate Agent–Financier and Lawyer . . . . . 246
  • CHAPTER XXIV.
    REV. JAMES ALFRED DUNN PODD.
    Superintendent of Schools–Editor–Brilliant Pastor . . . . . 252
  • CHAPTER XXV.
    HON. HENRY WILKINS CHANDLER, A. B., A. M.
    Member of the State Senate, Florida–Capitalist–Lawyer–City Clerk and Alderman . . . . . 257
  • CHAPTER XXVI.
    REV. THEODORE DOUGHTY MILLER, D. D.
    The Eloquent Pastor of Cherry Street Baptist Church, Philadelphia, Pa.–A Veteran Divine Distinguished For Long Service . . . . . 260
  • CHAPTER XXVII.
    J. D. BALTIMORE, ESQ.
    Chief Engineer and Mechanician at the Freedmen’s Hospital–Engineer–Machinist–Inventor . . . . . 267
  • CHAPTER XXVIII.
    J. R. CLIFFORD, ESQ.
    Editor–Lawyer–Teacher–Orator . . . . . 273
  • CHAPTER XXIX.
    WILEY JONES, ESQ.
    The Owner of a Street Car Railroad, a Race Track and a Park–A Capitalist Worth $125,000 . . . . . 278


    Page 15

  • CHAPTER XXX.
    PROFESSOR JOHN H. BURRUS, A. B., A. M.
    President of Alcorn University–Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Constitutional Law–Teacher of Political Economy, Literature and Chemistry–Attorney at Law . . . . . 281
  • CHAPTER XXXI.
    HENRY F. WILLIAMS, ESQ.
    Composer–Violinist and Cornetist–Band Instructor . . . . . 288
  • CHAPTER XXXII.
    REV. EDMUND KELLY.
    Christian Letter-Writer–Lecturer and Author . . . . . 291
  • CHAPTER XXXIII.
    REV. PRESTON TAYLOR.
    Pastor of the Church of the Disciples, Nashville, Tennessee–General Financial Agent of the College–Big Contractor . . . . . 296
  • CHAPTER XXXIV.
    SOLOMON G. BROWN.
    Distinguished Scientist–Lecturer–Chief Clerk of the Transportation Department of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C.–Entomologist–Taxidermist–Lecturer on “Insects” and “Geology.” . . . . . 302
  • CHAPTER XXXV.
    JOHN MITCHELL, JR.
    The Gamest Negro Editor on the Continent–A Man of Grit and Iron Nerve–A Natural Born Artist . . . . . 314
  • CHAPTER XXXVI.
    REV. LONDON FERRILL.
    Pastor of a Church Incorporated by a State Legislature–An Old Time Preacher–Hired by Town Trustees to Preach to Colored People . . . . . 321


    Page 16

  • CHAPTER XXXVII.
    PROFESSOR RICHARD THEODORE GREENER, A. B., LL. B., LL. D.
    Chief Civil Service Examiner–Lawyer–Metaphysician, Logician and Orator–Prize Essayist–Dean of the Law Department of Howard University . . . . . 327
  • CHAPTER XXXVIII.
    CAPTAIN PAUL CUFFEE.
    Sea Captain–Wealthy Ship Owner–Petitions to the Massachusetts Legislature against “Taxation without Representation” Petition Granted . . . . . 336
  • CHAPTER XXXIX.
    REV. ALEXANDER WALTERS.
    Financier and Pulpit Orator . . . . . 340
  • CHAPTER XL.
    BENJAMIN BANNEKER.
    Astronomer–Philosopher–Inventor–Philanthropist . . . . . 344
  • CHAPTER XLI.
    REV. RICHARD DEBAPTISTE, D. D.
    Corresponding Secretary and Beloved Disciple . . . . . 352
  • CHAPTER XLII.
    HON. GEORGE FRENCH ECTON.
    Representative from the Third Senatorial District, Chicago–From the Plowhandles to the Legislature–From the Capacity of a Waiter to that of Legislator . . . . . 358
  • CHAPTER XLIII.
    PROFESSOR NEWELL HOUSTON ENSLEY.
    Professor of Rhetoric and Sciences–Hebraist–Musician . . . . . 361
  • CHAPTER XLIV.
    REV. CHRISTOPHER H. PAYNE.
    Preacher, Editor and Soliciting Agent . . . . . 368


    Page 17

  • CHAPTER XLV.
    PROFESSOR PETER HUMPHRIES CLARK, A. M.
    Educator–Editor and Agitator . . . . . 374
  • CHAPTER XLVI.
    JUSTIN HOLLAND, ESQ.
    Musical Author and Arranger–Performer on the Guitar, Flute and the Piano Forte . . . . . 384
  • CHAPTER XLVII.
    PROFESSOR WILLIAM HOOPER COUNCIL.
    President State Normal and Industrial School, Huntsville, Alabama–Editor and Lawyer . . . . . 390
  • CHAPTER XLVIII.
    REV. JAMES POINDEXTER, D. D.
    Advocate of Human Rights–Minister of the Gospel and Agitator–Director of the Bureau of Forestry–Member of the Board of Education of the City of Columbus, Ohio . . . . . 394
  • CHAPTER XLIX.
    RICHARD MASON HANCOCK, ESQ.
    Foreman of the Pattern Shops of the Eagle Works Manufacturing Company, Chicago, Illinois–Mathematician, Draughtsman. Carpenter–Foreman of the Liberty Iron Works Pattern Shops. . . . . . 405
  • CHAPTER L.
    PROFESSOR W. S. SCARBOROUGH, A. B., A. M., LL. D.
    Author of a Greek Text Book–Scientist–Lecturer–Scholar–Student of Sanscrit, Zend, Gothicand Luthanian Languages . . . . . 410
  • CHAPTER LI.
    REV. SOLOMON T. CLANTON, JR., A. B., B. D.
    Instructor of Mathematics–Secretary of the American National Baptist Convention–Agent of the American Baptist Publication Society . . . . . 419


    Page 18

  • CHAPTER LII.
    PROF. JOHN O. CROSBY, A. M., B. E.
    Principal State Normal School, North Carolina. . . . . . 422
  • CHAPTER LIII.
    HON. FRANCIS L. CARDOZA.
    Secretary of State–Treasurer of State–Professor of Languages–Principal of the High School, Washington, D. C. . . . . . 428
  • CHAPTER LIV.
    HON. JOHN S. LEARY, LL. B.
    Attorney at Law–Legislator–U. S. Deputy Collector. . . . . . 432
  • CHAPTER LV.
    E. S. PORTER, A. B., M. D.
    Physician on the Sanitary Force of Louisville, Kentucky–Medical Attendant at the Orphans’ Home and the State University–Lecturer. . . . . . 436
  • CHAPTER LVI.
    REV. AUGUSTUS TOLTON.
    The first and only Native American Catholic Priest of African Descent, through both Parents, on the Continent. . . . . . 439
  • CHAPTER LVII.
    WILLIAM WELLS BROWN, ESQ.
    Author–Lecturer–Historian of the Negro Race–Foreign Traveler–Medical Doctor. . . . . . 447
  • CHAPTER LVIII.
    PROF. WALTER F. CRAIG.
    Solo Violinist–Orchestra Conductor. . . . . . 451
  • CHAPTER LIX.
    REV. CHARLES L. PURCE, A. B.
    President of Selma University, Selma, Alabama. . . . . . 454


    Page 19

  • CHAPTER LX.
    ALEXANDER DUMAS.
    Distinguished French Negro–Dramatist and Novelist–Voluminous Writer. . . . . . 457
  • CHAPTER LXI.
    REV. WILLIAM REUBEN PETTIFORD.
    A Successful Pastor–Trustee of Selma University. . . . . . 460
  • CHAPTER LXII.
    HON. ROBERT B. ELLIOTT.
    Congressman–Eloquent Orator–Distinguished Disciple of Black-stone. . . . . . 466
  • CHAPTER LXIII.
    PROFESSOR INMAN EDWARD PAGE, A. B., A. M.
    Principal of Lincoln Institute–Oratorical Prize Winner at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. . . . . . 474
  • CHAPTER LXIV.
    REV. E. K. LOVE.
    From the Ditch to the Pastorate of 5000 Christians–Editor of the Centennial Record of Georgia–Associate Editor–Honored of God. . . . . . 481
  • CHAPTER LXV.
    J. A. ARNEAUX, ESQ.
    Professional Tragedian, “Black Booth”–Editor–Poet–Graduate of two French Institutions of Learning. . . . . . 484
  • CHAPTER LXVI.
    REV. RICHARD ALLEN.
    First Bishop of the A. M. E. Church–An Eminent Preacher–A Devout Man. . . . . . 491


    Page 20

  • CHAPTER LXVII.
    HON. SAMUEL ALLEN MCELWEE. A. B., LL. B. Lawyer–Legislator–President of the Tennessee Fair Association–Orator–Speech in the Legislature on Mobs . . . . . 498
  • CHAPTER LXVIII.
    REV. LOTT CAREY.
    First American Missionary to Africa . . . . . 506
  • CHAPTER LXIX.
    HON. JOHN MERCER LANGSTON, A. B., A. M., LL. D.
    Lawyer–Minister Resident and Consul-General–Charge de Affaires–President of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute–Formerly Dean and Professor of Law in Howard University . . . . . 510
  • CHAPTER LXX.
    REV. WILLIAM H. MCALPINE.
    Baptist Divine–President of a College–Editor of a Weekly Journal. . . . . . 524
  • CHAPTER LXXI.
    REV. ALEXANDER CRUMMELL, A. B., D. D.
    Rector of St. Luke’s Church, Washington, D. C.–Professor of Mental and Moral Science in the College of Liberia–Author . . . . . 530
  • CHAPTER LXXII.
    HON. GEORGE H. WHITE.
    A Member of the House of Representatives and the Only Colored State Solicitor and Prosecuting Attorney . . . . . 536
  • CHAPTER LXXIII.
    HON. JOSIAH T. SETTLE, A. B., A. M., LL. B.
    Eminent Lawyer–Assistant Attorney-General of Shelby County, Tennessee–Eloquent Orator–Legislator . . . . . 538


    Page 21

  • CHAPTER LXXIV.
    WILLIAM H. GIBSON, ESQ.
    School Teacher in Slavery Days–Musician–Mail Agent–Revenue Agent–Grand Master U. B. of Friendship . . . . . 545
  • CHAPTER LXXV.
    HON. GEORGE W. WILLIAMS, LL. D.
    The Most Eminent Negro Historian in the World–Author of World Wide Reputation–Legislator–Judge-Advocate of the Grand Army of the Republic–Novelist–Scholar–Magnetic Orator–Editor–Soldier–Preacher–Traveler–inister to Hayti . . . . . 549
  • CHAPTER LXXVI.
    PROF. WILLIAM EVE HOLMES, A. B., A. M.
    Hebrew, German and French Scholar–Professor in the Atlanta Baptist Seminary . . . . . 567
  • CHAPTER LXXVII.
    REV. RANDALL BARTHOLOMEW VANDERVALL, D. D.
    A Self-Made Man–A Graduate From the School of Adversity . . . . . 572
  • CHAPTER LXXVIII.
    REV. ELIJAH P. MARRS.
    Preacher–Soldier–Treasurer . . . . . 579
  • CHAPTER LXXIX.
    REV. DANIEL JONES.
    Presiding Elder of the M. E. Church–His Hair-breadth Escapes . . . . . 583
  • CHAPTER LXXX.
    REV. HENRY N. JETER.
    Baptist Preacher . . . . . 588
  • CHAPTER LXXXI.
    REV. J. T. WHITE.
    Divine–Editor–State Senator–Commissioner Public of Works . . . . . 590


    Page 22

  • CHAPTER LXXXII.
    REV. G. W. GAYLES.
    The last Colored State Senator in the Mississippi Legislature–Moderator of the State Convention–Member of the Board of Police . . . . . 594
  • CHAPTER LXXXIII.
    HON. MIFFLIN WISTER GIBBS.
    Attorney at Law–The first Colored Judge in the United States, and an active Politician–An Advocate of Industrial Education–Contractor and Builder . . . . . 597
  • CHAPTER LXXXIV.
    WILLIAM H. STEWARD, ESQ.
    Grand Master–Secretary–Business Manager–Letter Carrier . . . . . 603
  • CHAPTER LXXXV.
    REV. FRANK J. GRIMKE, A. B.
    Learned and Eloquent Presbyterian Divine–Touching Memorial on leaving Washington, D. C. . . . . . 608
  • CHAPTER LXXXVI.
    HON. ROBERT HARLAN.
    Legislator–A Fugitive from Prejudice–Resident in England Ten Years . . . . . 613
  • CHAPTER LXXXVII.
    DR. ANTHONY WILLIAM AMO.
    A Learned Negro–Student at Halle–Skilled in Latin and Greek–Philosophical Lecturer–Received Doctorate from the University of Wittenberg, and Counselor of State by the Count of Berlin . . . . . 617
  • CHAPTER LXXXVIII.
    REV. RUFUS L. PERRY, Ph. D.
    Editor–Ethnologist–Essayist–Logician–Profound Student of Negro History–Scholar in the Greek, Latin and Hebrew Languages . . . . . 620


    Page 23

  • CHAPTER LXXXIX.
    REV. BARTLETT TAYLOR.
    Financier and Church Builder–Christian Pioneer . . . . . 626
  • CHAPTER XC.
    PROFESSOR JAMES M. GREGORY, A. B., A. M.
    Dean of the College Department of Howard University–Linguist . . . . . 631
  • CHAPTER XCI.
    REV. DANIEL ABRAHAM GADDIE, D. D.
    From the Blacksmith Shop to the Pulpit–Temperance Advocate–Moderator of Fifty Thousand Baptists . . . . . 647
  • CHAPTER XCII.
    W. Q. ATWOOD, ESQ.
    Lumber Merchant and Capitalist–Orator– . . . . . 651
  • CHAPTER XCIII.
    REV. HENRY HIGHLAND GARNET, D. D.
    Minister Resident of Liberia–Distinguished Minister of the Gospel, and a Brilliant Orator . . . . . 656
  • CHAPTER XCIV.
    REV. LEONARD A. GRIMES.
    Imprisoned in Richmond, Virginia, for Assisting Fugitive Slaves to Escape from Slavery–A Lovely Disciple . . . . . 662
  • CHAPTER XCV.
    REV. JAMES H. HOLMES.
    Pastor of a Flourishing Church in Richmond, Virginia . . . . . 666
  • CHAPTER XCVI.
    GENERAL T. MORRIS CHESTER.
    General–Phonographer and Typewriter–Lawyer . . . . . 671
  • CHAPTER XCVII.
    REV. LEMUEL HAYNES, A. M.
    A Distinguished Theologian . . . . . 677


    Page 24

  • CHAPTER XCVIII.
    HON. H. O. WAGONER.
    Compositor–Deputy Sheriff–Clerk of the Legislature. . . . . . 679
  • CHAPTER XCIX.
    REV. MARCUS DALE.
    Shrewd Financier and General Manager–Business Capacity Shown. . . . . . 685
  • CHAPTER C.
    CHARLES B. PURVIS, A. M., M. D.
    Secretary and Treasurer–Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children–Surgeon in Charge of Freedman’s Hospital. . . . . . 690
  • CHAPTER CI.
    PROFESSOR W. H. CROGMAN, A. B., A. M.
    Professor of Classics in Clark University. . . . . . 694
  • CHAPTER CII.
    HON. BLANCHE K. BRUCE.
    United States Senator–Register of the United States Treasury. . . . . . 699
  • CHAPTER CIII.
    J. DALLAS BOWSER, ESQ.
    Editor of the Gate City Press–Grain and Coal Merchant–Principal Lincoln School. . . . . . 704
  • CHAPTER CIV.
    REV. JESSE FREEMAN BOULDEN.
    Member of the Lower House of the Legislature of Mississippi in Reconstruction Times–Agent of the American Baptist Publication Society. . . . . . 707
  • CHAPTER CV.
    REV. WILLIAM T. DIXON.
    Veteran Pastor of Concord Baptist Church. Brooklyn, New York. . . . . . 713


    Page 25

  • CHAPTER CVI.
    REV. MATTHEW CAMPBELL.
    One of God’s Servants, Full of Years and Work for Christ–A Thirty Years’ Pastorate–Married 2000 Couples. . . . . . 719
  • CHAPTER CVII.
    REV. C. C. VAUGHN.
    State Grand Chief of I. O. Good Samaritans and Daughters of Samaria–Preacher and Teacher. . . . . . 723
  • CHAPTER CVIII.
    REV. HARVEY JOHNSON.
    Eminent Baltimore Pastor–Prominent in the Councils of his Church. . . . . . 729
  • CHAPTER CIX.
    IRA ALDRIDGE.
    The African Tragedian–The “African Roscius”. . . . . . 733
  • CHAPTER CX.
    HON. GEORGE L. RUFFIN, LL. B.
    Judge of the Charlestown District, Massachusetts–From the Barber’s Chair to the Bench. . . . . . 740
  • CHAPTER CXI.
    PROFESSOR D. AUGUSTUS STRAKER, LL. B., LL. D.
    Dean of Law Department–Lawyer–Orator and Stenographer. . . . . . 744
  • CHAPTER CXII.
    REV. JOHN HUDSON RIDDICK.
    Preacher–Councilman–Deputy Marshal. . . . . . 752
  • CHAPTER CXIII.
    REV. J. C. PRICE, A. B.
    President Livingstone College–Great Temperance Orator. . . . . . 754


    Page 26

  • CHAPTER CXIV.
    HON. PINCKNEY BENTON STEWART PINCHBACK.
    Governor–Lieutenant-Governor–United States Senator–Lawyer–His Daring “Railroad Race”–Eminent Politician–Wealthy Gentleman . . . . . 759
  • CHAPTER CXV.
    ALEXANDER PETION.
    President of Hayti–Skillful Engineer–Educated at the Military School of France . . . . . 782
  • CHAPTER CXVI.
    TIMOTHY THOMAS FORTUNE, ESQ.
    Editor–Author–Pamphleteer–Agitator . . . . . 785
  • CHAPTER CXVII.
    TROY PORTER, ESQ.
    Plumber, Gas and Steam Fitter–Superintendent of Waterworks and Town Clerk . . . . . 792
  • CHAPTER CXVIII.
    BLIND TOM. (THOMAS BETHUNE.)
    A Remarkable Musician–The Negro Pianist . . . . . 794
  • CHAPTER CXIX.
    REV. HENRY ADAMS.
    A Faithful Pastor–A Good Man . . . . . 798
  • CHAPTER CXX.
    J. C. FARLEY, ESQ.
    Photographer and Prominent Citizen of Richmond, Virginia . . . . . 801
  • CHAPTER CXXI.
    REV. HENRY MCNEAL TURNER, D. D., LL. D.
    Bishop of A. M. E. Church–Philosopher–Politician and Orator–Eminent Lecturer–Author–Intense Race Man–United States Chaplain . . . . . 805


    Page 27

  • CHAPTER CXXII.
    REV. JOHN W. STEPHENSON, M. D.
    Church Builder–Financier–Druggist–His Methods . . . . . 820
  • CHAPTER CXXIII.
    PROFESSOR JOSEPH CARTER CORBIN, A. B., A. M.
    State Superintendent of Public Instruction–Linguist–Master of Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Hebrew and Danish–Profound Mathematician and Musician–Organist, Pianist, Flutist . . . . . 829
  • CHAPTER CXXIV.
    HON. JAMES M. TROTTER.
    Recorder of Deeds–Author of Music and Some Highly Musical People.’ Assistant Superintendent of the Register Letter Department, Boston, Massachusetts–Lieutenant in the Army . . . . . 833
  • CHAPTER CXXV.
    REV. ALLEN ALLENSWORTH, A. M.
    The Great Children’s Preacher of the Gospel–Chaplain of the Twenty-Fourth Infantry of the U. S.–Presidential Elector–Agent of the American Baptist Publication Society . . . . . 843
  • CHAPTER CXXVI.
    REV. GEORGE WASHINGTON DUPEE.
    Eminent Minister–Moderator of the General Association–Editor–Preacher of 12000 Funeral Sermons–Baptizer of 8000 Candidates . . . . . 847
  • CHAPTER CXXVII.
    SAMUEL C. WATSON, M. D.
    Druggist–Doctor–Member of City Council–First Colored Clerk of a Steamboat Owned by a Colored Man . . . . . 860
  • CHAPTER CXXVIII.
    RT. REV. RICHARD HARVEY CAIN, D. D.
    Bishop of the A. M. E. Church–Congressman–Senator in the South Carolina Legislature–President of Paul Quinn College . . . . . 866


    Page 28

  • CHAPTER CXXIX.
    HON. JOHN H. SMYTHE, LL. B., LL. D.
    United States Minister–Resident Minister–Consul-General to Liberia–Attorney at Law . . . . . 872
  • CHAPTER CXXX.
    J. J. DURHAM, A. B., A. M., M. D.
    Valedictorian in the Medical School–A Vigorous, Convincing Debater–Preacher . . . . . 878
  • CHAPTER CXXXI.
    REV. BENJAMIN W. ARNETT, D. D.
    Financial Secretary of the A. M. E. Church–The Statistician of his Church–Author–Editor of the Budget–Legislator–Author of the bill wiping out the “Black Laws” of Ohio . . . . . 883
  • CHAPTER CXXXII.
    OLANDAH EQUIANO, OR GUSTAVUS VASSA.
    A Virginia Slave–Purchases His Freedom–Sails for London–Presents a Petition to the Queen . . . . . 892
  • CHAPTER CXXXIII.
    JOHN W. CROMWELL, ESQ.
    Editor–Distinguished English Scholar–Lawyer–President of the Bethel Literary Society, Washington, D. C.–Examiner and Register of Money Order Accounts . . . . . 898
  • CHAPTER CXXXIV.
    REV. E. M. BRAWLEY, D. D.
    Editor Baptist Tribune–President of Selma University–Sunday School Agent of South Carolina . . . . . 908
  • CHAPTER CXXXV.
    JAMES W. C. PENNINGTON, D. D.
    Able Presbyterian Divine–Greek, Latin and German Scholar . . . . . 913


    Page 29

  • CHAPTER CXXXVI.
    HON. EDWARD WILMOT BLYDEN, LL. D.
    Linguist–Oriental Scholar–Arabic Professor–Magazine Writer–Minister Plenipotentiary–President of Liberia College . . . . . 916
  • CHAPTER CXXXVII.
    REV. B. F. LEE, D. D.
    Editor of the Christian Recorder–President of Wilberforce University for Many Years . . . . . 922
  • CHAPTER CXXXVIII.
    HON. J. J. SPELMAN.
    State Senator–Temperance Orator–Eminent Baptist Layman . . . . . 928
  • CHAPTER CXXXIX.
    REV. MARSHALL W. TAYLOR, D. D.
    Editor of the Southwestern Advocate–Brilliant Writer . . . . . 933
  • CHAPTER CXL.
    TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE.
    The Negro Soldier, Statesman and Martyr . . . . . 936
  • CHAPTER CXLI.
    HON. HIRAM R. REVELS.
    United States Senator–A. M. E. Preacher–President of the Alcorn University–Planter . . . . . 948
  • CHAPTER CXLII.
    REV. HARRISON N. BOUEY.
    Missionary to Africa–Agent American Baptist Publication Society–District Secretary . . . . . 951
  • CHAPTER CXLIII.
    COLONEL JAMES LEWIS.
    Surveyor-General–Colonel of the Second Regiment State Militia–Collector of the New Orleans Port–Naval Officer–Superintendent of the United States Bonded Warehouses . . . . . 954


    Page 30

  • CHAPTER CXLIV.
    REV. E. H. LIPSCOMBE, A. B., A. M.
    President of the Western Union Institute–Professor of Rhetoric and Moral Philosophy–Preacher–Editor of the Mountain Gleaner . . . . . 959
  • CHAPTER CXLV.
    HON. JAMES C. MATTHEWS.
    Lawyer and Recorder of Deeds, Washington, D. C. . . . . . 964
  • CHAPTER CXLVI.
    PROFESSOR WILLIAM HOWARD DAY, D. D.
    Able and Forcible Orator–Practical Printer–Veteran Editor–Philanthropist–Agitator–Progressive Race Man . . . . . 978
  • CHAPTER CXLVII.
    REV. BENJAMIN TUCKER TANNER, A. M., D. D.
    Editor A. M. E. Review–Twenty Years an Editor–For Many Years Editor of the Christian Recorder–Author of Ecclesiastical Works . . . . . 985
  • CHAPTER CXLVIII.
    GEOFFREY L’ISLET.
    Correspondent of the French Academy of Sciences–Versed in the Sciences of Botany, Natural Philosophy, Zoology and Astronomy . . . . . 989
  • CHAPTER CXLIX.
    R. C. O. BENJAMIN, ESQ.
    Lawyer–Author–Editor–Champion of the Race . . . . . 991
  • CHAPTER CL.
    HON. JOHN J. IRVINE.
    Clerk of the Circuit Court of Chattanooga, Tennessee . . . . . 995


    Page 31

  • CHAPTER CLI.
    GEORGE T. DOWNING, ESQ.
    Aggressive Politician–An Intimate Friend of Charles Sumner–An Old Time Warrior for Free Speech and Human Rights–A Man of Pronounced Convictions . . . . . 1003
  • CHAPTER CLII.
    MAJOR MARTIN R. DELANEY, M. D.
    Scientist–Ethnologist–Lecturer–Discoverer–Member of the International Statistical Conference . . . . . 1007
  • CHAPTER CLIII.
    REV. J. B. FIELDS:
    An Able, Eloquent Baptist Divine–Popular Historian–Lecturer–The Annihilator of Ingersollism . . . . . 1016
  • CHAPTER CLIV.
    ROBERT PELHAM, JR.
    The Able Editor of the Detroit Plaindealer–A Vigorous Writer–An Active Politician . . . . . 1022
  • CHAPTER CLV.
    PROFESSOR B. T. WASHINGTON.
    Principal of the Tuskegee Normal School–A Successful Career–A Wonderful Institution–Industrial Education . . . . . 1027
  • CHAPTER CLVI.
    REV. J. P. CAMPBELL, D. D., LL. D.
    Bishop of the A. M. E. Church–The Theologian of the Denomination . . . . . 1031
  • CHAPTER CLVII.
    NAT. TURNER.
    Insurrectionist . . . . . 1035
  • CHAPTER CLVIII.
    HON. HILERY RICHARD WRIGHT JOHNSON.
    President of Liberia–An Accomplished English and Classical Scholar–A Master of German, French and Mathematics . . . . . 1040


    Page 32

  • CHAPTER CLIX.
    HON. JOHN R. LYNCH.
    Prominent Politician–Orator–Lawyer–Congressman–Presided at the National Republican Convention. . . . . . 1042
  • CHAPTER CLX.
    REV. P. H. A. BRAXTON.
    Pastor of the Calvary Baptist Church, Baltimore, Maryland–Writer–Speaker. . . . . . 1046
  • CHAPTER CLXI.
    PROFESSOR T. MCCANTS STEWART. A. B., LL. B.
    Attorney at Law–Professor and Author. . . . . . 1052
  • CHAPTER CLXII.
    HON. E. P. MCCABE.
    Auditor of Kansas–County Clerk–Successful Politician. . . . . . 1055
  • CHAPTER CLXIII.
    REV. CHARLES HENRY PARRISH, A. B.
    A Rising Young Man–From the Position of Janitor to the Secretaryship of a University. . . . . . 1059
  • CHAPTER CLXIV.
    REV. JOHN JASPER.
    “The Sun Do Move”. . . . . . 1064
  • CHAPTER CLXV.
    JAMES E. J. CAPITEIN.
    A Negro Born in Africa–Taken to Europe–Educated in Holland–Latin Poet. . . . . . 1073
  • CHAPTER CLXVI.
    REV. D. A. PAYNE, D. D., LL. D.
    Senior Bishop of the A. M. E. Church–Educator and Author–The Scholar of the Denomination. . . . . . 1078


    Page 33

  • CHAPTER CLXVII.
    REV. I. M. BURGAN, B. D.
    President of Paul Quinn College–Educator–Pioneer. . . . . . 1086
  • CHAPTER CLXVIII.
    REV. W. J. WHITE.
    Editor of the Georgia Baptist. . . . . . 1095
  • CHAPTER CLXIX.
    HON. ALEXANDER CLARK.
    Eminent Mason–Lawyer–Editor. . . . . . 1097
  • CHAPTER CLXX.
    HON. JOHN C. DANCY.
    Editor of the Star of Zion–Eminent Layman in the A. M. E. Zion Church–Recorder of Deeds of Edgecombe Co., North Carolina. . . . . . 1101
  • CHAPTER CLXXI.
    PROFESSOR CHARLES L. REASON.
    A Veteran New York School Teacher–European Traveler–One of the Giants in Anti-Slavery Days. . . . . . 1105
  • CHAPTER CLXXII.
    REV. JOHN M. BROWN, D. D., D. C. L.
    An Active Bishop in the A. M. E. Church. . . . . . 1113
  • CHAPTER CLXXIII.
    PROFESSOR DAVID ABNER, JR.
    A Rising Young Professor in Bishop College, Texas–Editor–Lecturer. . . . . . 1119
  • CHAPTER CLXXIV.
    REV. A. A. WHITMAN.
    Author of a Book of Poems, entitled, ‘Not a Man, and Yet a Man,’ with Miscellaneous Poems. . . . . . 1122


    Page 34

  • CHAPTER CLXXV.
    E. M. BANNISTER, ESQ.
    An Artist Photographer–The Gifted Painter of Providence, who was Inspired to Paint Pictures by a Slur in the New York Herald Twenty Years Ago . . . . . 1127
  • CHAPTER CLXXVI.
    HON. C. C. ANTOINE.
    Lieutenant-Governor of Louisiana–State Senator–Prominent Politician . . . . . 1132
  • CHAPTER CLXXVII.
    JAMES MATTHEW TOWNSEND, D. D.
    Corresponding Secretary of the Parent Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the A. M. E. Church–A Man of Perseverance and Sound Judgment . . . . . 1135

Page 35

ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page 39

INTRODUCTION.

ACCOMPANIED BY A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF REV. W. J.
SIMMONS, A. B., A. M., D. D.

It is a historic fact that Virginia soil has been rife with Presidents, but truly South Carolina has given to the world more men of note than any other State in the Union. In Charleston, South Carolina, June 29, 1849, Edward and Esther Simmons, two slaves, added to their fortune the subject of this sketch, who though born in poverty, shrouded by obscurity, was destined to make for himself a name honored among men. At an early period in his life, interested parties hurried the mother with three small children northward, without the protection of a husband and father, to begin a long siege with poverty. When the steamer landed at Philadelphia they were met by an uncle, Alexander Tardiff, who left the south some time before. This uncle, a shoemaker by trade, displayed the virtues of a generous nature in caring for the mother, William, Emeline and Anna as well as he could, with prejudice to fight. These were days of hardships and anxieties so keen for the little family that even now the survivors speak of them in hushed tones and with misty eyes. While in Philadelphia


Page 40they were harassed by slave traders who seemed determined to burrow them out of their hiding place. At this time disease laid his hand upon them.
Disasters come not singly;
But as if they watched and waited,
Scanning one another’s motions.
When the first descends, the others
Follow, follow, gathering flock-wise
Round their victim, sick and wounded,
First a shadow, then a sorrow,
Till the air is dark with anguish.

Huddled together in the garret of the three-story brick house where they lived, stricken with the small-pox, almost destitute of food, and fearing to call in medical attendance lest by attracting attention they would be carried back into slavery; while death stared them in the face, fugitive slave hunters rapped at the door of the front room which the uncle used as a workshop. These beasts in human flesh, after many inquiries and cross-questionings were so misled by the shrewd uncle that they went away. Shortly after, the uncle finding it impossible to earn a living at his trade, decided to go to sea. The family was left at Roxbury, Pennsylvania. Here for two years the faithful mother toiled morning, noon and night, at washing and other hard work to support the children and keep them together. At the expiration of this time the uncle returned and carried them to Chester, Pennsylvania, where he was able to do a good business; but the same old trouble arose. The slave traders were on their track again! The family was smuggled away to Philadelphia and remained long enough for the uncle to secure employment,


Page 41by answering an advertisement inserted in the papers by George and Arthur Stowell, Bordentown, New Jersey, for a journeyman shoemaker. At this place it was a daily contest with poverty and a struggle for bread; however, the children were kept together, and none were ever hired out. During the entire boyhood of William, so hard pressed were they because of sickness, dull seasons of work and other difficulties, that never a toy, so dear to childhood, brightened his life; and for days and weeks, milk and mush was his only food. He never attended a public school in his whole school life. The uncle having attended school in Charleston under D. A. Payne, now Bishop Payne of the A. M. E. Church, was a fair scholar and undertook the education of the children, laying a foundation so broad and exact, that in after years college studies for the boy were comparatively easy.

William was by no means a good “Sabbath-keeping-boy” such as we read of in books. He gave considerable trouble at home and abroad. In 1862 he was apprenticed to Dr. Leo H. DeLange, a dentist in Bordentown, New Jersey. So far as giving him necessary instruction, the doctor was kind to him. William had learned so thoroughly all there was to be learned in the profession, that when the doctor was absent he was able to do a large part of the work. Though often rebuffed by white patients, he operated on some of the best families in the city. He endeavored to enter a dental college in Philadelphia, and was refused largely on account of color. Unwilling to enter the profession without a thorough knowledge, such as could be given only in a training school, he decided to


Page 42abandon the profession, but remained with the doctor until September 16, 1864, at which time, becoming disgusted at the treatment received at the hands of the doctor, he ran away and enlisted in the Forty-first United States colored troops.

His army life was not uneventful; he took part in battles around Petersburg, Hatches Run, Appomattox Court House, and was present at the surrender of Lee, the crisis out of which our own happier cycle of years has been evolved. He was discharged September 13, 1865, and in 1866 and 1867 worked as journeyman at his trade for Dr. William H. Longfellow, a colored dentist of Philadelphia, after which he returned to Dr. DeLange.

He was converted in 1867 and joined the white Baptist church in Bordentown, pastored by Rev. J. W. Custis, a brilliant man, under whose influence about one hundred and fifty had joined the church that spring.

Although the only colored man in the church, he was treated with much kindness; and when his call to the Gospel ministry was made known, they rallied to his support, defraying his school expenses three years. The New Jersey State Educational Society aided him to attend Madison University of New York, from which he graduated in 1868, taking the academic course. Both students and teachers were his warm friends and are to-day. The dark skinned youth, though alone, never felt the sting of injustice at their hands. September, 1868, found him matriculated at Rochester University, having been led to make the change by an offer of additional aid by laboring in a small Baptist church in Rochester, and because there he found


Page 43colored people among whom he could associate and do missionary work. At this early date we see cropping out the love for the race which in after years became one of the ruling passions of his life.

One pleasant year slipped by, and the freshman year completed, when his eyes became seriously affected. The trouble was brought on by continuous night study of Greek during his academic year. This prevented school attendance until the year 1871 when he entered Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, and graduated as an A. B. in 1873. His graduating oration treating of the Darwinian theory, a subject then very popular in literary circles, attracted much attention and newspaper comments. Extracts were printed in a paper in England devoted to science and literature.

At many periods, his school life was a sequel to the days of deprivation of childhood. Time and again he would be forced to stay indoors while having his only shirt laundried. Poor shoes and patched clothes were the rule, not the exception. During his entire course he did not have a whole suit until reaching the senior year. Once he ate cheese and crackers three weeks. During the senior year, September, 1872, to June, 1873, he walked seven miles a day, and taught school; came home and drilled the cadet company from four to five; recited at night, and graduated with the salutatory of the class. That was a happy day; by frugality he had saved three hundred dollars. Commencement day for him ended many deprivations and sacrifices in one sense. Both have come since, but of a different character and easier to bear. In the world one can


Page 44find means of replenishing his purse, and many opportunities of changing his circumstances; but with a student it is different. He must in a degree be stationary, and cannot move around for the purpose of getting benefits.

During these years his mother lavished on him the devotion and pride of a loving heart. She washed, ironed and labored in other ways to help him. In this she was greatly assisted by one Bunting Hankins and his devoted wife of Bordentown, New Jersey, in whose family she labored. General O. O. Howard, president of Howard University, and General E. Whittlesey, dean of the college department, showed him many kindnesses during and after college days. While a student, he showed such aptness to teach in conducting a school at a place called Bunker’s Hill, rebuilding it almost from nothing, that the school-board promoted him to the principalship of a much larger building, with several hundred scholars. This was the Hillsdale Public school, District of Columbia. Here he boarded in the house of Hon. Solomon G. Brown, one of the ablest scientists in this country.

Immediately after graduating, he took Horace Greeley’s advice, and went west, to Arkansas, with the idea of making it his home; was examined and secured a State certificate from the Honorable Superintendent of Education, J. C. Corbin, but soon returned to Washington and taught at Hillsdale until June, 1874.

After marrying Josephine A., the daughter of John and Caroline Silence, in Washington, District of Columbia, August 25, 1874, he went south. By this union they have had the following children: Josephine Lavinia,


Page 45William Johnson, Maud Marie, Amanda Moss, Mary Beatrice, John Thomas and Gussie Lewis. Desiring to better his financial condition he went to Florida, September, 1874, and invested in lands and oranges, but the investment did not prove a paying one. While in Ocala (in 1879) he was ordained a deacon, and was licensed to preach without asking for it. Pastored at a small station a year before ordination, after which time, he was ordained the night before leaving the State.

He was principal of Howard Academy, deputy county clerk and county commissioner. Here, too, his political tendencies received an impetus. He was chairman of the county campaign committee, and a member of the district congressional committee. Stumped the county for Hayes and Wheeler, and when it is remembered that the State went only 147 majority for Hayes, it is quite a material thing that the county in which he lived raised its quota from 525 Republican majority to 986. After this he returned to Washington and taught public school until 1879, when he left to accept the pastorate of the First Baptist church, Lexington, Kentucky. To do great work, God raises up great men.

September, 1880, he was called to the presidency of the Normal and Theological institution (as it was then called), a school conducted under the auspices of the General Association of Colored Baptists of Kentucky. At that time the school had but thirteen pupils, two teachers and an empty treasury. Says The Bowling Green Watchmen, a State paper edited by Rev. Eugene Evans:


Page 46

Few men of Professor Simmons ability and standing would have been willing to risk their future in an enterprise like the Normal and Theological Institution; an enterprise without capital and but a few friends. But it can be truly said of Professor Simmons, that he has proven himself master of the situation. The school had been talked of for nearly twenty years but no one ever dreamed of its being a possibility. When he was elected president, every cloud vanished, and the sunshine of success could be seen on every side. Some of his students already rank among the foremost preachers, teachers and orators of the State.


        As an educator, he has likely no superiors. Discarding specialism in education, he claims that ideal manhood and womanhood cannot be narrowed down to any one sphere of action, but that the whole being–every faculty with which we are endowed–must receive proper development. No boy or girl comes under his influence without feeling a desire to become useful and great. He infuses inspiration into the least ambitious. He has a knack of “drawing out” all there is within. No flower within his reach “wastes its sweetness on the desert air.” If there are elements of usefulness in those around him, he trains and utilizes them. As a president, his executive ability is excellent. Students admire, respect and stand in awe of him; his teachers are proud of him, trust his judgment and abide by his decisions. For poor students he has the tenderest sympathy, especially for those who most desire an education and struggle hardest for it. He rewards those who are faithful in discharge of duty, and for those who accomplish something he has words of cheer, but for idlers nothing.

September 29, 1882, he was elected editor of the American Baptist, and at this time is President of the American


Page 47Baptist Company. As an editor, Dr. Simmons brings before the public every live issue of the day. His editorials are racy, versatile and logical. He contends for rights and cries down wrongs. He is extensively copied, and has the personal respect of every editor and prominent man in the country. A man of forcible character and deep convictions must reveal himself in his writings, and the subject of this article is such a man. His pen pictures are characterized by a rugged strength which takes hold of the reader and fixes the thought in memory more than by elaboration and flourishes which soothe and please, but pass from the mind as water through the seive. In regard to the duty of colored citizens to existing parties he believes “that committed as both parties are to the pernicious doctrine of State Rights, colored people should pay less attention to national politics than to State affairs.” He says:

The days are slipping by and our children are growing into manhood and womanhood–we are fast passing away. Shall we live deluded with the hope that the general government will bring to us a panacea for all our ills? No; we must court the favors of the people of the State. We must be for progress wherever found. We must act wisely. Indeed the Republican party could not, if it would, help us. They are debarred by statutes, and sentiments, stronger than statutes. Let us study State interests, its schools and its development in every direction. Let us cast our votes for liberal men who will help us. We cannot expect those against whom we vote to do so. Take Kentucky; who has secured all the school advantages for the colored race? Why, the colored people themselves. The Republican party did not do it–not a bit of it. The white men of the party and their children were all right. When did they offer to make a special fight for us? Never. When, then, did we secure a change of the forty-eight per capita tax to an equalization of the tax for


Page 48all children alike? By petition of our own and by favor of Democrats, even when put to a popular vote, and by the act of a Democratic legislature. Is it not queer, too, that we never thought to demand of our party that they made the fight for us? The answer is, the colored man is such a slave to party that his blind obedience has befogged his reason so that he has fought the white man’s battles, secured office for him, and fought for his own rights unaided in “Negro Conventions.” White men would have made a broad open fight and demanded the Negro votes. After the convention was over the Negroes would petition the very legislature members whom they had fought and voted against in every county. Negroes attempt to do in convention what they ought to do with their votes, and are driven to it by the policy of the Republican party in the South. We should change this thing.”


        Dr. Simmons’ activities are prominently identified with the most important affairs of the race. Several years he has been chairman of the executive committee of the “State Convention of Colored Men of Kentucky.” At the meeting in Lexington, November 26, 1875, he was reelected. The call of the said meeting, a document enumerating in a few words the long catalogue of injustices practiced upon the colored citizens of the State, shows a high degree of statesmanship. It begins thus:

FELLOW-CITIZENS:–When a free people, living in a body politic, feel that the laws are unjustly administered to them; that discriminations are openly made; that various subterfuges and legal technicalities are constantly used to deprive them of the enjoyment of those rights and immunities belonging to the humblest citizen; when the courts become no refuge for the outraged, and when a sentiment is not found sufficient to do them justice, it becomes their bounden duty to protest against such a state of affairs. To do less than vigorously and earnestly enter our protest is to cringe like hounds before masters, and to show that we are not fit for freedom. We are robbed by some of the railroad companies who take our first-class fares and then we are driven into smoking cars, and, if we demur, are cursed and roughly handled. Our women have


Page 49been beaten by brutal brakemen, and in many cases left to ride on the platforms at the risk of life and limb.

We are tried in courts controlled entirely by white men, and no colored man sits on a Kentucky jury. This seems no mere accident, but a determined effort to exclude us from fair trials and put us at the mercy of our enemies, from the judge down to the vilest suborned witness.

When charged with grave offenses, the jail is mobbed, and the accused taken out and hanged; and out of the hundreds of such cases since the war, not a single high-handed murderer has been ever brought before a court to answer. Colored men have been deliberately murdered, and few if any murderers have been punished by the law. Indecent haste to free the criminal in such cases has made the trial a farce too ridiculous to be called more than a puppet show.

The penitentiary is full of our race, who are sent there by wicked and malicious persecutors, and unjust sentences dealt out by judges, who deem a colored criminal fit only for the severest and longest sentences for trivial offenses.

In all departments of the State we are systematically deprived of recognition, except in menial positions. In our metropolitan city, and even cities of lesser note, we are not considered in the appointments in fire companies, police force, notary public, etc. In fact, we are the ruled class and have no share in the government.


        Dr. Simmons was chairman of the committee appointed by the convention to lay before the Legislature the grievances of the 271,481 colored citizens. His speech on this occasion was a masterpiece. Says the Soldiers’ Reunion, a paper published at Lexington:

The speech of Rev. W. J. Simmons, D. D.; before the Kentucky Legislature, was one of the ablest efforts ever made in the interests of the colored people. They (the Legislature) have ordered two thousand copies printed.


        Said he:

Only the history of the two races in our beautiful country could give birth to such a scene as this. That we, born Americans, finding distinctions


Page 50in law, should be driven to appeal to a portion of the same body politic for rights and equalities; and though American sovereigns ourselves, because too weak, bend the suppliant knee, craving that we might be given that which appears rightly ours without contest. We feel some pride, and are consequently jealous of the good name of the State and of the United States. We also feel humiliated that a foreigner who has never felled a tree, built a cabin, or laid a line of railway, seems more welcome to this shore, and is accorded every facility for himself and children to make the most of themselves, even BEFORE NATURALIZATION; while we, seeing them happy in a new-found asylum, and knowing you from our youth up-our mothers washed your linen and nursed you, our fathers made the soil feed you, and kept the fire burning in your grate–are compelled to beg, in the zenith hour of 1886, your favors. Two generations are before you; the one born in the cradle of slavery, the other born in the cradle of liberty; the one saw the light mid the discussions of your fathers; the other mingled their infant’s voice with the retreating sound of the cannon. We belong to the South–the “New South.” Your own progress in the questions of human liberty and our own thirst for draughts from higher fountains, and, indeed, in obedience to the demands of our constituents, we venture to lay before you in a manly, honorable way, the complaints of 271,481 as true hearted Kentuckians as ever came from the loin of the bravest, truest and most honored of women, sired by the most distinguished fathers. As Kentuckians we meet you with the feelings and aspirations, common and peculiar to those born and surrounded by the greatness of your history, the fertility of your soil, the nobility of your men and the beauty of your women. We come, plain of speech, in order to prove that we are men of judgment, meeting men who are really desirous of knowing our wants.


        At the meeting of the Colored Press convention in St. Louis, Missouri, July 13, 1883, he was nominated for its president, but was beaten by Hon. W. A. Pledger of Georgia by one vote. When said convention met in Richmond, Virginia, July 8. 1885, he was made chairman of the executive committee and at the next meeting, August 3, 1886, Atlantic City, New Jersey, he was elected president


Page 51by a majority of four over Mr. T. T. Fortune, editor of The Freeman.

Dr. Simmons is very much interested in the education of the hand. He has written a pamphlet on “Industrial Education” which has had a wide circulation. A sample of it will be seen below.

If the industrial craze be not watched, our literary institutions will be turned into workshops and our scholars into servants and journeymen. Keep the literary and industrial apart. Let the former be stamped deeply so it will not be mistaken. We need scholars. All men are not workers in the trades, and never will be. If we cripple the schools established, by diverting them largely from their original plan, we shall have no lawyers, doctors, professors, authors, etc. And again, the money in the schools will be divided and neither end will be reached; we will be like clowns trying to ride two horses, and as they get wider apart, we drop in a ditch, and our horses run away from us and break their own necks. Keep these schools apart, and attempt not the task of grinding scholars out of industrial, nor finished workmen from literary schools. Each has a legitimate sphere and let each stick to it. In the colleges, universities and higher schools of the South, not less than a thousand white men are teaching our youth; it is not intended that they will do so forever. I would, therefore, prepare the professors to take their places in the same manner that they were prepared–in literary institutions. In plainer words, let the student be free from industrial trade work when he has made certain grades in his classes. We want good workmen and good scholars, not deluded smatterers in either department. Gingerbread work, fiddling with tools, frittering away time, is not seriously making a mechanic. Industrial work as a sentiment must be crystallized into a profitable reality.

Hence, this feeble effort in Southern schools will only be the means of deceiving many into the notion that they are “workmen,” when they are only botches, and will furnish another poor class of mechanics to supplement a class of which we now complain. It would be wiser to spend ten thousand dollars on a single school per year, and make a first class industrial department, than two thousand dollars on each of five schools. Many will learn to do things for which they can give no reason.


Page 52         The people, the masses, the boys, the girls, the rank and file, must betaken through a thorough English course and made master of a trade. I said this school was needed as a corrective; that is, to teach the dignity of labor. They must learn the gospel of manual labor; not simply as a means of bread and butter, but an honorable calling and duty. Let the buzz of the saw, the ring of the hammer, the whisle of the engine, the spinning of the wheel, the low of the ox, the bleating of the lamb, the crow of the rooster, all be music and inspiration to the rising race. Labor is honorable, but it is fast becoming unfashionable for the colored boy or girl to seek manual labor, and rather than work, many become loafers, dissipates and wrecks. Let us start a current large enough to meet the mental tide and mingling, find the happy medium. Parents must give their children trades. Teachers and preachers must see to this matter.

This school should have a large farm attached, where agriculture in every form should be taught, and by means of which living could be made cheap to poor students. To sum up the words of another, here in this school, the farmer should be educated in science, elementary engineering, mechanics and agriculture; the miner, mineralogy, geology, chemistry, and his own work; the merchant in geography, history, foreign language, political economy and laws; the machinist must master all the known powers of material nature–heat and cold, weight and impulse; matter in all conditions–liquid, solid and gaseous, standing or running, condensed or rare, adamantine or plastic–all must be seen through and comprehended by the master of modern mechanics. Architects, engineers, teachers and all classes of workers require a technical education.

I mean to take the female along too. They must be taught domestic economy, household ethics, home architecture, cookery, telegraphy, photography, printing, editorial work, dressmaking, tailoring, knitting, fancy work, nursing, dairying, horticulture, apiaculture, sericulture, poultry raising, stenography, type-writing, practical designs, painting, repousse work, etc., etc., for if men must make money, the women must know best how to save it, or what is better, help to get it. A saving wife is worth her weight in gold and earns her own board and is entitled to have her washing done from home.

Before I leave this subject, let me say that it may prove the best thing after all that our youth cannot get into the workshops and factories as


Page 53readily as white youths. The latter class have the blessings of good homes and the amenities of a social life beyond that of a colored child. Every library, lecture hall and art gallery is open, and the finest music, sculpture, books, magazines and journals fall as thick around them as autumn leaves. But our youths need to have the moral training which comes from the school-room as well as the skill that comes from the workshop. They need practical drill in habits of industry, care in business, punctuality in dealing with the world, and, in fact, they need the moral bracing up that makes good citizens and square business men and women. Perhaps Providence has so hedged us that out of trials and darkness may come pleasure and light. So now we are driven to do perhaps the best thing for our race by putting our children where head, hand, eye, ear, and in fact the whole man, must be trained.


        The great National Convention of colored men held at Louisville, September, 1883, enrolled him as a member. His love for the people is shown in the following little incident. While serving as a member of the committee on education and labor, a proposition was made to ask Congress to pass a bill giving the monies which had been left in the treasury from the unclaimed bounties of colored soldiers to the high schools of the South, which would of course have included the denominational, and excluded the public schools. Against this he protested, notwithstanding he was at the head of the denominational school which would have received benefits, on the grounds that the masses should be aided and not the few, and because it was a lack of statesmanship and knowledge of the laws governing the land to ask aid for denominational schools. The committee voted him down solidly, but when the matter was called up in the convention, he took the platform and made a speech so convincing that the chairman, Hon. D. A. Straker, LL. D., of South Carolina, was called upon to


Page 54change the report, which was done with good grace. At the convention of the Knights of Wise Men, held in Atlanta, Georgia, he took an active part in the deliberations. He has delivered several addresses before the American Baptist Home Mission Society. At the fiftieth anniversary held in New York, May 24, 1872, his oration, “What are the Colored People Doing?” was much spoken of and published in the Jubilee Volume. He delivered another before the same body, May 26-27, 1885, at Saratoga, and has been invited to address the next meeting, May 29, 1887, at Minneapolis. In 1884, he was appointed by Hon. B. K. Bruce commissioner for the State of Kentucky in the colored department of the World’s Industrial and Cotton Exposition held at New Orleans, Louisiana, and succeeded in giving a splendid representation, thereby reflecting credit on the State. The school over which he presided made a creditable exhibit. The trustee board, in making the annual report to the General Association of Colored Baptists, said:

At the suggestion of our worthy president, who was also the commissioner for Kentucky for the World’s Exposition at New Orleans, an exhibition of our University, of both the literary and industrial work, was sent to the Exposition. To say that the display was complete and satisfactory is but to state it mildly. It has done much to advertise our University, and shows the capacity of our people for both education and industrial pursuits.


        In September, 1883, Dr. Simmons called together and organized the Baptist women into a convention, for the purpose of raising money for the educational work of the denomination in the State. The body known as the “Baptist Women’s Educational Convention” has met every


Page 55year since, and has and is doing a noble work in paying off the indebtedness of the State University.

Were you to ask me Dr. Simmons’ motto, I would say, “God, my race and denomination.” While holding tenaciously his own religious views, he is willing for other men to hold theirs. Among his strongest friends are eminent preachers, scholars and laymen of every denomination in the United States with which colored people are allied. The fact that the Wilberforce University conferred upon him the degree of D. D. is ample evidence of the friendliness existing between him and the brethren of that faith. The faculty of said school ranks with the most eminent men of America, among whom are Rev. B. W. Arnett, D. D., Professor W. S. Scarborough, LL. D., Bishops D. A. Payne, D. D., LL. D., John M. Brown, D. D., D. C. L., and others of like grace and eminence.

Being impressed with the idea that colored Baptists were not doing what they should for the support and influence of their peculiar views, he suggested, through the American Baptist, April 5, 1886, that a convention be held. This suggestion was heartily endorsed by Baptists throughout the United States. He issued the call at their suggestion, and the result was the organization of the American National Baptist Convention, which met, August 25, 1886, in St. Louis, Mo., and of which he was unanimously elected president, and chairman of the executive committee. He preached the denominational sermon which was published in the minutes. It was rich in statistics and history, pregnant with the faith as handed down from the Apostles. He concluded by saying:


Page 56

The work of the colored Baptists is marvelous, aye, stupendous. When we remember our elevation to-day, it is not with undue pride; no! no! no! with thanksgiving and humiliation, with self-abasement and lowliness, and with an earnest prayer for more faith, we lift our eyes to the Great Father of souls and pray His righteous benediction, that we bow our heads because we have been unprofitable servants. Yet it is with astonishment that we have reached such lofty heights, and with remarkable pleasure do we look back upon the depths from which we came. Driven out, Hagar-like, we have. Ishmael-like, still become a people and dwell in the presence of our brethren, and to-day, in figures bright and glowing in the ending of the nineteenth century, we count fully 1,071.000–every sign of progress. It might be remarked, if we can rise to this point with few learned men, what shall be the result in the next twenty years? Books, papers, magazines and pamphlets shall be as plentiful as the maple leaves in full blown spring.

The Baptist host is like a cube: throw them aside and they always land on an equal side, and you need never despair when in your trials and doubts in your several churches: remember the God of battles is on your side and that the ages have only increased His glory.


        His knowledge of the tenets of the denomination with which he is identified is marvelous. In this direction his research has been thorough and extensive as is shown in an article on “Baptism” published in the A. M. E. Review, October, 1886, in reply to Rev. B. W. Williams.

As an orator Dr. Simmons is pleasing to his audience. A quick thinker, and possessing a rich and ready flow of choice language, a figure that can be seen, and a voice that can be heard at a distance. At times, in the heat of debate, the whole grandeur of his soul is transfused into his countenance; and his hearers are electrified as only true eloquence can electrify.

He was invited to address the students of three different colleges in one year. At Selma University, May 28, 1885,


Page 57his subject was “True Manliness.” The Baptist Pioneer commented as follows:

For nearly an hour and a half the speaker held the large audience spellbound. He was eloquent and inspiring. Rarely have we listened to a more practical oration. At times the audience was convulsed with laughter at the wit, and then immediately made to reflect under the solid words of wisdom which fell from the speaker’s lips.


        His address before the Berea College students, subject “The Great Text-Book of the Ages,” received much comment. June 18, 1885, after delivering an oration before the Wilberforce Literary Society, subject “Leaders and Followers,” he had conferred on him the degree of D. D., by that venerable institution. In 1881, he had received the degree of A. M., from Howard University. During the educational movement in Kentucky, in 1885, I think, Dr. Simmons delivered a speech before the Inter-State Educational Convention, which was held in the white Baptist church, subject “The Education of the Negro Race.” In this convention were found the most eminent educators, State superintendents and the most noted thinkers in America. Favorable criticism was made by the New York Journal of Education, the Courier-Journal of Louisville, and other State papers.

He delivered an oration at the Lexington Emancipation celebration, January 1, 1887. Urging the hearers to greater efforts, he said:

The warm blood of the Negro that haunts the channels of his veins with ancient Egyptian and Ethiopian fires has been tempered in the climate of the South and reduced to that proportion which robs it of its sluggishness, subdues it of wild passion and holds it by reason, while the


Page 58trials of the past have been the friction that brightens, the winds that toughen, and the frosts that ripen. No great song, or poem, or book, or invention has yet seen birth south of the “Mason and Dixon Line.” It has been reserved for us. The only American music was born on the plantations and wrung from aching hearts as wine from the luscious grape. It has touched the heart of the learned and engaged the attention of the scientific musician. As the Indian faded in the North, before the white man, so the white man of the South must yield to us, without, however, a bloody conflict. We shall gather wealth, learning and manhood, and occupy the land. This is the asylum of the world: and the tramp of hurrying nations warns us that this is the “Valley of Decision.” On this soil are settled the great questions of the earth. Already the march of empire has bathed its weary feet in the Pacific, and with the exception of watery waste has arrived at its home, and it is possible that He who made all nations of one blood, will here in our land, marry and intermarry, and reduce this conglomerate mass to one distinct nationality, with all the blood made one, and the highest type of consecrated manhood being realized, reduced back to the Adamic color through us; or He may out of the aggregate develop each to its highest type, and let them live to the end of time, carrying out His divine plans, and unerringly accomplishing His decrees. Here in this new South the Negro shall shine in the constellation of the nations, and by his words and deeds hand down to unborn ages the glittering pages of our history. We shall in some prominent way mount the ladder of difficulties, scale the cliff of prejudices and hide our heads among the stars.


        Dr. Simmons, in his modesty, does not claim for this work any special literary excellence, but his aim is simply to embalm in some place the lives of these men for future historians, who may take isolated cases and do justice to each. He also wishes to inspire the youth of the land, giving the many trials through which these men have had to pass, and have them further influenced by the great degree of promotion which has been granted to them. His talents, developed by cultivation, are also enriched by


Page 59the love of God and man which reaches beyond the boys of to-day who are trying to be somebody, to the boys of the future, who will inquire into the deeds and achievements of their fathers. As a man, Dr. Simmons is loyal to his convictions, sympathetic, independent, far sighted, therefore a wise counselor, methodical and liberal. He regards money as a trust from God, to be invested in every cause relative to bettering the condition of his fellow men and advancing the cause of Christ. His hand is shut when those who do not want, come to him; but when the really needy and friendless come to him, it is like a strainer full of holes, letting all he possesses pass through. To friends he is faithful; to enemies he shows a steady resistance, but no aggressiveness.

Thus far, I have sketched a few of the prominent phases in the life of the doctor, more in a biographical outline than in analysis of his true worth, reserving for the conclusion a few facts adumbrated in the preceding remarks.

I regard Dr. Simmons as one of the most replete scholars to his age in the country, for all the invincibility that attached to his boyhood and youthful days, enabling him to triumph over every obstacle that confronted him, still incites him to literary research, so that almost every subject within the circle of learning has been pierced by his intellectual prowess. Yet it could not be expected that a man of his age could be the master of every branch, for such exalted attainments only come by years of laborious application, which a young man has not had time to accomplish. The doctor has a large, symmetrically developed head, elevated in the centre at the organ of veneration,


Page 60with a brain texture of the highest type, attesting marvelous powers, when, even in many instances the head is oblong, but infinitely more so when rightly shaped, thus giving the doctor giant powers to use while employed in ferreting out the deep things of science, philosophy and theology, which will, if the doctor lives fifty years, culminate in making him one of the most mighty men of our race upon the globe.

As has been said of liberty, vigilant application is the price of profound scholarship; and this being the charm of his life, nothing but premature death can avert it. Too many of our young men after reaching literary distinction forget the rock from whence they were hewn, and waste their lives in endeavoring to become white, or expend it in worshiping white gods. But this charge cannot be made against the doctor. He is as true to his race as a needle is to the pole, and no stronger evidence is required than the work that will contain these sketches of eminent colored men. The future historian will ponder these pages, glean their contents as he traces the great men of this age, and wonder at the achievements made by them, in the face of so many environments that militated against them. Negro giants now sleeping in the womb of the future, will come forth an Armada that will defy the powers of earth, trample colored prejudice in the dust, write glory, honor and immortality itself upon the brow of black: frown thunders at race distinctions, fire the citadels of manhood discriminations and burn them to the ground; hurl defiance in the face of our defamers and contemners, and with pens of lightning write up the history of our ancestry,


Page 61and present them before earth and heaven as no one now ever dream.

When that time comes, as it will, unless God ceases to reign, this work of Dr. Simmons’ will form the foot-base of the mighty superstructure that will be reared with chancel, dome, spire and minaret, to the undying worth, merits and fame of the Negro. The abominable heresies set adrift by pseudo-philosophers, pseudo-scientists, and other figure-heads as ignorant as they were mean and low, that the Negro race were naturally inferior, and nothing great could ever be evolved from them, will be remembered in the grand hereafter as the overflowing slag or dross which precedes the incandescent rocks dashed from the volcano’s fiery jaws, while hurtled thunders shook the ground as though the gods were in battle arrayed. The Indian represents the past, the white man the present, but the Negro the future. The Indian is old, decayed and worn out; the whites are in the prime of life and vigor; but the Negro is a boy, a youth at school, a mere apprentice learning his trade. When the white race reaches decrepitude, as races are periodical as well as worlds, the Negro will have reached his prime, and being in possession of all he has and will acquire from the whites, and his own genius and industry to manufacture more and lift him to a higher civilization, he will stand out the wonder of the ages. The earth will tremble beneath his tread, while nature opens her bosom and pours into his lap her richest treasures. With mystic keys he will unlock her coffers, and her very arcana will divulge the secrets which she never whispered before into inquiring ears. Then, if not before, the name of Dr. Simmons will


Page 62be as familiar to the millions as that of Herodotus, Josephus, Pliny, Plutarch and other historians enshrined in the gratitude of the world. For him the world will have to look largely for a true narrative of the merits of the men who came upon the tapis at the death of our enslavement, and directed affairs while we were in a transitional state, rather while we were bursting the chrysalis that bound our intellectual and moral pinions, and barred our development until we had thrown off the slave forms, slave ears, slave doubts, as to our ability to live by merit and to claim rank among the more favored of earth.

Little as the common observer may regard it, we men who gather up the fragments of our labors, acts, achievements, sayings, songs, oddities, peculiarities, fun, speeches, lectures, poems, war struggles, bravery, degradation and sufferings, and preserve them for the future, now while they are within reach, will stand out as heroes in the day to come. The future orator, statesman, minister, poet, journalist, ethnologist, as well as the historian, will from these gather materials to build towers heaven-reaching that will monument the grandeur of our race, and still grander struggles that lifted them from the barren plains of the contempt of the world, to the majestic heights that we are destined to scale in God’s Providence. To this book, when Dr. Simmons will be numbered with the dead for centuries, will come the men above described, and others in countless scores, to light their torches, inspire their young, encourage the doubtful, animate the faltering and forward the tide of elevation till the last Negro boy and girl on the globe shall


Page 63be proud of their color, their hair, their origin and their race.

HENRY M. TURNER.


Illustration

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.


Page 65

I.

HON. FREDERICK DOUGLASS, LL. D.

        Magnetic Orator–Anti-slavery Editor–Marshal of the District of Columbia–Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia–First Citizen of America–Eminent Patriot and Distinguished Republican.

        WHO can write the life of this great man and do him justice? His life is an epitome ofthe efforts of a noble soul to be what God intended, despite the laws, customs and prejudices. That such a soul as Douglass’ could be found with the galling bonds of slavery is the blackest spot in the realm of thought and fact in the whole history of this government. But such a man as he would not remain in slavery, could not do so. Aye! it was impossible to fetter him and keep him there. He was a man. He was not going to remain bound while his legs could carry him off, and, as he facetiously remarked, he prayed for freedom, but when he made his legs pray, then he got free. He shows himself a man of works as well as faith. And these go together. But eulogy is wasted on such a man. His life speaks, and, when he is dead, his orations will keep his memory fresh, and his name will stand side by side with Webster, Summer and Clay.

Frederick Douglass was born about the year 1817, in Tuckahoe, a barren little district upon the eastern shore of


Page 66Maryland, best known for the wretchedness, poverty, slovenliness and dissipation of its inhabitants. Of his mother he knew very little, having seen her only a few times in his life, as she was employed on a plantation some distance from the place where he was raised. His master was supposed to be his father.

No man perhaps has had a more varied experience than the subject of this sketch. During his early childhood he was beaten and starved, often fighting with the dogs for the bones that were thrown to them. As he grew older and could work he was given very little to eat, over-worked and much beaten. As the boy grew older still, and realized the misery and horror of his surroundings, his very soul revolted, and a determination was formed to be free or to die attempting it.

At the age of ten years he was sent to Baltimore to Mrs. Sophia Auld, as a house servant. She became very much interested in him, and immediately began teaching him his letters. He was very apt, and was soon able to read. The husband of his mistress, finding it out, was very angry and put a stop to it.

This prohibition served only to check the instruction from his mistress, but had no effect on the ambition, the craving for more light, that was within the boy, and the more obstacles he met with the stronger became his determination to overcome them. He carried his spelling book in his bosom and would snatch a minute now and then to pursue his studies. The first money he made he invested in a “Columbian Orator.” In this work he read “The Fanaticism of Liberty” and the “Declaration of Independence.”


Page 67After reading this book he realized that there was a better life waiting for him, if he would take it, and so he ran away.

He settled in New Bedford with his wife, who, a free woman in the South, being engaged to Douglass before his escape, followed him to New York, where they were married. She was a worthy, affectionate, industrious and invaluable helpmate to the great Douglass. She ever stood side by side with him in all his struggles to establish a home, helped him and encouraged him while he climbed the ladder of knowledge and fame, together with him offered the hand of welcome and a shelter to all who were fortunate enough to escape from bondage and reach their hospitable shelter; and never, while loving mention is made of Frederick Douglass, may the name of his wife “Anna” be forgotten.

In New Bedford he sawed wood, dug cellars, shovelled coal, and did any other work by which he could turn an honest penny, having the incentive that he was working for himself and his family, and that there was no master waiting for his wages. Here several of their children were born.

He began to read the Liberator, for which he subscribed, and other papers, and works of the best authors. He was charmed by Scott’s “Lady of the Lake,” and reading it he adopted the name of “Frederick Douglass.” He began to take an interest in all public matters, often speaking at the gatherings among the colored people. In 1841 he addressed a large convention at Nantucket. After this he was employed as an agent of the American Antislavery Society,


Page 68which really marks the beginning of his grand struggle for the freedom and elevation of his race. He lectured all through the North, not withstanding he was in constant danger of being recaptured and sent to the far South as a slave. After a time it was deemed best that he should for a while go to England. Here he met a cordial welcome. John Bright established him in his house, and thus he was brought in contact with the best minds and made acquainted with some of England’s most distinguished men. His relation of the wrongs and sufferings of his enslaved brethren excited their deepest sympathy; and their admiration for his ability was so profound, their wonder so great, that there should be any fear of such a man being returned to slavery, that they immediately subscribed the amount necessary to purchase his freedom, made him a present of his manumission papers, and sent him home to tell his people that
Slaves cannot breathe in England:
If their lungs receive our air, that moment they are free;
They touch our country, and their shackles fall.

Returning to America he settled in Rochester, New York, and established a paper called the North Star, afterwards changed to Fred Douglass’ Paper, also Douglass’ Monthly. These were all published in his own office, and two of his sons were the principal assistants in setting up the work, and attending to the business generally.

There has been a great deal of speculation as to what connection Frederick Douglass had with the John Brown raid. The two great men met, and Brown became acquainted with Douglass’ history. They became fast friends.


Page 69They were singularly adapted to each other as co-workers, both being deeply imbued with the belief that it was their duty to devote their lives and means to the cause of emancipation. They lived frugally at home that they might have the more to give. Their families caught their inspiration, and their lives were all influenced by the one motive-power–the cause of freedom. Many men and women who successfully escaped into Canada, and thence to other places, will tell how, after they had been well fed, nourished and made comfortable by the mother, one of Fred Douglass’ boys had carried them across the line and seen them to a place of safety. When other boys were enjoying all the comforts and pleasures their parents could provide for them, Douglass’ sons were made to feel that there was only one path for them to walk in until the great end for which they were working had been attained.

Brown’s first plan was to run slaves off, and in this Douglass heartily joined him; but when he found Brown had decided to attempt the capture of Harper’s Ferry, he went to him at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, a short time before the raid, and used every argument he could to induce him to change his plans. Brown had enlisted a body of men to accompany him who felt as he felt, that their lives were nothing as weighed against the lives and liberties of so many who were suffering in bondage. His arms and ammunition were ready, his plans were all laid, and to Douglass’ argument he answered: “If we attack Harper’s Ferry, as we have now arranged, the country will be aroused, and the Negroes will see the way clear to liberation. We’ll hold the citizens of the town as hostages,


Page 70and so holding them can dictate our terms. You, Douglass, should be one of the first to go with us.”

“No, no,” replied the latter, “I can’t agree with you and will not go with you–your attempt can only result in utter ruin to you, and to all those who take part in it, without giving any substantial aid to the men in slavery. Let us rather go on with our first plan of the ‘Underground Railroad’ by which slaves may be run off to the free states. By that means practical results can be obtained. From insurrection nothing can be expected but imprisonment and death.”

“If you think so,” replied Brown, “it is, of course, best that we should part.” He held out his hand. Douglass grasped it. “Goodbye! God bless you!” they exclaimed, almost in the same breath, and then parting forever, were soon lost to each other in the darkness.

It was soon discovered that Douglass and Brown were in sympathy, and that Douglass, besides harboring Brown, had furnished him money to defray expenses, and thus making his safety a matter of great doubt. His friends advised him to leave the country for awhile. They were willing to stand by him, even to fight for him, but felt that it would be wiser to avoid the danger if possible. After much hesitation he was induced to abide by their advice, and the result proved the wisdom of his having done so. He went first to Canada and from there to England. Only a short time after his departure a requisition for his arrest was made by Governor Wise of Virginia. The requisition read as follows:


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[Confidential.]

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, November 13, 1859.

To His Excellency, James Buchanan, President of the United States, and to the Honorable Postmaster-General of the United States–

GENTLEMEN:–I have information such as has caused me, upon proper affidavits, to make requisition upon the Executive of Michigan for the delivery up of the person of Frederick Douglass, a Negro man, supposed now to be in Michigan, charged with murder, robbery and inciting servile insurrection in the State of Virginia. My agents for the arrest and reclamation of the person so charged are Benjamin M. Morris and William N. Kelly. The latter has the requisition and will wait on you to the end of obtaining nominal authority as postoffice agents. They need to be very secretive in this matter, and some pretext of traveling through the dangerous section for the execution of the laws in this behalf, and some protection against obtrusive, unruly or lawless violence. If it be proper so to do, will the Postmaster-General be pleased to give Mr. Kelly for each of these men a permit and authority to act as detectives for the postoffice department without pay, but to pass and repass without question, delay or hindrance?

Respectfully submitted by your
Obedient Servant,

HENRY A. WISE.


        Mr. Douglass did not feel it necessary to hasten his return on account of this interesting document, and so remained abroad till it was safe for him to come home. This adventure did not in the least dampen his ardor in the great cause. Wherever and whenever he could do or say anything for it, he never failed to do so. When the first gun was fired at Sumter, he was among the foremost to insist upon the enrollment of colored soldiers. In 1863 he, with others, succeeded in raising two regiments of colored troops, which were known as Massachusetts regiments. Two of his sons were among the first to enlist. His next move was to obtain the same pay for them that the white


Page 72soldiers received, and to have them exchanged as prisoners of war; in fact, that there should be no difference made between them and other soldiers. His work did not end with the war. He recognized the fact that a new life had begun for the former slaves; that a great work was to be done for them and with them, and he was ever to be found in the foremost ranks of those who were willing to put their shoulders to the wheel. His means, as well as his time, he largely gave to the cause. He was one of the most indefatigable workers for the passage of the amendments to the Constitution, granting the same rights to all classes of citizens, regardless of race and color. He attended the “Loyalists’ Convention,” held in Philadelphia, in 1867, being elected a delegate from Rochester. Some feared his presence would do more harm than good, knowing how radical he was; but he felt that it was his duty to go, and nothing could change him. It has been conceded that it was due principally to his persistent work in that convention, that resolutions favoring universal suffrage were passed. A little incident in connection with this convention shows the value of his work in that meeting, by disclosing the feeling of the men he had to deal with. As the members assembled proceeded to fall in line, on their way to the place of meeting, every one seemed to avoid walking beside a colored delegate. As soon as Theodore Tilton noticed it, he stepped to Douglass’ side, and arm in arm they entered the chamber. This act has made them lifelong friends, and these two are both brotherly in their devoted friendship. In Mr. Douglass’ recent visit to France,


Page 73he met Mr. Tilton, who resides in Paris, and had a glorious time.

He established the New National Era at Washington, D. C., in 1870. This paper was edited and published principally by him and his sons, and devoted to the cause of the race and the Republican party. In 1872 he took his family to reside in the District of Columbia. In 1871 President Grant appointed him to the Territorial Legislature of the District of Columbia. In 1872 he was chosen one of the Presidential electors-at-large for the State of New York, and was the elector selected to deliver a certified statement of the votes to the president of the Senate.

He was appointed to accompany the commissioners on their trip to Santo Domingo, pending the consideration of the annexation of that island to the United States. President Grant in January, 1877, appointed him a police commissioner for the District of Columbia. In March of the same year President Hayes commissioned him United States marshal for the District of Columbia. President Garfield, in 1881, appointed him recorder of deeds for the District of Columbia. This last position he held till about May, 1886, nearly a year and a half after the ascendancy to the national administration of the Democratic party.

No man has begun where Frederick Douglass did and attained to the same giddy heights of fame. Born in a mere hovel, a creature of accident, with no mother to cherish and nurture him, no kindly hand to point out the good worthy of emulation and the evil to be shunned, no teacher to make smooth the rough and thorny paths leading to knowledge. His only compass was an abiding


Page 74faith in God, and an innate consciousness of his own ability and power of perseverance.

Harriet Beecher Stowe, in her book entitled ‘Men of Our Times,’ says: “Frederick Douglass had as far to climb to get to the spot where the poorest white boy is born, as that white boy has to climb to be President of the nation, and take rank with kings and judges of the earth.” Again, in the Senate of the United States, in a recent important case under consideration, the following statement formed part of a resolution submitted by that body in reply to the President of the United States: “Without doubt Frederick Douglass is the most distinguished representative of the colored race, not only in this country, but in the world.” To-day he stands the acknowledged peer in intellect, culture and refinement of the greatest men of our age, or any age; in this country, or any country. His name has never been written on the register of any school or college, yet it will ever be written on the pages of all future history, wherever the names of the ablest men of our times appear, side by side with those of the more favored race. His relations with such men as John G. Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison; and such women as Lydia Maria Child, Grace Greenwood, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, have ever been cordial and pleasant. Some men who never graduate from a college have more sense in five minutes than many a conceited graduate who has all his knowledge duly accredited by a sheepskin, but is not the real possessor of an education. The trustees of Howard University honored themselves and their institution, more


Page 75than they did Mr. Douglass, when they conferred upon him the title of LL. D., and when also they gave him a seat in their board.

Mr. Douglass in ‘His Life,’ written by himself, gives the following account of his visit to his old home:

The first of these events occurred four years ago, when, after a period of more than forty years, I visited and had an interview with Captain Thomas Auld at St. Michaels, Talbot county, Maryland. It will be remembered by those who have followed the thread of my story that St. Michaels was at one time the place of my home and the scene of some of my saddest experiences of slave life, and that I left there, or rather was compelled to leave there, because it was believed that I had written passes for several slaves to enable them to escape from slavery, and that prominent slaveholders in that neighborhood had, for this alleged offense, threatened to shoot me on sight, and to prevent the execution of this threat my master had sent me to Baltimore.

My return, therefore, to this place in peace, among the same people, was strange enough in itself; but that I should, when there, be formally invited by Captain Thomas Auld, then over eighty years old, to come to the side of his dying bed, evidently with a view to a friendly talk over our past relations, was a fact still more strange, and one which, until its occurrence, I could never have thought possible. To me Captain Auld had sustained the relation of master–a relation which I had held in extreme abhorrence, and which for forty years I had denounced in all bitterness of spirit and fierceness of speech. He had struck down my personality, had subjected me to his will, made property of my body and soul, reduced me to a chattel, hired me out to a noted slave breaker to be worked like a beast and flogged into submission; he had taken my hard earnings, sent me to prison, offered me for sale, broken up my Sunday-school, forbidden me to teach my fellow-slaves to read on pain of nine and thirty lashes on my bare back; he had sold my body to his brother Hugh and pocketed the price of my flesh and blood without any apparent disturbance of his conscience. I, on my part, had traveled through the length and breadth of this country and of England, holding up this conduct of his, in common with that of other slaveholders, to the reprobation of all men who would listen to my words. I had made his


Page 76name and his deeds familiar to the world by my writings in four different languages; yet here we were, after four decades, once more face to face–he on his bed, aged and tremulous, drawing near the sunset of life, and I, his former slave, United States marshal of the District of Columbia, holding his hand and in friendly conversation with him in his sort of final settlement of past differences preparatory to his stepping into his grave, where all distinctions are at an end, and where the great and the small, the slave and his master, are reduced to the same level. Had I been asked in the days of slavery to visit this man, I should have regarded the invitation as one to put fetters on my ankles and handcuffs on my wrists. It would have been an invitation to the auction block and the slave whip. I had no business with this man under the old regime but to keep out of his way. But now that slavery was destroyed, and the slave and the master stood upon equal ground, I was not only willing to meet him but was very glad to do so. The conditions were favorable for remembrance of all his good deeds and generous extenuation of all his evil ones. He was to me no longer a slaveholder either in fact or in spirit, and I regarded him as I did myself, a victim of the circumstances of birth, education, law and custom.

Our courses had been determined for us, not by us. We had both been flung, by powers that did not ask our consent, upon a mighty current of life, which we could neither resist nor control. By this current he was a master, and I a slave; but now our lives were verging towards the point where differences disappeared, where even the constancy of hate breaks down, where the clouds of pride, passion and selfishness vanish before the brightness of Infinite light. At such a time and in such a place, when man is about closing his eyes on this world and ready to step into the eternal unknown, no word of reproach or bitterness should reach him or fall from his lips; and on this occasion there was to this rule no transgression on either side.

As this visit to Captain Auld had been made the subject of mirth by heartless triflers, and regretted as a weakening of my lifelong testimony against slavery by serious minded men, and as the report of it, published in the papers immediately after it occurred, was in some respects defective and colored, it may be proper to state exactly what was said and done at this interview.

It should in the first place be understood that I did not go to St.


Page 77Michaels upon Captain Auld’s invitation, but upon that of my colored friend, Charles Caldwell; but when once there, Captain Auld sent Mr. Green, a man in constant attendance upon him during his sickness, to tell me that he would be very glad to see me, and wished me to accompany Green to his house, with which request I complied. On reaching the house I was met by Mr. William H. Bruff, a son-in-law of Captain Auld’s, and Mrs. Louisa Bruff, his daughter, and was conducted by them immediately to the bedroom of Captain Auld. We addressed each other simultaneously, he calling me “Marshal Douglass,” and I, as I had always called him, “Captain Auld.” Hearing myself called by him “Marshal Douglass,” l instantly broke up the formal nature of the meeting by saying, “Not MARSHAL, but Frederick to you as formerly.” We shook hands cordially, and in the act of doing so he, having been long stricken with palsy, shed tears as men thus afflicted will do when excited by any deep emotion. The sight of him, the changes which time had wrought in him, his tremulous hands constantly in motion, and all the circumstances of his condition affected me deeply, and for a time choked my voice and made me speechless. We both, however, got the better of our feelings and conversed freely about the past.

Though broken by age and palsy, the mind of Captain Auld was remarkably clear and strong. After he had become composed I asked him what he thought of my conduct in running away and going to the North. He hesitated a moment as if to properly formulate his reply, and said: “Frederick, I always knew you were too smart to be a slave, and had I been in your place I should have done as you did.” I said, “Captain Auld, I am glad to hear you say this. I did not run away from you, but from SLAVERY; it was not that I loved Cæsar less, but Rome more.” I told him that I had made a mistake in my narrative, a copy of which I had sent him, in attributing to him ungrateful and cruel treatment of my grandmother; that I had done so on the supposition that in the division of the property of my old master, Mr. Aaron Anthony, my grandmother had fallen to him, and that he had left her in her old age, when she could be no longer of service to him, to pick up her living in solitude with none to help her; or in other words, had turned her out to die like an old horse. “Ah,” said he, “that was a mistake; I never owned your grandmother; she, in the division of the slaves, was awarded to my brother-in-law, Andrew Anthony; but, “he added quickly, “I brought her down here and


Page 78took care of her as long as she lived.” The fact is, that after writing my narrative, describing the condition of my grandmother, Captain Auld’s attention being thus called to it, he rescued her from destitution. I told him that this mistake of mine was corrected as soon as I discovered it, and that I had at no time any wish to do him injustice, and that I regarded both of us as victims of a system. “Oh, I never liked slavery,” he said, “and I meant to emancipate all my slaves when they reached the age of twenty-five years.” I told him I had always been curious to know how old I was, that it had been a serious trouble to me not to know when was my birthday. He said he could not tell me that, but he thought I was born in February, 1818. This date made me one year younger than I had supposed myself, from what was told me by Mistress Lucretia, Captain Auld’s former wife, when I left Lloyd’s for Baltimore in the spring of 1825; she having then said that I was eight, going on nine. I know that it was in the year 1825 that I went to Baltimore, because it was in that year that Mr. James Beacham built a large frigate at the foot of Alliceana street, for one of the South American governments. Judging from this, and from certain events which transpired at Colonel Lloyd’s, such as a boy without any knowledge of books under eight years old would hardly take cognizance of, I am led to believe that Mrs. Lucretia was nearer right as to my age than her husband.

Before I left his bedside, Captain Auld spoke with a cheerful confidence of the great change that awaited him, and felt himself about to depart in peace. Seeing his extreme weakness I did not protract my visit. The whole interview did not last more than twenty minutes, and we parted to meet no more. His death was soon after announced in the papers, and the fact that he had once owned me as a slave was cited as rendering that event noteworthy.


        His life has been marked by a purity of purpose from its beginning. He has filled many offices of trust, yet in not one position has he ever betrayed his trust. He has been largely, deeply engaged in politics, yet has been no politician. That is, he understood and practiced none of the tricks of politicians. His work has always been honest and conscientious, because he believed in whatever cause he worked for, and


Page 79did not, as most of our public men, have an eye to a personal reward. All the recompense he sought was a consciousness of having accomplished some good. Whatever has been given him in the way of office has been unsolicited by him. Some of our public men have wavered in their fidelity to the Republican party, when after long waiting they fail to see a substantial reward laid at their feet; but not so with Mr. Douglass. He believed implicitly in the Republican party and realized that being composed of human beings it might sometimes err; but he would say, “The Republican party is the deck and all outside is the sea.” Another saying of his is, “I would rather be with the Republican party in defeat, than with the Democratic party in victory.” By such expressions may be seen his faithful adherence to what he believed to be right.

He is generous and forgiving, almost to a fault. On the friendliest terms with Lincoln, Grant, Sumner and many of their compeers, his opinions on public matters were always heard with deference and often adopted. His clear, forcible, yet persuasive way of presenting facts, always carry conviction with it.

And now, after a long and well fought battle of seventy years, we find him still erect and strong, bearing gracefully and unassumingly the laurels he has so nobly won. No one who visits him in his beautiful home at Cedar Cottage comes away without being richer by some gem of thought, dropped by the genial host.

A few years ago Fred Douglass married a white lady, who was a clerk in his office while recorder of deeds. This was much objected to by many of his race, but on mature


Page 80reflection, it has been about decided that he was no slave to take a wife as in slave times on a plantation–according to some master’s wish–but that it was his own business, and he was only responsible to God. He has been invited to the President’s levees and he and his wife shown every mark of consideration. His travel in foreign countries has in no way been embarrassed by this act. If any one thought he was so foolish as to not know what would be said of his marriage, they have mistaken the man. But Douglass did as he thought was right as he understood it. It showed he had the courage to brave popular opinion as he had done on other occasions.

Frederick Douglass enjoys a joke as well as any man I know. I was traveling with him recently from Atlantic City, New Jersey, to Washington. District of Columbia. We had been traveling on the territory of Maryland. Near Harve de Grace, a rather officious white gentleman was particularly attentive to Mr. Douglass, and after introducing himself to the eminent orator stood up and called out to the people in the car: “Gentlemen and ladies, this is Frederick Douglass, the greatest colored man in the United States.” The people flocked around him for an introduction. One white gentleman who was a Marylander, said “Let me see, Mr. Douglass, you ran away from Maryland, did you not, somewhere in this neighborhood, I believe?” “No,” said Mr. Douglass, with that grand air and good humored laugh which is his own property, “Oh, no sir, I did not run away from Maryland, I ran away from slavery.”

There are three great orators in this country, Frederick


Page 81Douglass, John M. Langston and George W. Williams, the first two are a couplet of as magnificent speakers as ever heard on an American platform; the last is a gifted star ascending the zenith. Douglass and Langston are ripe with age and mellow with experience. The young man is now vigorous and full of strength and handles the less exciting subjects of the day. The older men had the subjects of slavery and reconstruction; two greater themes, can and may never engage our minds in this broad land of swift passing events. They showed their zeal and inspiration against wrong; Williams shows his learning, research, and brilliant oratory.

God grant, when in the course of nature the mantle shall fall from his shoulders, that one may spring up to wear it, to guard it as vigilantly as he has, and as lovingly and carefully protect its folds from pollution.

If the extracts here given should be long, let it be remembered that Mr. Douglass, by length of service, by preeminence in public office, by his standing not only in America, but in the world, is entitled to large space. I want the young people also to declaim these extracts. I am tired of hearing every man’s good works repeated and no Negro’s eloquence chain an audience when, too, there are such elegant specimens.

The following is taken from his great speech in the National Convention of Colored Men held in Louisville, Kentucky, September 25, 1883.

The speaker addressed the greater part of his remarks to the white citizens of the country in the nature of a rebuke for their shortcomings towards the colored race, and said:


Page 82

Born on American soil, in common with yourselves, deriving our bodies and our minds from its dust; centuries having passed away since our ancestors were torn from the shores of Africa, we, like yourselves, hold ourselves to be in every sense Americans. Having watered your soil with our tears, enriched it with our blood, performed its roughest labor in time of peace, defended it against enemies in time of war, and having at all times been loyal and true to its highest interests, we deem it no arrogance or presumption to manifest now a common concern with you for its welfare, prosperity, honor and glory.


WHAT THE NEGROES WANT.

Referring to the antagonism experienced in calling the convention, he said:

From the day the call for this convention went forth, the seeming incongruity and contradiction of holding it has been brought to our attention. From one quarter and another, sometimes with argument and sometimes without argument; sometimes with seeming pity for our ignorance, and at other times with fierce censure for our depravity, these questions have met us. With apparent surprise, astonishment and impatience, we have been asked: “What more do the colored people of this country want than they now have, and what more is possible for them?” It is said they were once slaves, they are now free; they were once subjects, they are now sovereigns; they were once outside of all American institutions, they are now inside of all, and a recognized part of the whole American people. Why, then, do they hold colored national conventions, and thus insist upon keeping up the color line between themselves and their white fellow-countrymen?”


        Mr. Douglass then proceeded to answer these questions categorically, and took occasion to administer a basting to those of his people who were too mean, servile and cowardly to assert the true dignity of their manhood and their race, and referred the existence of such creatures to the lingering remains of slave caste and oppression.


Page 83

To the question “Why are we here in this National Convention?” he answered:

Because the voice of a whole people, oppressed by a common injustice, is far more likely to command attention and exert an influence on the public mind than the voice of simple individuals and isolated organizations: because we may thus have a more comprehensive knowledge of the general situation and conceive more clearly and express more fully and wisely the policy it may be necessary for them to pursue. If held for good cause, and by wise, sober and earnest men, the result will be salutary. The objection to a “colored” convention lies more in sound than substance. No reasonable man will ever object to white men holding conventions in their own interest when they are once in our condition and we in theirs: when they are the oppressed and we the oppressors.

In point of fact, however, white men are already in convention against us in various ways, and at many important points; and the practical structure of American life is in convention against us. Human law may know no distinction between men in respect of rights, but human practice may. Examples are painfully abundant. The border men hate the Indians; the Californian, the Chinaman; the Mohametan, the Christian, and vice versa, and in spite of a common nature and the equality framed into law, this hate works injustice, of which each in their own name and under their own color may complain.


        The apology for observing the color line in the composition of our State and National conventions is in its necessity, and because we must do this or nothing.

CIVIL RIGHTS OBSTRUCTIONS.

In vindication of the convention and its cause, the speaker continued:

It is our lot to live among a people whose laws, traditions and prejudices have been against us for centuries, and from these they are not yet free. To assume that they are free from these evils, simply because they have changed their laws, is to assume what is utterly unreasonable and


Page 84contrary to facts. Large bodies move slowly; individuals may be converted on the instant and change the whole course of life; nations never.

Not even the character of a great political organization can be changed by a new platform. It will be the same old snake, though in a new skin. Though we have had war, reconstruction and abolition as a nation, we still linger in the shadow and blight of an extinct institution.

Though the colored man is no longer subject to barter and sale, he is surrounded by an adverse settlement which fetters all his movements. In his downward course he meets with no resistance, but his course upward is resented and resisted at every step of his progress. If he comes in ignorance, rags and wretchedness, he conforms to the popular belief of his character, and in that character he is welcome; but if he shall come as a gentleman, a scholar and a statesman, he is hailed as a contradiction to the national faith concerning his race, and his coming is resented as impudence. In the one case he may provoke contempt and derision, but in the other he is an affront to pride and provokes malice. Let him do what he will, there is at present no escape for him. The color line meets him everywhere, and in a measure, shuts him out from all respectable and profitable trades and callings. In spite of all your religion and laws, he is a rejected man. Not even our churches, whose members profess to follow the despised Nazarine, whose home when on earth was among the lowly and despised, have yet conquered the feeling of color madness; and what is true of our churches is also true of our courts of law. Neither is free from this all-pervading and atmosphere of color hate. The one describes the Deity as impartial and “no respecter of persons,” and the other shows the Goddess of Justice as blindfolded, with a sword by her side and scales in her hand held evenly balanced between high and low, rich and poor, white and black, but both are images of American imagination, rather than of American practice. Taking advantage of the general disposition in this country to impute crime to color, white men color their faces to commit crime, and wash off the hated color to escape punishment.


        Speaking of lynch law for the black man, he says:

A man accused, surprised, frightened and captured by a motley crowd, dragged with a rope around his neck in midnight darkness to the nearest tree, and told in terms of coarsest profanity to prepare for death, would be more than human if he did not in his terror-stricken appearance more


Page 85confirm the suspicion of his guilt than the contrary. Worse still; in the presence of such hell-black outrages the pulpit is usually dumb, and the press in the neighborhood is silent, or openly takes sides with the mob. There are occasional cases in which white men are lynched, but one swallow does not make a summer. Every one knows that what is called lynch law is peculiarly the law for colored people and for nobody else.


        He next referred to the continuation of Ku-klux outrages, and said generally this condition of things is too flagrant and notorious to require specification or proof. “Thus in all the relations of life and death we are met by the color line. We cannot ignore it if we would, and ought not if we could. It hunts us at midnight, it denies us accommodation in hotels and justice in the courts; excludes our children from schools; refuses our sons the chance to learn trades, and compels us to pursue such labor as will bring us the least reward. While we recognize the color line as a hurtful force–a mountain barrier to our progress, wounding our bleeding feet with its flinty rocks at every step–we do not despair. We are a hopeful people. This convention is a proof of our faith in you, in reason, in truth and justice, and of our belief that prejudice, with all its malign accompaniments, may yet be removed by peaceful means. When this shall come, the color line will only be used as it should be, to distingush one variety of the human family from another.”

THE REPUBLICAN PARTY’S ATTITUDE.

Our meeting here was opposed by some of our number, because it would disturb the peace of the Republican party. The suggestion came from coward lips and misapprehends the character of that party. If the Republican party cannot stand a demand for justice and fair play, it


Page 86ought to go down. We were men before that party was born, and our manhood is more sacred than any party can be. Parties were made for men, not men for parties. This hat (pointing to his big white sombrero lying on the table before him), was made for my head; not my head for the hat. (Applause.) If the six million of colored people in this country, armed with the Constitution of the United States, with a million votes of their own to lean upon, and millions of white men at their backs whose hearts are responsive to the claims of humanity, have not sufficient spirit and wisdom to organize and combine to defend themselves from outrage, discrimination and oppression, it will be idle for them to expect that the Republican party or any other political party will organize and combine for them, or care what becomes of them.


        The following is taken from an anti-slavery speech delivered many years ago:

A PERTINENT QUESTION.

BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS.

Is it not astonishing that while we are plowing, planting, and reaping, using all kinds of mechanical tools, erecting houses and constructing bridges, building ships, working in metals of brass, iron and copper, silver and gold; that while we are reading, writing and ciphering, acting as clerks, merchants and secretaries, having among us lawyers, doctors, ministers, poets, authors, editors, orators and teachers; that while we are engaged in all manner of enterprises common to other men, digging gold in California, capturing the whale in the Pacific, breeding cattle and sheep on the hillside; living, moving, acting, thinking, planning; living in families as husbands, wives and children; and, above all, confessing and worshiping the Christian’s God, and looking hopefully for immortal life beyond the grave; is it not astonishing, I say, that we are called upon to prove that we are men?


        In the Negro, a monthly magazine, published in Boston, Massachusetts, of date August, 1886, under the head of


Page 87“MISNOMER,”

Mr. Douglass wrote as follows:

Allow me to say that what is called the Negro problem seems to me a misnomer. The real problem which this nation has to solve, and the solution of which it will have to answer for in history, were better described as the white man’s problem. Here, as elsewhere, the greater includes the less. What is called the Negro problem is swallowed up by the Caucasian problem. The question is whether the white man can ever be elevated to that plane of justice, humanity and Christian civilization which will permit Negroes, Indians and Chinamen, and other darker colored races to enjoy an equal chance in the race of life. It is not so much whether these races can be made Christians as whether white people can be made Christians. The Negro is few, the white man is many. The Negro is weak, the white man is strong. In the problem of the Negro’s future, the white man is therefore the chief factor. He is the potter; the Negro is the clay. It is for him to say whether the Negro shall become a well rounded, symmetrical man, or be cramped, deformed and dwarfed. A plant deprived of warmth, moisture and sunlight cannot live and grow. And a people deprived of the means of an honest livelihood must wither and die. All I ask for the Negro is fair play. Give him this, and I have no fear for his future. The great mass of the colored people in this country are now, and must continue to be in, the South; and there, if anywhere, they must survive or perish.

It is idle to suppose these people can make any large degree of progress in morals, religion and material conditions, while their persons are unprotected, their rights unsecured, their labor defrauded, and they are kept only a little beyond the starving point.

Of course I rejoice that efforts are being made by benevolent and Christian people at the North in the interest of religion and education; but I cannot conceal from myself that much of this must seem a mockery and a delusion to the colored people there, while they are left at the mercy of anarchy and lawless violence. It is something to give the Negro religion (he could have that in time of slavery): it is more to give him justice. It is something to give him the Bible; it is more to give him the ballot. It is something to tell him that there is a place for him in the Christian’s heaven; it is more to allow him a peaceful dwelling-place in this Christian country.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.



Page 88

II.

REV. W. B. DERRICK, D. D.

        Minister of the African M. E. Church–Pulpit Orator.

        The subject of this sketch was born on the Island of Antigua, in the British West Indies, July 27, 1843. Nineteen years after the boon of emancipation was conferred on those islands by the British Parliament, in 1834, Antigua, his native land, was the first island in the British West Indies which had the courage to ameliorate her slave laws, by affording the accused the benefit of a trial by jury; and an act of the assembly, February 13, 1834, decreed the emancipation of every slave without requiring a period of apprenticeship prescribed by the British Parliament. She refused to believe in the virtues of apprenticeship to prepare her bondsmen for freedom; if they were to be liberated, why not at once? And she has never had occasion to repent it.

His father, Thomas J. Derrick, belonged to the highly respectable family of Derricks who were large planters in the islands of Antigua and Anguila. His mother, Eliza, was of medium height, with regular features always lighted up with smiles, of genial disposition, and a mind well stored with witty and original thoughts, which rendered her conversation interesting, animating and devoid


Illustration

W. B. DERRICK.


Page 89of monotony. Both parents are now slumbering, the former in the cemetery of the village church, the latter beneath the pendant branches of the mahogany tree in the public cemetery of the metropolis of the island. Mr. Derrick when very young was sent to a private school, and at the end of two years was admitted in the public school at Gracefield, under the auspices of the Moravians, and regularly attended from 1848 until the spring of 1856, when the head master of said school was removed to another charge. During these eight years, his progress at every stage in his studies was rapid and substantial, as if he had adopted for his motto “I will excel.” His natural talent, especially for oratory, elicited general applause at the annual examinations, largely attended by the elite of the neighborhood, who took special interest in the cause of education. In his class, conspicuous for his uncommonly large head, high forehead and penetrating eyes, he stood among the few who could manfully grapple with the difficult questions put by the tutor. In the spring of 1856, he was sent to a select private high school in the metropolis, under the tutorship of J. Wilson, Esquire, a fine classical scholar, but a great disciplinarian. Here he remained three years. He was afterward sent to learn the trade of a blacksmith. His parents finally consented to let him go to sea, under the care of Captain Crane, with the understanding that he was to be taught the science of navigation, and at the end of two or three years to return home and embark in business. On the sixth of May, 1860, he was on his first voyage to the United States. The ship was soon enveloped in a violent storm, and driven ashore


Page 90at Turk’s Island, but saved from becoming a total wreck. She took in her cargo, however, and sailed to New York. After a voyage of fourteen days, the merchantman reached the back-waters and continued to glide until she reached Sandy Hook. On coming along the Jersey coast, some altercations, on the term “nigger” being applied to him, took place between an Irishman and himself, which ended in his convincing the young Irishman, pugilistically, that his complexion had nothing to do with his manhood. He did considerable sailing around in ships, visiting the coast of Massachusetts and other places, and finally came to Boston. On this trip he met with a serious accident, namely, the breaking of his leg in two places. The case was aggravated by not having a surgeon on the spot for treatment. After making several trips and being shipwrecked, he volunteered in the service of the United States government for three years, and was assigned to the flagship Minnesota, of the North Atlantic squadron. He was thrown among five hundred other sailors, of all nationalities, who, like himself, were enlisted on the side of right. War absorbed his whole soul, yet with all this he could not repress the old idea, or smother the returning voice of the spirit which seemed to haunt him, urging him to enter the Christian ministry. When he met with the accident previously alluded to, he had had serious thoughts concerning this matter. Like a nail driven in a sure place by “the master of assemblies,” there was no getting away from him who was determined to be heard amid the din and roar of artillery and the shrieks of shells. The hand of the Lord was upon him. He was formally enrolled


Page 91in the list of sailors from 1861 to 1864 and contributed his quota to the gallant exploits and glorious achievements, and shared in the trials and triumphs of those brave ones in their struggles and conquests in the civil war.

Many incidents transpired while he remained on board his floating home, many of which beggar description, as, in the conflict between the Merrimac and Monitor, and in the heartrending scenes of carnage and blood. He was an American citizen now, and having been dismissed from the United States navy, took two steps, one in leading to the altar of matrimony Miss Mary E. White, the only daughter of Edwin White, Esq., of Norfolk, Virginia, and the other to take the initiatory to enter the ministry of the African M. E. Church by joining the church at Washington, District of Columbia, under the pastoral care of Rev., [now] Bishop J. M. Brown, who, after the usual preliminaries, licensed him to preach and at the same time to act as missionary agent, both of which offices he held until 1867. He was then admitted to the regular traveling connection, appointed by the Rt. Rev. D. A. Payne, D. D., LL. D., to Mt. Pisgah chapel, Washington, District of Columbia, where he labored for one year as preacher and teacher. In the year 1868 he was ordained deacon, and transferred to the Virginia conference, which closed before he arrived. His only alternative was to accept one of the most impoverished missions in the district, situated in the Alleghany mountains, almost on the border of the Tennessee line. At the annual conference at Portsmouth, he was elected elder and was ordained by Bishop J. P. Campbell, D. D., LL. D.,


Page 92after which he was appointed pastor and presiding elder of the Staunton church and district. From this time he may be said to be firmly established in the Christian ministry. He was reappointed presiding elder, pastor and conference secretary at the annual conference held in Norfolk in 1870; Staunton, 1871; Richmond, 1872; Portsmouth, 1873; Danville, 1874; Richmond, 1875; Portsmouth. 1876; Wytheville, 1877; Farmville, 1878; and Hampton, 1879; as a delegate to the general conference held in Nashville, 1872, at Atlanta, Georgia, 1876, and at Baltimore, Maryland, 1884, serving on all important committees in the sessions. In politics he has taken an active part. In Virginia, when the question of readjusting the State was agitating the country, and was submitted to the people to be voted upon in the November elections of 1879, he took sides with the party that was in favor of paying the debt as had been contracted. This party was known as the “Funders.” His attitude was in perfect harmony with the platform of the National Republican party insomuch that the administration at Washington sanctioned his course again. As the colored people were considered dangerous and willing tools in the hands of ambitious men, who were unscrupulous and always ready to make use of them in furthering their own ends, regardless of consequences, he publicly denounced the faction known as “Readjusters,” who repudiated the payment of an honest debt. This controversy was considered the most vindictive political war ever waged in that section, and lasted several months, terminating in the triumph of the “Readjusters.” Mr. Derrick was disgusted, and knowing full well that as leader of the


Page 93opposite faction he would have to suffer, he resigned his charge, left the South again, and took a trip to the West Indies in company with his wife. In this tour he traveled in the Bermudas, Jamaica, St. Thomas and Antigua, his native land. After twenty years absence he first visited the home of his oldest sister; then the graves of his departed parents and other members of the family. He preached and lectured to almost all the churches, on popular subjects. Returning to the United States, he resumed his ministerial duties. He has since served churches in Salem, New Jersey; Albany, New York, and Sullivan street church, New York City, where he continues to enjoy the confidence of the members of his church and the community at large.

The doctor has many personal admirers and they will read with interest a book of over three hundred pages, in press at this writing, which will contain a “Tribute to the Life and Labors of Rev. W. B. Derrick, D. D., Minister of the A. M. E. Church.” The contents will be about as follows:

  • Preface; Dedication to the Sons and Daughters of Liberty in the United States and the West Indies; Recommendatory Letters from Bishop H. M. Turner, D. D., Rev. Dr. B. T. Tanner, Rev. J. A. Handy, D. D., Professor T. McCants Stewart, LL. B., Rev. W. H. Thomas, A. M., Rev. T. T. B. Reid, B. A.; Outline History of Antigua, Dr. Derrick’s native land; Notices of some of the leading men in the A. M. E. Church–the whole work of his life covering four periods, viz:
  • PERIOD I.–His Childhood and Youth.
  • PERIOD II.–Life Abroad; or, The Young Man from Home.
  • PERIOD III.–In the American Navy during the Civil War.
  • PERIOD IV.–Twenty-three years in the Ministry of the A. M. E.
    Church; Sermons and Orations and Contributions to the Press.

Page 94

His sermons, addresses and speeches are noticed in the New York Tribune, Sun, Herald, Times, the Evening Telegram, the Christian Recorder and the leading colored journals in this country, such as the New York Freeman and the Boston Advocate. He is a staunch Republican in politics, a progressive and evangelical preacher of the gospel, filled with the broad benevolence of Heaven and unwearied in his efforts to save immortal souls. The Wilberforce University conferred upon him the title of D. D., in 1885. He is an honorary member of the I. O. G. Templars, the Masonic Body, Odd-Fellows and Good Samaritans, the Publication Board of the A. M. E. Church and trustee of Wilberforce University. He has succeeded in accumulating about five thousand dollars worth of property, and was also the executor of the late lamented Bishop R. H. Cain, D. D., who died at his residence in New York City. He has pain an elaborate tribute to the virtues of the deceased in that city recently. He has been offered the superintendency of the church work in the West Indies, but respectfully declined. He is a diligent student of the Bible and as a pastor is ever solicitous that his flock should be fed with the “bread of life.” His church is justly proud of his works, which show wisdom and care on his part. No man has a higher standing in this country, for his power is felt among all classes. His rich voice and personal magnetism make him powerful in the field of oratory. His qualities of head and heart, his sound patriotism and sturdy manhood mark him a progressive man of the age.

The Evening Telegram, New York, gave “Sketches of


Page 95Some of the Prominent Divines,” had the following, among other good things, to say of Rev. Dr. Derrick:

After leaving Albany. Dr. Derrick became pastor of the Sullivan Street Church, which is situated in the heart of the largest colored colony in this great metropolis. His church is a low-browed and plain brick structure, but it is roomy inside, and is generally well filled with a class of worshipers much more devout than are to be found in many churches frequented by white persons. Dr. Derrick is a short, stout, full and smooth-faced man of light color, with great command of language and exceeding felicity of illustration to suit the plain understanding and comprehension of the people with whom he labors. Outside of the pulpit, he exercises a shrewd business supervision of the personal affairs of his flock, and serves them as legal adviser and political leader. He is an ardent Republican.

As presiding elder, his district embraces Fleet Street Church, Brooklyn, and the African Methodist Episcopal churches at Williamsburg, Flushing, Melrose, Albany, Chatham, Kinderhook, Catskill, Coxsackle, White Plains and Harlem Mission. The church which Dr. Derrick has charge of is valued at $80,000, and the adjoining parsonage is worth $10,000 more. He is paid $2,000 per annum, a furnished house included. They also support a paid choir, under Professor Savage, one of the best musicians of the race. The church membership is 1,000, and the seating capacity of the building 1,500, but frequently more than 2,000 worshipers stand within its walls and listen to the eloquent appeals of its pastor in behalf of human progress.

In June, 1884, he was nominated as a Presidential elector-at-large by the Republican State Committee, at the instance of Fire Commissioner Van Cott. There was considerable opposition among his own race to the nomination. It was headed by John J. Freeman. the then editor of the Progressive American. The opposition alleged that Dr. Derrick was not a citizen, and, therefore, could not serve as an elector. W. H. Johnson, ex-janitor of the State Senate, made affidavit that once after a ward meeting, in Albany, which Dr. Derrick had attended, he asked why Dr. Derrick did not vote, and that Dr. Derrick said he was not a citizen, having been born in the West Indies, and never having taken out naturalization papers. When asked why he had not been naturalized, he replied that he did not wish to give up his allegiance to Her


Page 96Gracious Majesty, the Queen, as he had intended to stay in this country only until he had amassed sufficient means to live like a gentleman at home, where living was cheap.

A CITIZEN.

On July 1 Dr. Derrick declined the nomination. He took this action, however, before he knew of the Albany affidavits, his reason being that he had been chosen by his church to assist in arranging for the centennial celebration of American Methodism, and, therefore, had not time to be an elector. This was the first time his citizenship was called in question, although he had exercised his rights and privileges as a citizen. He proved at the time that he had come to this country when he was seventeen years old, and that when he enlisted in the navy he had taken the oath of allegiance to the United States.



Page 97

III.

PHILIP H. MURRY, ESQ.

        Phrenologist–Editor and Philosopher.

        ONE of the brightest and most gifted men among the editors is P. H. Murry. He was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1842. His parents, Samuel and Sarah Murry, were anxious that their boy should have opportunities to make a man of himself. His father was born on the eastern shores of Maryland, in Kent county, and living in a slave State, found that he would not be able to place such advantages before his son. He never was a slave, but as far back as he could trace the genealogical tree, his ancestors were pure, unadulterated Negroes, who came from Africa to America through the British West Indies. The mother is a mixed Negro, Indian and Irish. On the paternal side of his mother’s ancestry, the grandfather half Negro and Indian, bought, during the colonial times, an Irish woman for her passage and made her his wife. It will be remembered in the history of the Virginia colonists that many women were sent over for wives to the fortune seekers, and they were purchased for one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco apiece. She was born in Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, and Jack, her husband, was free born. On account of the inferiority of colored


Page 98schools in Reading, at the time of his youth, his father only permitted him to attend school about a week. Afterwards he was placed under Father Patrick Keevil for Private instruction. Father Keevil was at this time a castaway, but was nevertheless a scholar, having graduated at Minonth College, England. After passing through the rudiments young Philip entered into a series of scientific and philosophical studies, embracing natural science, natural philosophy and the more liberal works on theology, especially physiology, and the brain as a physical instrument of thought and feeling. This was when he was about the age of fifteen, and these studies no doubt laid the basis of his future investigations. He has studied the whole realm of science and philosophy, going deeper than the surface, inquiring into the “whys” and “wherefores” with patient zeal and unremitting toil. One can scarcely converse with him without seeing and feeling that his thoughts are drawn from a deep well and that the fountain is pure. Later on he was absorbed in the abolition movement, and was an attendant and promoter of the movements which were prevalent before the war. He came frequently in contact with Douglass, Garnet, H. Ford, the Shadds and Watkins, Bishop Payne, Rogers, the Negro Historian, Wolf and Hamilton, the Journalists, and other leading Negroes, including Dr. Martin R. Delancy, who then were foremost in that work. He delivered a series of able, comprehensive and learned lectures on “Cerebral Physiology” throughout New England, and made some useful and important investigations, experiments and discoveries on the temperaments, and the cranium


Page 99as a continuation of the spinal development. As a phrenologist he is a perfect success. The writer remembers when quite a boy he met Mr. Murry in the city of Burlington, New Jersey. At that time examining his head, he accurately told the characteristics so plain to him, but at that time so undeveloped and unknown to the writer that he has been astonished in later years to find that the very things he predicted would be developed, were developed unconsciously, and are recognized as a verification of his deductions. In 1864 he was a delegate to the famous Negro convention which met at Syracuse, New York, and was chosen chairman of the Pennsylvania delegation. When Lee first invaded Pennsylvania, Mr. Murry, anxious to serve his country in the capacity which would do the most good, organized a company of soldiers and offered their services to Governor Curtin, but was refused because Negroes were not then needed to suppress the rebellion. But in after days when the Southern armies had shattered the Northern forces, and doubt was over-hanging the country as to which side would win, the government found out that a Negro could stop a bullet as well as a white man. At the age of twenty-one, he bought the homestead of which his father was about being deprived, and deeded it to his mother; said property being worth about three thousand dollars. In conjunction with J. P. Sampson, he published the first colored journal in Kentucky The Colored Kentuckian. He taught school in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Virginia and Missouri, and took conspicuous and active parts in securing colored teachers for the colored schools in St. Louis and throughout


Page 100Missouri. This idea was projected by him in a convention of teachers which met at Jefferson City, Missouri, in 1876, and for which he made speeches in St. Louis, which were published in all the dailies verbatim, and drew editorial comments as well as universal discussion among the citizens of the city and State. He published the Colored Citizen at Washington, District of Columbia, in 1872, and held the inspectorship of public improvements under a board of public improvement at the same time. During the war he traveled in the South and corresponded for several Northern journals. In 1880, Mr. Murry established the St. Louis Advance, and this paper has for its primal mission the industrial education of the Negro. He was for several years clerk in the Money Order Department of the St. Louis Post Office, also held positions of trust and honor in the comptroller’s office of St. Louis. He has been a delegate to the various State and National conventions during the nine years he has lived in that city. He is now chairman of the Colored State Committee, Missouri. In 1879, he organized the St. Louis Colored Men’s Land Association, which is now a success. As a writer, Mr. Murry is one of the most brilliant in the country. His editorials are always fresh. vigorous, far-seeing and progressive; bristling with argument and backed with facts. His aim in life is to press home the importance of industrial education. His remarks on the subject at the National Press convention. Atlantic City, July, 1886, are worthy to be kept, and as many may read this book we give here a few of the sentences.


Page 101which ought to be read by every colored man, woman and child. Said he:

“I would rather see a colored man on `change than a colored man in Congress. We have produced a Fred Douglass, now we want a James B. Eads. We are in a large degree a landless, a tradeless and a homeless race. We are too much absorbed by politics; the best talent of the Negro is engaged in political machinations, scheming to elect some white man to office, or praying for the “New Jerusalem” to descend down out of Heaven. Emigrants from the most fecund blood of Europe are marching by our doors in platoons of ten thousand deep, to the possession of the fertile lands of the West. They create a “New Jerusalem” for themselves, but the “New Jerusalem” for the Negro never comes. We loiter about in the big cities, living on the offals of the wealthy that overawes and overshadows us at every turn. But we stay until some great city springs up in the West and the trains are burdened with the commerce of the new lands, then we go West with the broom and white jacket. We should have gone West with the hoe and the plow. This is the age of material progress; the engineer has replaced the scholar; the mathematician instead of puzzling his brain over the problems of Euclid, is wrestling with the “Bulls and Bears on `change.” The Greek grammarian has been supplanted by the machinist, and the man who would hunt for a hundred years to find out the meaning of a Hebrew dot only illustrates the intellectual fool of our modern times. Railroads, big farms, manufactories, steam engines, electric lights, cable cars and the telegraph, are the text books of to-day; and if the Negro will not study to understand, control and take possession of these, he cannot keep pace with the progress of the age.


        On the subject of emigration he said:

Stop this crying of emigration; lay hold where you are; get together, put your dollars together like you put your votes and see if the result will not bring more lands, houses, and offices too, for the enjoyment of the colored people. Financial unity will establish that bond of interest that brings better social, personal and political harmony and power. Our oath-bound organization may be a strong tic, but an organization bound together by “Dollars,” welded by business, girded by houses,


Page 102trades, lands and manufactories, forms a bond of general, political and personal, as well as financial union to which the obligations of secret organizations appear but as a rope of sand.


        In a recent editorial upon the same subject he has said:

Aside from all political considerations, whether the Negro should be Democrat, Republican or Independent or become equally divided among all factions seeking to elevate the national policy or control government, the great need of the race to-day is a thorough knowledge and the skillful training in the various fields of mechanism and labor. If the energies wasted among the Negroes in trying to reach great political prominence, were directed toward acquiring a knowledge of the necessary and useful arts, the next generation of American Negroes would come forth full-fledged and equipped as artisans, and thrifty business men, skilled carvers in wood, iron and stone structures, and whatever enters into the convenience, comfort and facilities of our organization.


        Such doctrines as these are calculated to be of immense value to the people. He has vigorously taught and insisted on industrial institutions, and his paper is sound on all questions touching the progress of the race and upbuilding of waste places.

He has a wife and four children, one dead, and his possessions are valued at about five thousand dollars.


Page 103

IV.

CRISPUS ATTUCKS.

        First Martyr of the Revolutionary War–A Negro Whose Blood was Given for Liberty–”Blood the Price of Liberty.”

        THE subject of this sketch was born in slavery in 1723, and died in 1770. He ran away from his master, William Brown of Farmingham, Massachusetts, on the thirtieth of September, 1750, at the age of 27. He was a mulatto, six feet and two inches high. His master advertised for him in the following description: “Short, curly hair, his knees nearer together than common; had on a light colored bearskin coat, plain brown fustian jacket, or a brown wool one, new buckskin breeches, blue yarn stockings and a checked woolen shirt. Whoever shall take up said runaway, convey him to above said master, shall receive ten pounds, old tenor reward, and all necessary charges paid. And all masters of vessels, or others, are hereby cautioned against concealing or carrying off said servant on penalty of the law. October 2, 1750.”

Only after much meditation and thought, he had broken away from the cruel chains that bound him, and was determined to be a free American citizen. He learned to read at odd times, and he used this accomplishment in understanding the fundamental principles that underlie all regulated


Page 104forms of governments. A fiery patriotism burned in his breast. He was anxious to avenge oppression in every form, not by fighting alone, but by the sacrifice of life, if necessary. twenty years later, Crispus’ name once more appeared in the journals of Boston. This time he was not advertised as a slave who had run away, nor was there a reward for his apprehension. His soul and body were beyond the cruel touch of master. The press had paused to announce his death and write the name of the Negro patriot, soldier and martyr to the ripening cause of the American Revolution, in fadeless letters of gold.

On March 5, 1770, the Boston massacre occurred. The people had been oppressed by British tyranny, they had been treated as inferiors; they were taxed without representation and their souls galled until they were maddened. When British troops, to add insult to injury, encamped upon their grounds, they could withhold no longer. They were greatly exasperated; they formed themselves into clubs and resolved to avenge themselves and gain their rights. They ran toward King street crying “Let us drive out the ribalds. They have no business here.” The rioters rushed fearlessly towards the custom house. They approached the sentinel crying, “Kill him! Kill him!” It has been said that Crispus Attucks led one of these clubs, which has not been denied, but rather assented to. Botta speaking of it says: “There was a band of the populace led by a mulatto named Attucks, who brandished their clubs and pelted them with snowballs.” The scene was horrible. The populace advanced to the points of their bayonets. The soldiers appeared like statues. The howlings


Page 105and violent din of bells still sounding the alarm, increased the confusion and the horrors of these moments. At length the mulatto and twelve of his companions pressing forward environed the soldiers, striking their muskets with their clubs, cried to the multitude, “Be not afraid, they dare not fire. Why do you hesitate? Why do you not kill them? Why not crush them at once?”

Inspired by his words, his followers rushed madly on, and the soldiers, incensed by this act of insolence, answered the war-like cry by discharging their guns. Attucks had lifted his arm against Captain Preston and fell a victim to the mortal fire. Three were killed and five were severely wounded. The cry of bloodshed spread like wild-fire. People crowded the street, white with rage; the bells rang out with alarm, and the whole country was aroused to battle. Attucks was buried from Fanueil Hall with great honor. He had led the people and made the attack. He was the first to resist and the first slain. His patriotism was the declaration of war. It was liberty to the oppressed; it opened the way to modern civilization and independence. It has blessed and will continue to bless generations yet unborn. He is rightly claimed as the savior of his country. No monument has ever been reared to his name. Repeated efforts have been made before the Massachusetts Legislature, and notwithstanding the various testimonies and the histories going to show that he was entitled to the honor we have here accorded him, upon a flimsy testimony the honor has been given to one Isaac Davis of Concord, a white man. George Williams,


Page 106the historian of the race, in his very excellent work, uses these words in regard to Crispus Attucks:

Attucks had addressed a letter to one Thomas Hutchinson, who was the Tory governor of the province, in which he had used these words: “Sir, you will hear from us with astonishment. You ought to hear from us with horror. You are chargeable before God and man with our blood. The soldiers are but passive instruments, mere machines, neither moral nor voluntary agents in our destruction, more than the leaden pellets with which we were wounded.

“You were a free agent; you acted coolly, deliberately, with all that premeditated malice, not against us in particular, but against the people in general, which, in sight of the law, is an ingredient in the composition of murder. You will hear from us further hereafter.

“CRISPUS ATTUCKS.”


        This letter is taken from ‘Adams’ Works,’ Volume II, page 322. Said Williams:

This was the declaration of war and it was fulfilled. The world has heard from him, and more, the English speaking world will never forget the noble daring, the excusable rashness of Attucks in the holy cause of liberty. Eighteen centuries before He was saluted by death and kissed by immortality, another Negro bore the cross of Christ to Calvary for Him. And when the colonists were struggling wearily under their cross of woe, a Negro came to the front and bore that cross to the victory of glorious martyrdom!


        A sketch also will be found of his life in the ‘American Encyclopedia’ and in William C. Nell’s books on the colored patriots of the Revolution.


Illustration

GRANVILLE T. WOODS.


Page 107

V.

GRANVILLE T. WOODS, ESQ.

        Electrician–Mechanical–Engineer–Manufacturer of Telephone, Telegraph and Electrical Instruments.

        “SOME men are born great; some have greatness thrust upon them; and some achieve greatness.” To the last class belongs G. T. Woods, who was born in Columbus, Ohio, April 23, 1856. He attended school until he was ten years of age, when he was placed in a machine shop where he learned the machinist and blacksmith trades. In the meantime he took private lessons and attended night school, and exhibited great pluck and perseverance in fitting himself for the work he desired to undertake. He pursued with assiduity every study which promoted that end. November, 1872, he left for the West, where he obtained work as a fireman and afterwards as an engineer on one of the Iron Mountain Railroads of Missouri. While in the employ of the railroad company he had a great deal of leisure, and as saloons had no attractions for him, he took up the study of electricity as a pastime. In December, 1874, he went to Springfield, Illinois, where he was employed in a rolling-mill. Early in 1876 he left for the East, where he received two years special training in electrical and mechanical engineering


Page 108at college. While obtaining his special instructions, he worked six half days in each week in a machine shop, the afternoon and evening of each day being spent in school. February 6, 1878, he went to sea in the capacity of engineer on board the Ironsides, a British steamer. While a sailor, he visited nearly every country on the globe. During 1880 he handled a locomotive on the D. & S. Railroad. Since then he has spent the major portion of his time in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he has established a factory for the purpose of carrying on the business, as indicated at the head of this sketch. A company has been formed recently for the purpose of placing Mr. Woods’ Electrical Railway Telegraph on the market. Mr. Woods says that he has been frequently refused work because of the previous condition of his race, but he has had great determination and will and never despaired because of disappointments. He always carried his point by persistent efforts. He says the day is past when the colored boys will be refused work only because of race prejudice. There are other causes. First, the boy has not the nerve to apply for work after being refused at two or three places. Second, the boy should have some knowledge of mechanics. The latter could be gained at technical schools, which should be founded for the purpose. In this respect he shows good sense and really prophesies the future of the race, and these schools must sooner or later be established, and thereby we shall be enabled to put into the hands of our boys and girls the actual means for a livelihood. He is the inventor of the “Induction Telegraph,” a system for communicating to and from moving trains, and is intended


Page 109to diminish the loss of life and property, and produce a maximum of safety to travelers. In the United States patent office, in the case of Woods vs. Phelps’ Railway Telegraph Interference–L. M. Hosea, attorney for Woods, and W. D. Baldwin, attorney for Phelps–it will be shown that the patent office has decided that Mr. Woods was the prior inventor of this system. His rights having been questioned, he secures this verdict which gives him triumphal possession of a great discovery. The following is taken from the Scientific American:

The public prints give us almost daily accounts of railway collisions in one section of the country or another. Every effort has been made to avert these. The general introduction of the telegraph has unquestionably done much in this direction; but in thick weather the operatives at the railway stations could scarcely be looked to to guard points of the road beyond their ken, and the railway switchman or signalman, as in other walks of life, is fallible. If railway signalmen could be found who require neither sleep nor rest, who are not subject to fits or spasms or spirituous excesses, and, above all, having eyes to pierce the fog, then railroad travel would indeed be divested of its greatest terrors. But, taking human nature as we find it, we learn that so grave a responsibility as the care of human life should never be thrust upon the shoulders of a single man.

The “Block System” recently introduced would, it was believed, prove a reliable means of preventing accidents on the rail, and it is but fair to say that it has made an excellent record; but that it is not, under all conditions and circumstances, to be relied upon, there is abundant evidence. Only last week it failed to prevent a collision between two freight trains at New Brunswick, New Jersey, on the line of the Pennsylvania railroad, in which two lives were lost and property to the value of half a million dollars destroyed. It was of course only by mere chance that these trains were not carrying passengers. From this it may be inferred how pressing is the demand for some system in which the safety of the traveling public is not made to rely on an unthinking and not


Page 110always reliable automaton, or, still worse, upon the action of an over-worked and irresponsible employee, whose perception of colors may be defective.

Many able electricians have believed the solution of this problem to lie within the domains of the electrical science; and those who have followed the drift of recent electrical endeavors are aware of the contrivances, all looking towards the same goal, that have made their appearance. The general principle on which all these have been based was electrical communications between all trains, while en route, and the train despatcher; most of these systems have shown a certain degree of efficiency when tested under favorable conditions, but the best of them were subject to interruptions, and this, from the very nature of the work they were called upon to perform, has been rendered more or less uncertain, owing to the fact that they relied upon a direct contact with the conductor, either by a wire, wheel or brush.

Now comes forward a practical system of train signaling, which does not rely upon contact at all; the electrical induction coil upon the moving train being distant from the conductor, lying between the track at least seven inches.

The future possibilities of these new inventions appear to be very great; just how far the system can be extended and applied it is impossible to foretell. But this appears to be certain; the risk of disaster on railways will be greatly reduced from this time onward.


        Mr. Woods claims that his invention is for the purpose of averting accidents by keeping each train informed of the whereabouts of the one immediately ahead or following it; in intercepting criminals; in communicating with stations from moving trains; and in promoting general, social and commercial intercourse. The following appeared in the Cincinnati Sun:

Granville T. Woods, a young colored man of this city, has invented a new system of electrical motor, for street railroads. He has invented also a number of other electrical appliances, and the syndicate controlling his inventions think they have found Edison’s successor.



Page 111

The Cincinnati Colored Citizen, in its issue of January 29, 1887, says:

We take great pleasure in congratulating Mr. G. T. Woods on his success in becoming so prominent that his skill and knowledge of his chosen art compare with that of any one of our best known electricians of the day.


        The Catholic Tribune, January 14, 1886, said of him:

Granville T. Woods, the greatest colored inventor in the history of the race, and equal, if not superior, to any inventor in the country, is destined to revolutionize the mode of street car transit. The results of his experiments are no longer a question of doubt. He has excelled in every possible way in all his inventions. He is master of the situation, and his name will be handed down to coming generations as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He has not only elevated himself to the highest position among inventors, but he has shown beyond doubt the possibility of a colored man inventing as well as one of any other race.


        The following appeared in the American Catholic Tribune, April 1, 1887 (Cincinnati, Ohio):

Mr. Woods, who is the greatest electrician in the world, still continues to add to his long list of electrical inventions.

The latest device he invented is the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph. By means of this system, the railway despatcher can note the position of any train on the route at a glance. The system also provides means for telegraphing to and from the train while in motion. The same lines may also be used for local message without interference with the regular train signals.

This system may be used for other purposes. In fact, two hundred operators may use a single wire at the same time. Although the messages may be passing in opposite directions, they will not conflict with each other.

In using the devices there is no possibility of collisions between trains, as each train can always be informed of the position of the other while in motion. Mr. Woods has all the patent office drawings for these devices, as your correspondent witnessed.


Page 112         The patent office has twice declared Mr. Woods prior inventor of the induction railway telegraph as against Mr. Edison, who claims to be the prior inventor. The Edison & Phelps company are now negotiating a consolidation with the Wood’s Railway Telegraph company.


        It is recorded that a very distinguished preacher said: “If everything the Negro had invented was sunk at the bottom of the sea, the world would not miss them, and would move on as before.” This was not true then, is not true now, and will be less so in the future. Hundreds of slaves invented instruments which have been taken by their masters and patented, and many others for want of means to put their inventions through the patent office and manufacture them, have sold their knowledge for almost a “mess of pottage.” The future will bring forth men who will yet astonish the world with inventions of labor-saving character, and add materially to the wealth of the nation, by producing those instruments which will decrease manual labor, multiply articles more rapidly, facilitate communication and benefit mankind.


Illustration

J. A. BROWN.


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CHAPTER VI.

HON. JEREMIAH A. BROWN.

        Legislator–Carpenter and Joiner–Clerk–Deputy Sheriff–Turnkey and Letter-Carrier.

        HON. JEREMIAH A. BROWN, or as he is familiarly called “Jere,” was the first child of Thomas A. and Frances J. Brown, Pittsburgh, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania. In that city on the fourteenth of November, 1841, the subject of our sketch first saw the light of day. His younger days were spent in that city where he attended school, having among his classmates such men as the Rev. Benjamin T. Tanner, D. D., Hon. T. Morris Chester, James T. Bradford of Baltimore, Maryland, and many other distinguished men, who are now prominently before the people. He continued in the pursuits of knowledge with these until about his thirteenth year, when he accompanied his father as a steamboatman on our Western rivers. This avocation engaged his attention until his seventeenth year, when he became very much imbued with the importance of the advancement of himself in such a particular as to secure to him the possibilities of a livelihood. To this end he learned a trade, choosing that of a carpenter and joiner. At the close of his seventeenth year he entered the shop of James H. McClelland, Esq., as an apprentice. This gentleman was the foremost builder in that city at the time,


Page 114and a gentleman known far and wide for his interest in the advancement of the colored people. Upon his entrance into this shop, it was the immediate signal for a number of the employees quitting work, such was the prejudice existing against a colored boy entering upon any of the trades; but Mr. McClelland promptly filled their places, with the remark: “that that boy will stay in this shop until he learns the trade, if I have to fill it with black mechanics from the South.” Thus was the backbone of prejudice broken by this bold stand, and our young man remained and finished his trade with honor to himself, his race, and his friendly employer. After finishing his apprenticeship, his parents decided to remove to Canada West, believing that it would be beneficial to the children, of whom they had six, to be under a government that did not sanction human slavery. They desired to take their children away from its blighting and withering effects; not as practiced in its enormities, but as sanctioned by the laws of Ohio, which were then known as the “black laws,” and against which he has had an opportunity to battle in the Legislature of Ohio. These black laws were very obnoxious to the colored citizens and have constantly provoked unlimited antagonism from them and their ardent white friends. Young Brown accompanied them to Canada and settled near Chatham, Ontario. Upon the inauguration of the Civil War he returned to the United States and located in St. Louis, Missouri, and again returned to steamboating, but from time to time paid visits to his parents.

January 17, 1864, he was married to Miss Mary A.


Page 115Wheeler, of Chatham, Ontario, a sister of Hon. Lloyd G. Wheeler, of Chicago Illinois, and the Rev. Robert F. Wheeler, of Hartford, Connecticut. Returning to St. Louis, he remained there a short time and then he decided to settle in the State of Ohio. With that end in view he went there in 1869 or 1870, stopping at Wilberforce, Ohio, to which place his parents had removed for the purpose of educating their youngest children. After prospecting in several cities in the southern part of Ohio, he determined upon Cleveland as the place where he would locate and lay the foundation for a useful and happy life; and here he has remained ever since. A few years’ residence found him an active participant in the political field. His first political position was a bailiff of the probate court of that county; then he was deputy sheriff and turnkey of the county prison for four years, and clerk of the “City Boards of Equalization and Revision.” Then he obtained a position in the postoffice as letter-carrier and remained in the employ of the general government until the fall of 1885, when he secured the nomination on the Republican ticket as representative in the Ohio Legislature from Cuyahoga county, being elected by nearly three thousand majority over the highest competitor on the Democratic ticket–an honor by no means small. His career has been short, and yet long enough to show that he has made due effort to wipe out those prescriptive laws of the State which we have spoken of above. he made a telling speech on the subject March 10, 1886, a bill having been introduced by the Hon. Benjamin W. Arnett. Said he:


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All the colored man desires, Mr. Speaker, is that he be given the same legislation that is accorded to other men. No man can deny that we have proven ourselves other than true, patriotic and honorable citizens. Going back to the early days of the history of our country, where the picture is presented of the black man, in person of Crispus Attucks shedding his blood, the first spilt in the great American war for freedom, we are forced to stand appalled at that country’s ingratitude. When, again, I bring in this galaxy of bright lights, Benjamin Banneker, the great mathematician, and those brave men of my race who fought, bled and died for my country in the War of 1812, I ask you, gentlemen, is such ostracism the reward for that heroism and devotion? But when I contemplate the actions of the American Negro on the battlefield of the South–at the many scenes of carnage in which he was engaged during the late War of the Rebellion–with what heroism he performed deeds of valor, showing and demonstrating his ability even at the cannon’s mouth, my very heart bleeds for the foul blot heaped upon the countless thousands of black men, who laid their lives upon their country’s altar for the establishment and the perpetuity of this government. In that Southland my race put on the blue, shouldered their muskets, and to-day their bones lie bleaching on dozens of battlefields, where they were massacred by those who sought to destroy this fair land. What, gentlemen, I ask you, is the reward Ohio gives those of her black sons whose bones are scattered there?


        Further on, in reference to these black laws, he says:

Repeal them, and to your ensign will cluster the friendship of my race–redress our grievances with that power delegated to every American citizen. Defeat this bill, and the wrath of the colored voters will bury you beneath their ballots cast by as loyal citizens as the sun of Heaven looks down upon. Repeal them, and in after years when we show our children these obnoxious and pernicious laws, explaining to them the disadvantages we were subjected to, by and under them, we can teach them to love and venerate the memories of those who were instrumental in giving us equal facilities with our more than favored brethren.


        Mr. Brown is connected with the Masonic fraternity of Ohio, by whom he is highly honored and respected, as is


Page 117readily shown by the numerous positions he has held. For a number of years he has held, and is at this time holding, the grand secretaryship of the Grand Lodge F. A. A. M. of the Grand Chapter R. A. M.; Grand Recorder of the Grand Commandery of Knights Templars and of the order of High Priesthood; he is also a member of the Carpenters’ and Joiners’ Brotherhood of America; believing that organization, if good for white men, is equally, if not more, beneficial to the black men. His early education was acquired in the common schools of his native State, with a short course in the Avery College of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. At that time the facilities and opportunities for acquiring an education were far below what are now in vogue. There were no opportunities for black men other than situations of a menial and degrading character to be obtained; but he, imbued with the firm determination to enter the race of life, succeeded in arriving at a point where he can be called a successful man, and has indeed risen from the carpenter’s bench, and a common laborer on a steamboat, to the distinguished position of a lawmaker of the State of Ohio. His religious training was under the A. M. E. Church while a youth, but he is not connected with any denomination now, but attends the Congregational Church, the Sabbath school of which is and has been under the superintendency of his wife for about eight years. In financial affairs he has succeeded moderately, being worth probably five thousand dollars. May his life and success be some encouragement for those who find life hard and labor become unprofitable.


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VII.

WILLIAM CALVIN CHASE, ESQ.

        Editor of the Washington Bee–Vigorous and Antagonistic Writer–Politician–Agitator.

        WHATEVER may be said for or against Mr. Chase, it can well be remarked that he is a true friend, an untiring enemy, a defender of his race, and a lover of his home. Mistakes he has made, no doubt, and yet they were in behalf of his convictions or when he has been mistaken as to the justice of the cause which promoted him to act. He has led a life of agitation, turmoil and combats, and has taken and given many blows, and, like the “Black Knight” of Scott’s matchless ‘Ivanhoe,’ he has unhorsed many a Front-de-Boeny and Athelstane–using both sword and battle-axe. Relying as I do on his written views, newspaper articles and other material before me, I have attempted to furnish the facts with little comment. But let it now be said that while Mr. Chase may differ from any one, yet he is a pleasant and agreeable companion at any time, and those from whom he has differed are all distinguished friends of his. His paper has a motto which greatly interprets the man, viz: “Honey for friends and stings for enemies.” The next birthday of Mr. Chase will occur on February 2, 1888, when he will be thirty-four years of age. He is still a very young man. His father,


Illustration

W. C. CHASE.


Page 119William H. Chase, was a blacksmith, and one of the leading citizens of Washington, District of Columbia, during his day. He was shot by a man named Charles Posey, in 1863, who called at his place of business, pretending that he wanted him to examine a revolver, claiming that it was the one that was used by a man who killed a woman in the southern section of the city. Posey said the revolver was not loaded; but as soon as Mr. Chase was handed, he refused it, and told him to take it away, it might do harm, and before he had finished this remark the deadly weapon went off and he was shot through the heart. His own brother (Chase’s) immediately asserted that it was an accident. Very soon after his death, and before any of Mr. Chase’s immediate family arrived, he was robbed of every cent he had in his pockets. The death of Mr. Chase left his widow with six small children. Young Chase being the only boy, had many hardships to encounter, as will be seen in the history of his life. His mother was a Lucinda Seaton of Virginia, a daughter of one of the most aristocratic colored families of that State, and who is at this time one of the leading citizens of Washington. She is a woman of determined will, who has succeeded in educating her children. One is married to Rev. E. W. Williams, principal of Ferguson’s Academy, which she established, and lives in Abbeville, South Carolina; two are teaching in the public schools of Washington; another is employed in the government printing office at Washington, and has the reputation of having excelled a steam folding machine in folding papers.

During the struggle of Mrs. Chase to educate her children,


Page 120she met with opposition on all sides, mainly from her husband’s relatives, some of whom brought suits, aggregating eight thousand dollars, against her. William H. Chase was also a musician, and it is said that he performed skillfully on the violin and bass violin, the latter of which was the cause of a lawsuit in the Orphan’s court. The instrument was left to his son, and at the time of the death of Mr. Chase, his nephew had it in his possession, and declined to give it up until forced to do so by order of the court. Young Chase did not take to music; his ambition was journalism. To be successful in that, he knew that it was necessary to acquire a good education. He was only ten years old at the death of his father, and knowing that his mother had a heavy responsibility on her, he began to sell newspapers. The prejudice against colored newsboys was so great that they were not allowed by the white newsboys to come where they were. Chase managed to receive his papers through a colored gentleman who was employed by the Star Publishing Company, by the name of George Johnson, who did all in his power to aid him. Young Chase always knew how to ingratiate himself in the good graces of those who had charge of newspapers, so much so that he succeeded when others failed. He was well known around every newspaper office of any prominence in Washington, and became one of the most popular newsboys in the city. Before the death of his father, he attended the private school of John F. Cook, present collector of taxes in the District of Columbia. Leaving this school after the death of his father, he began his noted career as a newsboy. He would sell papers before school


Page 121in the morning, and after it in the afternoon. While so doing, he met a white lady who became impressed with his manners, and she asked him if he did not want a place; he said he did. She gave him her card and requested him to call at her boarding place the next day. Calling as requested, he was given a pen and ink to write his name; he could not do so, but in less than three days he accomplished the task. He was but eleven years old then. Still more impressed was the lady; she secured him a place with Holley & Brother, wholesale hat manufacturers in Methuen, Massachusetts. Not caring much for the business, he attended a white school taught by a lady named Mrs. Swan. He remained there some time, and finally wrote to his mother to allow him to come home. So appealing was his letter that his mother consented. It was in this town that Chase conceived the importance of an education; there, too, he got an idea of the printing business, and his ambition continued to force him to get an education to enable him to become a useful man. He declared when a boy, that he would some day become an editor.

On returning home he took up selling papers again, making himself a kind of utility boy around newspaper offices, and got a good idea of newspaper business. He left the public school and entered the Howard University Model School, “B” class, and remained in that department two years, passed a successful examination, and was recommended by his teacher as qualified to enter the preparatory department. During his stay in Howard University I was his teacher for a short while, and found him one of the brightest in the


Page 122class. His wife was also a pupil of mine. Just as he was about to enter college he received an appointment in the government printing office, at which place he remained two years. He did not get the place promised by the public printer; for this, and injustice to the colored employees in the office, he assigned as good reasons for denouncing the public printer, which he did. This was his first public act, although prior to this he had made himself prominent in politics and was recommended for a consulship, having been endorsed by the most prominent Republican campaign organizations in the city, by members of Congress, and Senator Thomas W. Ferry of Michigan. After leaving the government printing office he filed charges with the President against the public printer, A. M. Clapp, and introduced a resolution in the Hayes and Wheeler campaign club, of which he was secretary. Colored men under Clapp called a meeting for the purpose of denouncing Chase and refuting his charges against Clapp; but Chase arrived at the hall just as the resolution was about to pass, and told them that if such a resolution was adopted he would expose all those who had urged him to denounce Mr. Clapp on account of his injustice to the Negro. The resolution did not pass. He gives the following account of the rupture between himself and Mr. Douglass:

Mr. Frederick Douglass, who had been appointed United States marshal by President Hayes, heard that I was to be given an appointment, said to me that he would like to have me in his office, “and as the President is to give you an appointment,” said Douglass, “tell him if he (President Hayes) will send me a letter, I will appoint you.” I called on President Hayes and informed him of what Mr. Douglass had said. The President, after looking over my papers, wrote a personal letter to Mr. Douglass. The letter was


Page 123handed to him by me. The “Old Man Eloquent” said, “Ah! Mr. Chase, you have caught me on the fly. Come in and I will see what I can do for you.” After entering Mr. Douglass’ office, he said, “Chase, call in, in a few days; I am going to discharge a man and put you on.” In the meantime Mr. Clapp, who had been requested to resign his office, wrote to Mr. Douglass and informed him that he had heard that the President had recommended me to him for an appointment; that the charges I made against him were false. In reply Mr. Douglass wrote to Mr[.] Clapp and said: “Although the President has requested me to appoint Mr. Chase, I don’t know whether I shall do it or not.” I was informed of the letter of Mr. Douglass by a colored man and a friend of his, employed in the press room of the government printing office, to whom Mr. Clapp read the letter. I called on Mr. Douglass and informed him of the letter written to Mr. Clapp, and before Mr. Douglass replied, his son Lewis, then deputy marshal, denied it. I said that such a letter was written, and any one who attempted to deny it was a liar. L. Douglass said: “I won’t appoint you now, any way.” I said it made no difference to me, and demanded that the letter sent to Mr. Douglass by the President be returned to me, and said that I would inform the President that he refused to appoint me, after having promised. Mr. Douglass said “no, as the President’s letter was a personal one to him.” I then asked for a copy of the letter, at the request of ex-mayor Bowen. Mr. Douglass declined. I had become somewhat noted as a newspaper correspondent, and in every letter to the Boston Observer I remembered Mr. Douglass, and would paragraph him in the most pointed manner, and they would appear weekly, greatly to the discomfort of Mr. Douglass and much to my gratification. I returned to President Hayes, but before seeing him talked with his private secretary, Mr. W. K. Rodgers. I was given a card to the President and related to him the actions of Mr. Douglass. The President seemed to be somewhat indignant, and said that Mr. Douglass had nothing to do with the action of the Invincible Club against Mr. Clapp. He gave me a letter to the postmaster-general. Six months later Mr. Douglass met me in the presence of Captain O. S. B. Wall, and seemed to be greatly aggrieved at the letters written by me to the Boston Observer, and asked me what I was doing. I told him; whereupon he invited me to call and see him. I called and told Mr. Douglass that the President had given me a letter to Postmaster-General Key, Doug


Page 124lass volunteered to endorse the President’s recommendation. While my appointment was pending, some of my enemies heard that the postmaster intended to appoint me to an important position. To defeat this, an anonymous letter, denouncing the President’s “Southern Policy,” was written and the name of the secretary of the Hayes and Wheeler Invincible Club signed. The letter stated that I denounced the President’s policy and was organizing a new African party, which would prove detrimental to the President and the Republican party. This letter was sent to the postmaster, and I failed to get the appointment.


        Although the Boston Observer had suspended, a new paper had been started, known as the Washington Plaindealer, edited by Dr. King, a West Indian. Mr. Chase was made reporter and the “Chit-Chat” editor. He was considered a valuable news and society editor. Not being satisfied with the policy of the paper, he resigned and turned his interest over to A. St. A. Smith and A. W. De Leon. Mr. Douglass became a supporter of the Plaindealer. Mr. Chase turned his attention to the management of the public schools and endeavored to reform them. He claimed to know of immorality existing in the schools and prepared several specifications of charges against certain trustees. Commissioner Dent requested the trustees, against whom these charges were made to answer them. They were all denied, but were proven by Mr. Chase. One of the trustees was removed, but the other was retained, owing to some doubt on the part of the commissioners, as this trustee had offered the Colored Normal School bill which would have benefited the colored people. Chase called a public meeting and charged these men openly with having corrupted the schools. The meeting was packed by the friends of the trustees with society


Page 125friends. These were charged by Mr. Chase with attempting to hide corruption and keeping a set of corrupt men in office. The meeting was taken from Mr. Chase and his friends, and resolutions adopted endorsing the trustees. Notwithstanding this, Mr. Chase filed his charges and proved them. Previous to this Mr. Douglass had made up with Mr. Chase, but Mr. Douglass had been informed by one of the trustees that Mr. Chase was using the letter sent by Mr. Douglass to Postmaster-General Key in connection with the charges against the trustees. Mr. Douglass came out in the following card in the National Republican of Washington:

WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, September 25, 1876.

To whom it may concern:

Whereas, one William C. Chase, is using a letter of mine in connection with certain charges against the trustees of the public schools, I desire to say that I have lost confidence in said Chase and withdraw my letter of endorsement of him.

Very Respectfully, etc.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.


        Mr. Chase said in a public speech “that Mr. Douglass knew that he was using no letter of his.” The letter referred to was on file in the postoffice department, and was not withdrawn until after the appearance of Mr. Douglass’ card, which was certified to by General O. P. Burnside, the disbursing officer of that department. During this fight President Hayes had given Mr. Chase another letter, this time to the district commissioners, for an appointment. Captain Phelps, one of the commissioners, opposed Mr. Chase’s appointment on representations made to him by the friends of the trustees, while Commissioner J. Dent


Page 126favored it and would listen to nothing said by his enemies. Mr. Chase, however, did not secure the appointment. Presuming that he would give the President a rest for a while, he accepted the editorship of the Argus, which was offered him, at that time edited by Charles N. Otey, one of brainiest men known to the colored race. The Argus was the controlled by a board of directors. Mr. Otey retired and Mr. Chase appointed to succeed him, with Captain G. W. Graham, business manager. He changed the name of the paper to that of the Free Lance. The change of the name excited great feeling among the people, as they knew of the vindictiveness and determination of Mr. Chase to expose fraud and get even with those whom he considered enemies. Nor did he disappoint them. His first attack was made on Senator John Sherman, then the secretary of the treasury: “the schools,” “police force,” and the National Republican committee for not appointing colored men in the campaign. So great was the feeling of the Republicans against him, that the board of directors, who were all office-holders, while they dared not remove Mr. Chase, sold out the paper to L. H. Douglass, H. Johnson, M. M. Holland, and others, office-holders, claimed by Mr. Chase to be his enemies. The sell out of the Argus Publishing Company greatly pleased his opposers, for the name of Chase was becoming a household word, and notwithstanding his many defeats, he conceived the idea that he would sink or swim in his next attempt.

He went to the President and asked for another appointment; this time the President put him off; he left, got additional endorsements from prominent Republicans in


Page 127Virginia, among whom was one of Colonel Sampson P. Bailey, in whose interest he canvassed the Eighth Congressional District, Colonel John F. Lewis and many others. He returned to him and presented a letter which was referred to his private secretary, who was very favorably disposed towards Mr. Chase. When asked where he wanted to go, Mr. Chase replied, “Back to the government printing office; foreman of the lower paper warehouse,” a position then held by a white man. Mr. Chase called on Mr. John D. Defrees whose nomination was pending. He promised to appoint Mr. Chase, but as soon as it became known that Mr. Chase was to return to that office, the friends of Mr. Clapp commenced to work on Mr. Defrees’ prejudice. After his confirmation by the United States Senate, a minor place was offered him, which he declined. At this time an investigation against Defrees, and Clapp was instigated by Hon. Ebenezer B. Finley of Ohio, chairman of the sub-committee on expenditures. Mr. Chase was subpoenaed by that committee, which became known at the government printing office; he was sent for by H. Robert, foreman of the bindery. After this subpoena he was appointed in the government printing office, but remained only one week, as the place was not what he desired. Before Douglass was transferred from the marshalship to recorder of deeds, a public meeting was called by the friends of John T. Johnson to endorse him for the place of Douglass. Mr. Chase opposed the resolution, and asked that Douglass be retained and Johnson be endorsed for recorder of deeds, to which Mr. Douglass was subsequently appointed.


Page 128

Although Mr. Douglass had been requested not to appoint Mr. Chase in his office, he did so eventually. This was considered a victory for Mr. Chase after the publication of Mr. Douglass’ card. While in this office Mr. Chase wrote a severe criticism on the ‘History of the Negro Race’ by Colonel G. W. Williams, of which Mr. Douglass was accused; it was in this office that Mr. Chase was accused of being inspired to criticise and condemn the political course of Hon. R. Purvis. He was editing the Bee at the time. He denied all accusations against Mr. Douglass. A heated correspondence passed between Messrs. Douglass and Purvis. Mr. Purvis requested the discharge of Mr. Chase, but Mr. Douglass refused to comply, and suggested that Mr. Purvis meet him on equal grounds and not ask him to do that which would not be honorable. Mr. Purvis became very indignant at this, and instigated a criminal libel suit against Mr. Chase, which was subsequently withdrawn.

Mr. Chase was not satisfied with the position in Mr. Douglass’ office, and Hon. B. K. Bruce, who was a staunch friend of his, was accompanied by Mr. Douglass to see the secretary of war, Hon. R. T. Lincoln, to obtain a better place. It is said that instead of Mr. Douglass recommending Mr. Chase, he recommended some one else, which greatly embarrassed Mr. Bruce, who requested Mr. Chase to go with him to see Mr. Lincoln. Two weeks later Mr. Chase was notified to appear in examination, after which he received a probationary appointment for four months, at the end of which, his appointment was made permanent. Then his thoughts were turned to the law department of Howard


Page 129University, where he remained one year, when he was asked to enter the Virginia Republican canvass, which he did, and which necessarily compelled him to give up the study of law. He took an active part in the campaign of ’84, both in person and with his paper, the Bee. In 1885, he went as one of the delegates from the convention of colored citizens to President Cleveland, to request him to review the Emancipation Day parade. At the conclusion of remarks by Mr. Chase, the President produced a copy of the Bee containing the following article:

MURDER AND ASSASSINATION.

We are constrained to say that the time has come when murder and the assassination of black Republicans in the South must cease. The time has come for the Negroes and loyal white people of this country to show to the world that there is purity in American politics. In the State of Louisiana, a few days ago, the most cowardly and bloody murders were committed. Innocent colored Republicans were shot down by Democrats like dogs. The same was a repetition of the past brutalities, when helpless colored female virgins and babes were snatched from their beds and murdered. The scene in the South on last Tuesday has raised the indignation of over five millions of true black American citizens. It is time for every American Negro in the South to make an appeal to arms and fire every Democratic home where Negro-killers live, from a palace to a hut, in retaliation for the foul and dastardly murders that were committed in the South. We speak without fear and in defense of the helpless Negro. It is far more noble to die the death of a freeman than an ignominious slave. The hundred and fifty-three electoral votes from the South were obtained through theft and assassination; schemes of the most outrageous character were resorted to; Negroes murdered; ballot boxes stuffed; peaceable citizens were imprisoned to prevent them from exercising the rights of elective franchise. Under these circumstances it will cost the lives of millions to inaugurate Grover Cleveland.


        Mr. Chase informed the President that he was the author


Page 130of the article; that it was written in the heat of the Presidential campaign; that the Copiah, Danville, and Louisiana massacres were the causes of the publication of the article; but since it was decided that he was the legally elected President, no paper had been as conservative as the Bee. Mr. Cleveland said that his life was in danger when the article appeared; he condemned it and called upon all other citizens to do likewise. Nearly every paper in the country had something to say. The Democratic papers were loud in their condemnation of Mr. Chase, and in all directions of the city, groups of persons could be seen discussing “Chase and the President.”

Many Republicans who knew that what Chase said was true, were among those who condemned him. At the request of the President, Mr. Chase sent him different copies of his paper, and it was thought that this would tend to appease him, as Mr. Chase had supported him after his inaugural address, which contained some kind words in behalf of the Negro. On the twenty-fifth of April, about ten days after Mr. Chase had called on the President, he received his discharge from the War Department, by order of the President and W. C. Endicott, secretary of war. Long before the ascendency of the Democratic party, attempts had been made to have Mr. Chase discharged. These charges had no effect with Secretary Lincoln as Senator Bruce frustrated them. Mr. Chase was elected one of the vice-presidents of the Louisville convention, and was first to nominate Rev. W. J. Simmons, president of the National Press convention, to which he was elected, and was himself elected historian of said association,


Page 131August 4, 1886. General Logan said that “Mr. Chase was one of the brightest young men he knew, and one who will succeed.” Mr. Chase has been indicted for libel five times and convicted once, the fine being fifty dollars. He was married January 28, 1886, to Miss Arabella V. McCabe, a very accomplished lady in music and literature. His wedding was one of the grandest that ever took place in Washington. Presents were received from all parts of the country. He is now editor of the Washington Bee, which is flourishing. His office is fitted up in style, all the material of which is his own. Although the fights between Messrs. Chase and Douglass were bitter, they subsequently became friends, and for three successive years Mr. Douglass was elected Emancipation orator through the influence of Mr. Chase. He had become so popular that a young lady, Miss Susie Brown, named her school for him. On account of his great height and massive form, he is often called a “long, narrow, slender slice of night.” This name was given him by the Sunday Capital. In the press convention of 1880, held in Washington, he was the only editor North who read a paper favoring separate schools; when he had finished, his address was endorsed by the entire Southern press; without one exception.

His report at the Press convention, on Southern outrages, was highly commended by the Philadelphia Press. Mr. Chase is a determined man and has an undaunted disposition, and will never give up as long as there is a fighting chance. He delights to have a broil on hand, and seems never happier than when he hears the shouts of battle


Page 132and the clash of arms. The Bee was foremost in the fight concerning the Matthews-Recorder-of-Deeds-muddle. Mr. Chase made a gallant fight, which, while it did not secure the nomination of Mr. Matthews, whipped the Senatorial children soundly and compelled them to confirm Mr. Trotter. They did not dare furnish the occasion for another battle. They dared not go home with the Bee behind them. They had felt its sting already and did not care to continue to need it further. A full statement of the case will be found under the name of Mr. J. C. Matthews. Truly did he furnish “stings for the enemies” of the race.


Page 133

VIII.

REV. JAMES W. HOOD.

        Bishop of the A. M. E. Zion Church–Church Organizer and Builder–Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction–His Many Contests For Civil Rights on Steamboats and Cars.

        ONE of the most influential men in this country is Bishop Hood. His labors have been crowned with abundant success, and his acknowledged ability marks him as a special favorite. He has a large amount of what is called character. He is the son of a preacher, and his life shows that all “preachers’ sons” are not bad. The names of his parents deserve to be mentioned. The family constituted one of the thirteen families who founded the separate Methodist church in Wilmington, Delaware. He was born in Kennett township, Chester county, Pennsylvania, May 30, 1831. At the age of twenty-five, being converted, he felt a call to preach the gospel. In 1859 he was received on trial in the New England conference of the A. M. E. Zion church. In 1860 he was ordained deacon and sent to Nova Scotia missions. They year 1863 found him stationed at Bridgeport, Connecticut. This same year he was sent to North Carolina, where he now lives “as the first of his race appointed as a regular missionary to the Freedmen in the South.”

He has founded in North Carolina, South Carolina and


Page 134Virginia over six hundred churches, and erected under his supervision about five hundred church buildings. He was elected bishop of the General Conference which held its session in North Carolina, in 1872. He was elected a member of the Ecumenical Conference, in London, in 1881. He has published a volume of sermons, to which Rev. Atticus G. Haygood, agent of the Slater fund, has written a complimentary introduction in which he says:

These sermons speak for themselves; their naturalness, their clearness, their force and their general soundness of doctrine and wholesomeness of sentiment, commend them to sensible and pious people. I have found them as useful as interesting. Those who still question whether the Negro in this country is capable of education and refinement, will modify their opinion when they read these sermons, or else they will conclude that their author is a very striking exception to what they assume is a general rule. Bishop Hood entertains many broad and important views as to the wants, duties and future of his people. He believes that their best interests are to be conserved in preserving the race from admixture with other bloods. They should, he thinks, hang together, and he is persuaded that if his people are to succeed permanently and broadly in this country, they must largely work out their own salvation.


        He has twenty-one very able and comprehensive sermons in the book, well worth the reading. Besides peculiarly striking sermons by Bishops S. J. Jones, J. J. Moore, J. P. Thompson, Thomas H. Lomax, some of the themes treated in Bishop Hood’s book, are “The Claims of the Gospel Message,” “Personal Consecration;” “Divine Sonship;” “The Sequence of Wondrous Love;” “Why was the Rich Man in Torment?” “The Streams which Gladden God’s City;” “The Glory Revealed in the Christian Character;” “David’s Root and Offspring, or Venus in the Apocalypse.”


Page 135

Bishop Hood went to North Carolina in January, 1864. At Newbern, during that year, in the absence of the chaplain, he preached to the colored troops and was often called “chaplain,” but he never held the commission as such. He went there as missionary, under General Butler’s invitation to the churches to send missionaries into his department. Newbern was twice attacked after he went there, so that he understands what it is to be under Confederate fire. Among the “first” conventions, if not the first of them all, of colored men in the South, was the one in October, 1865, in Raleigh. In this meeting he was elected president as the “dark horse.” Three other candidates had packed delegations as it appears, and thus defeated each other. The opening speech in that convention was the subject of much comment from the press, some not very complimentary to the speaker. He was reminded “that hemp grew in that part of the State.” It was the first time that a black man had so publicly stated that the Negro was among those who came from one blood, and among those whom the Declaration of Independence included as endowed with inalienable rights, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; a right to the jury-box, cartridge box, and ballot box, were among the demands which he said the colored people would contend for, and that with the help of God. He was reminded in some of the bitter papers at the time that he would get all these in one box. In 1868 he demanded and obtained cabin passage on the Cape Fear steamers. The agents told him that nothing but the fact that the city was under military authority caused the company to yield to his demand. He advised


Page 136the bishop not to attempt to take advantage of this, as it would be the worse for him when the military was withdrawn. The answer was characteristic of the man. He said he would enjoy it while he could, and trust the Lord for the balance. His right, however, has never been questioned on that river since. This proves what we have often said, that, if colored men would demand what belongs to them they could very many times get it, but because of their indifference and littleness of soul, they are often shoved into places where it is a disgrace to go. He also broke the ice on the railroads in that early day, and in this respect stood foremost in the Southern States. To go a little back, he says:

I have been contending for my rights in public conveyances from boyhood. Time and again, between ’48 and ’63 did conductors try to put me out of the first class cars on the Pennsylvania railroad, but they never did it. Once I think they would have done it, but a Quaker lady called on the passengers to interfere in my behalf. I was carried out of the street cars five times in one night in 1857, and, after, all, rode from the corner of Church and Leonard streets up to 28th street in time to preach, but of course I was a little late. I could give many instances in which I had to contend, but generally made my trip in the car. A thirty-eight years’ fight with railroad conductors seems like a long contest, from which I have come forth without a scar.


        Bishop Hood has always been a traveler, more or less, and has traveled 15,000 miles a year. It is doubtful whether any man living has had so many railroad contests. He is getting tired and worn out, and avoids the far South as much as possible on this account, but nevertheless he has opened the way and smoothed the path in these years for others, and has opened up to the traveling


Page 137public better accommodations. In 1867 he was elected as a delegate to the constitutional Convention of the State of North Carolina, and took such a prominent part that the Democrats called the constitution adopted “Hood’s Constitution” until they amended it slightly about 1875.

In this convention he made a speech which was full of sarcasm and ridicule of his opponent, a gentleman who had opposed some measure in which he was interested. He says:

After all I am compelled to acknowledge that I feel myself to be under some obligation to the secessionists. I am compelled to acknowledge that to their folly, in a great measure, we owe our present enfranchisement. The gentleman from Orange remarked last night that his race has always occupied a position more elevated than the rest of mankind. I am astonished at that young man that he has no more regard for his reputation as a historian than to assert such a ridiculous fallacy in the hearing of intelligent gentlemen in the noonday splendor of the nineteenth century. Does he not know that his ancestors, the ancient Britons, were in bondage in ancient Rome, in the days of Julius Cæsar, and ever since that day? Mr. Chairman, the worst that has ever been said of my people was that they were too ignorant to be anything but slaves; but of the Britons it was said that they were too ignorant even to be slaves. A friend of Julius Cæsar, writing to him, urged him not to bring slaves from Britain, for they were so ignorant that they could not be taught music. Now I have never heard it said of colored people that they were too ignorant to sing. I admit that this is not very flattering to the ancestors of the gentleman from Cleveland and Orange. Ancestry is something that they should not go back into, except with their mouths in the dust; but I don’t blame them for this. It is something they cannot help. I am sorry for them, but I don’t blame them for springing from such a low origin. I only think hard of them for making mouths at me.


        This speech was considered so valuable that it was used as a campaign document. It is full of such passages, and


Page 138the comment of the press was very favorable, though the information was easily gained by any one who would take the pains to read yet it was considered wonderful because a colored man showed such an acquaintance with the history of his race and turned with such grace and dignity and delivered such a clever shot into the ranks of his opponents.

The homestead and public schools in this convention claimed his especial attention, and he was allowed to have his own way pretty much in regard to these measures. He believed that a good homestead law would secure the ratification of the constitution, and he was not mistaken. It proved to be a very popular measure, and he used it for all it was worth in canvassing. The school law was free from any hint of condition on account of color. He canvassed at the time fourteen counties and carried them all for this constitution, although all but two were regarded as doubtful. He was associated with others, of course, in this canvass, but he enjoyed the lion’s share of attention. Returning home from a meeting during the Presidential campaign in 1868, he received a commission as agent of the State Board of Education and assistant superintendent of public instruction. This appointment was made without solicitation from himself and friends and without his knowledge. The State Board of Education was composed of the governor and other State officers, and created the office and made the appointment, and the first information he had of it was the receipt of the commission, and an accompanying letter asking him to indicate at what time he could enter upon the duties of the office. His salary was


Page 139fixed at $1,500 a year. He filled this position for three years, having his headquarters at Raleigh, and at the same time, with the assistance of a subordinate preacher, built up a strong church at Charlotte, North Carolina, out of which four others have been formed. He would leave Raleigh Saturday afternoon and go to Charlotte, one hundred and seventy-five miles a way, preach three times a day and be back to Raleigh Monday morning. Sometimes he would not have his boots off from Saturday morning until Monday night. He generally filled the pulpit three Sabbaths in the month. One Sabbath in the month he would remain at Raleigh and divide the time among Methodist and Baptist congregations. There was no church of his branch of Methodists in Raleigh at that time, and he thought it was not fair to use the power of his office to establish one. During the time he was in office, he visited the greater portion of the State, lecturing and organizing schools. He received, unsolicited, a commission from General O. O. Howard, as assistant superintendent under the Freedmen’s Bureau, without pay, except that he was allowed three dollars a day, when traveling in the interest of the Bureau, to cover expenses. In 1870 he had forty-nine thousand colored children in the schools, and had a colored department established for the deaf, dumb and blind, and about sixty of those unfortunates, under care and instruction, gathered from all parts of the State. Sometimes he had hard work to get parents to send their children. One blind boy, that he had to go for several times and who would hide when he heard that the bishop was in town, is now making his living traveling as


Page 140Professor Simmons, the blind organist. The department formed at that early day has now a brick building worth $20,000, heated by steam and has every necessary convenience. It is the best institution for deaf mutes and blind of the colored people in this country, and yet there is only about the same number in the institution that he left when he gave up the office, while the statistics show about eight hundred in the State. He was about to establish a State University when the Democrats got control of the Legislature and legislated him out of office.

The only office he held under the State and National government was magistrate under a provisional government, and deputy collector for a few months. The latter position he resigned. He was the choice of the colored delegates for Secretary of State at the Republican State convention in 1872, as unanimously declared by the caucus, and declining it he was allowed to name a man who was nominated and elected. This gentleman promised to appoint a colored man as chief clerk and he did so. He never desired a purely secular office and did not regard his educational position in that light. He was made temporary chairman of the Republican State convention in 1876, and gave such satisfaction that the gentleman who was selected for permanent chairman wanted to decline in his favor. He was a delegate for the State-at-large to the National convention in 1872, which nominated Grant for his second term. He was Grand Master of the Masons in his State for fourteen years, and has twice declined unanimous election since. He was elected and re-elected Most Eminent Grand Patron of the Order of the Eastern


Page 141Star, until he quit attending the annual meetings. Besides he held very many minor offices. He has been High Priest, D. S. H. P. and D., inspector of the Thirty-third degree. At the great Centennial gathering of all branches of the Methodist church, black and white, held in Baltimore, 1885, he was elected to preside the first day. This body was presided over by one State governor, and one lieutenant-governor and a number of bishops in turn. He was elected to preside, but as he was not present, they sent a telegram for him, but he could not reach there in time. He was informed that an effort was made to get another colored man appointed, but a white bishop was finally selected. Notwithstanding his absence, when called for, another appointment was made for him, which he filled. Early in the day a couple of smart black men gave him an opportunity to show what he knew about parliamentary usage. His rulings were cheered and for the balance of the session both white and black tried to keep within the rules, and only made points of order when somebody was out of order.

He has been married three times. First, in his twenty-second year, he married Miss Hannah L. Ralph of Lancaster City, Pennsylvania, who died of consumption in 1855. In his twenty-seventh year he married Miss Sophia J. Nugent of Washington City. By that marriage he had seven children, four of whom are living, aged respectively fourteen, sixteen, eighteen and twenty. Three younger ones are at Zion Wesley College. His last marriage was celebrated in June, 1877, to Mrs. K. P. McKoy of Wilmington, North Carolina. By this marriage he had three


Page 142children, two living, one five and one seven, and the youngest one dead. The bishop is a very liberal man, and in the building of the many churches over which he has had the oversight in the last twenty years, he has given over one hundred dollars to a single church and says he has no idea of the number of churches to which he has given the sum of twenty-five dollars and upwards. The bishop is a strict temperance man. From boyhood he has been an opponent of the liquor traffic, and has ever been ready to oppose intemperance and slavery. He says: “I have been called crazy on the subject of tobacco and whiskey. I have been able in some of the conferences over which I have presided to influence men who were not teetotalers to become such, and large numbers have discontinued the use of tobacco. Rev. Jacob Adams, leading minister of the New York conference, visited the Central North conference at its last session and said: “That for intelligence and sobriety, as well as in many other respects this conference was the banner conference of the church, as he knew that this was regarded especially as ‘Bishop Hood’s Conference.’ It having been said that if he winked, the men in it would nod, it can be readily seen that he was paying a high compliment to said conference; and that being a leading member of the oldest conference, he knew some of its history, and it was indeed a compliment that he should declare in open conference the superiority of this recently built up Southern work.” The Bishop has been connected with many temperance societies, the most noted of these is the Good Templars, in a lodge of which he accepted a position of outside guard to encourage others to accept


Page 143minor places. He was at the same time holding the position of Grand Worthy Chief Templar of the State, and Right Worthy Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of the world. While in England he delivered many temperance speeches and received many notices of value from the temperance press. He has taken part in every temperance contest in the State of North Carolina.

Bishop Hood is a big man, and has nerves of iron and back-bone of steel; and, it may be well added, a face of flint which he constantly sets against error and wrong. May he live many years to continue his arduous labors for the bettering of his race.


Page 144

IX.

HON. SAMUEL R. LOWERY.

        Silk Culturist–Lawyer and Editor.

        NO man in our broad country has exhibited more perseverance and pluck than this patient toiler. On December 9, 1886, he was fifty-six years old. A hard worker and earnest investigator and a courteous gentleman, he excites my admiration and challenges my good judgment, even when I think he has suffered enough privation and sacrifice to make him abandon his project. Nashville, Tennessee, has no other man exhibiting such a large amount of that self-sacrificing spirit as shown by Mr. Lowery. His mother was a free woman, a Cherokee Indian, and his father a slave, living twelve miles from the said city, and was purchased by his wife; God bless the woman. The old gentleman still lives in Nashville, aged seventy-six. Mr. Lowery lost his mother when only eight years old. The young man tried to get learning by working at Franklin College and studying privately under the Rev. Talbot Fanning, a famous Christian preacher, and who is of blessed memory now to Mr. Lowery. At the age of sixteen, our subject taught a school for the first time and had wonderful success for four years. In 1849 he united with the church of the Disciples and began preaching and continued till 1857. One year after this he pastored


Illustration

S. R. LOWERY.


Page 145the Harrison Street church of that faith in Cincinnati, Ohio. He married in 1858, and becoming displeased with the country, went to Canada where he remained for three years, when he returned to this country, settling on a farm which was given him by his father in Fayette county, Ohio, near West Lancaster. In 1863, when Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was issued, he went to Nashville, preaching to the freedmen and colored soldiers, commanded by Colonel R. K. Crawford, of the Fortieth United States Colored troops. Not getting his commission as chaplain, he was transferred to the Ninth United States heavy artillery as chaplain, appointed by the officers, where he remained until the close of the war. Then he moved his family from Ohio to Tennessee, where he began preaching and teaching school. He commenced about this time the study of law in Rutherford county, Tennessee. Political excitement was running very high at that time, and his school was broken up by the Ku Klux, and his affairs much disturbed. Being admitted to the bar he began the practice of law in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1875 he moved to Huntsville, Alabama, and continued practicing law and preaching. He also practices before the United States Supreme Court, having been admitted on the motion of Belva V. Lockwood. His daughter Ruth, then a girl fifteen years of age, living in Nashville, visited with her father and sister, Annie L. Lowery, ten years of age, an exhibition, of silkworms, given by one Mr. Theobald, and she persuaded her father to purchase her some silk-worm eggs, which he did. She hatched them in Huntsville, Alabama, and by the aid of the leaves of the


Page 146white mulberry tree, succeeded in starting the enterprise in which Mr. Lowery is now engaged. After her death, which occurred in 1877, her father took up the enterprise. He now became disgusted with politics and began to devote his whole time to the silk-worm culture. He visited Paterson, New Jersey, and there met John Kyle, the pioneer silk manufacturer in the United States, who encouraged him to plant trees and raise the silk cocoons. He also visited South Manchester, Connecticut, and met Mr. Frank Cheney, the largest silk manufacturer in the United States, who also encouraged him, giving him ten years to succeed in the enterprise. Returning home, he imported some white mulberry seed from France, from which he has a fine nursery of mulberry trees in Huntsville, Alabama. The seedlings grown from this seed have produced the largest leaves of the kind in the world, and received the highest prize at the World’s Exposition at New Orleans. Mr. Lowery has received but little encouragement from the people of Huntsville, Alabama, but there are a few noble exceptions to this rule. Our government paid a Frenchman a thousand dollars for making his exhibition, while Mr. Lowery, poor and unaided, made his display, and triumphed without aid from any source whatever. We give below an extract from the Birmingham (Alabama) Manufacturer and Tradesman. As the facts are known by me to be true, they only add additional weight to my own statements:

Mr. Lowery has visited, the last two seasons, at the Southern Exposition in Louisville, and received the first medal over several competitors from other nations. At New Orleans he took a premium over eighteen


Page 147competitors from China, France, Japan, Italy, Mexico and other exhibitors in the United States, and was the only successful propagator, raising over 100,000 worms and cocoons on the grounds, while his competitors were unable to raise one. He has had forty acres of land given him near the city of Birmingham to go into the silk culture on a large scale, and has formed a company composed of the following leading citizens:

William Burney, Dr. H. M. Caldwell, W. A. Handley, C. C. Brenemen and himself, directors; with W. A. Handley, as president; C. C. Brenemen, secretary; William Burney, treasurer, and himself superintendent. He is an intelligent, conservative man, steadily refusing to mix up in any way with the disturbing element of his race. He is a lawyer by profession, and also publishes the Southern Freeman, and he constantly devotes his time to the advancement of the colored people of the South, and is very well respected by the people of that city and at his own home in Huntsville. His past experiments in the silk worm culture, with the strong backing he now has, assures success in the present enterprise. He owns shares of stock in the undertaking. Birmingham will be known well as a silk manufacturing center.


        Mr. Lowery has an idea that the culture of the silk worm will take the place of cotton, and give to the women and children a refining and remunerative employment, which only takes six weeks in a year, and at the same time gives two-and three-fold more pay than they could earn all the year in their present employment.

I have never failed to have him address the students of the institution over which I have the honor to preside, and his enthusiasm has made a profound impression on his hearers; his genial manners, fund of information, knowledge of men and places, make him a welcome visitor and agreeable talker. He is yet destined to rank as a great benefactor to his race. He has had the faith of Columbus and the perseverance of Barnard Pallissey. Although famous, yet


Page 148he has nothing. In conversation with me he said: “My dear sir, I am very poor. I have not yet struck a bonanza, but I still hope for a competency yet ahead. Hope is a large faculty in my organization. I have tried to abandon it and become indifferent to its inviting fields. When I do, I am really not myself; yet I know I do not hope vainly or recklessly.” Let us pray that he will yet realize his hopes, and that his cherished plans may be the means of furnishing to the race the sure road to wealth and refinement. When success shall fully crown his labors, may the trademark of the firm be his daughter Ruth’s picture, as an honor to the humble girl, who died and did not live to see the success of her plans. She is worthy of this distinction.


Illustration

WILLIAM STILL.


Page 149

X.

WILLIAM STILL.

        Philanthropist–Goal Dealer, and Twenty Years Owner of the Largest Public Hall Owned by a Colored Man.

        THIS distinguished gentleman, who made himself prominent during the dark days of slavery, by helping escaped fugitives at the peril of his own life, was born October 7, 1821, in Shamong; County of Burlington, New Jersey. He was the youngest of eighteen children of Levin and Charity Still. Mr. Still worked at farming and wood chopping until he was twenty-three years old, at which time he left New Jersey, the home of his birth, to stem the current of life alone. He had no education except what he had acquired when the weather prevented his working out of doors, and what he could pick up here and there from observation, conversation and other odd means.

Being a stranger, he was thrown wholly on his own resources, as he entered the city of Philadelphia with less than five dollars in his pocket. This was in 1844. While quite a boy he had pledged with himself never to touch intoxicating liquors, which pledge he ever kept; and it was, no doubt, the corner stone of his prosperity, and the means by which he has made a man of himself, thereby set


Page 150an example for many of those fast young men who hope to succeed in life, and yet indulge in intoxicating drinks and riotous living.

He professed Christ many years after. In 1847 he obtained a clerkship in the office of the Pennsylvania Antislavery society, and occupied this position for fourteen years. He had seen so much of the cruelties of slavery that his heart was full of sympathy for the oppressed, and he determined to spend his time and his life in securing liberty for all over whom his influence might be exerted. His house was known as a safe and convenient refuge for all who were making their way to a land of liberty. Two of his brothers were left in bondage by the flight of their mother, and were lost to their parents for forty years. This seemed to have deepened his interest in the slaves, and yearly hundreds of escaped bondsmen found in him a friend. He was chairman and corresponding secretary of the Philadelphia branch of the “Underground Railroad” for the last decade of slavery. He wrote out hundreds of narratives from the lips of fleeing fugitives and kept them secreted in the loft of the Lebanon Seminary till emancipation, when privacy was no longer a necessity. These same narrations make up his famous book, which bears the name of the corporation for which he labored. He, alone, of all the thousands who aided the fugitives, succeeded in preserving anything like a full account of the workings of the “Underground Railroad,” as it was called, before emancipation.

His book, “The Underground Railroad,” which is well known by all readers, was published in 1873. This volume


Page 151of eight hundred and fifty pages, was highly commended by the leading men of the nation and reviewers of the country. It had a large sale and will continue to sell for many years to come. It is a valuable book, and every colored man ought to have it in his library. We cannot do better than frequently recur to its pages for the purpose of measuring our present greatness by looking back on the path through which we have come, filled with thorns and precipices. It might not be out of place here to give one of the narratives which he has recorded in his book. It will show the character of the work, and revive in some measure the memories of those days of bitter persecutions and trials. The narration which is here selected is that of prominent personages whose history is largely familiar to the older people, and cannot fail to be interesting to the younger ones.

A quarter of a century ago, William and Ellen Craft were slaves in the State of Georgia. With them, as with thousands of others, the desire to be free was very strong. For this jewel they were willing to make any sacrifice, or to endure any amount of suffering. In this state of mind they commenced planning. After thinking of various ways that might be tried, it occurred to William and Ellen that one might act the part of master and the other the part of servant.

Ellen being fair enough to pass for white, of necessity would have to be transformed into a young planter for the time being. All that was needed, however, to make this important change was that she should be dressed elegantly in a fashionable suit of male attire, and have her hair cut in the style usually worn by young planters. Her profusion of dark hair offered a fine opportunity for the change. So far this plan looked very tempting. But it occurred to them that Ellen was beardless. After some mature reflection, they came to the conclusion that this difficulty could be very readily obviated by having the face muffled up as though the young planter was suffering badly with the toothache;


Page 152thus they got rid of this trouble. Straightway, upon further reflection, several other very serious difficulties stared them in the face. For instance, in traveling, they knew they would be under the necessity of stopping repeatedly at hotels, and that the custom of registering would have to be conformed to, unless some very good excuse could be given for not doing so.

Here they again thought much over the matter, and wisely concluded that the young man had better assume the attitude of a gentleman very much indisposed. He must have his right arm placed very carefully in a sling; that would be a sufficient excuse for not registering, etc. Then he must be a little lame, with a nice cane in his left hand; he must have large green spectacles over his eyes, and withal he must be very hard of hearing and dependent on his faithful servant (as was no uncommon thing with slaveholders) to look after all his wants.

William was just the man to act this part. To begin with, he was very “likely looking,” smart, active and exceedingly attentive to his young master–indeed, he was almost eyes, ears, hands and feet for him. William knew that this would please the slaveholders. The young planter would have nothing to do but hold himself subject to his ailments and put on a bold air of superiority. He was not to deign to notice anybody. If, while traveling, gentlemen, either politely or rudely, should venture to scrape acquaintance with the young planter, in his deafness he was to remain mute; his servant was to explain. In every instance when this occurred, as it actually did, the servant was fully equal to the emergency–none dreaming of the disguises in which the underground railroad passengers were traveling.

They stopped at a first-class hotel in Charleston, where the young planter and his body-servant were treated as the house was wont to treat chivalry. They stopped also at a similar hotel in Richmond, and with like results.

They knew that they must pass through Baltimore, but they did not know the obstacles that they would have to surmount in the “Monumental City.” They proceeded to the depot in the usual manner, and the servant asked for tickets for his master and self. Of course the master could have a ticket, but “bonds will have to be entered before you can get a ticket,” said the ticket master. “It is the rule of this office to require bonds for all negroes applying for tickets to go North, and none


Page 153but gentlemen of well known responsibility will be taken,” further explained the ticket master.

The servant replied that he knew “nothing about that”–that he was “simply traveling with his young master to take care of him, he being in a very delicate state of health, so much so that fears were entertained that he might not be able to hold out to reach Philadelphia, where he was hastening for medical treatment;” and ended his reply by saying, “My master can’t be detained.” Without further parley the ticket master very obligingly waived the old “rule” and furnished the requisite tickets. The mountain being thus removed, the young planter and his faithful servant were safely in the cars for the city of Brotherly Love.

Scarcely had they arrived on free soil when the rheumatism departed, the right hand was unslung, the toothache was gone, the beardless face was unmuffled, the deaf heard and spoke, the blind and the lame leaped as a hart, and in the presence of the few astonished friends of the slaves, the facts of this unparalleled underground railroad feat were fully established by the most unquestionable evidence.

The constant strain and pressure on Ellen’s nerves, however, had tried her severely, so much so, that for days afterwards she was principally very much prostrated, although joy and gladness beamed from her eyes, which bespoke inexpressible delight within.

Never can the writer forget the impression made by their arrival. Even now after a lapse of nearly a quarter of a century, it is easy to picture them in a private room, surrounded by a few friends–Ellen in her fine suit of black, with her cloak and high heeled boots, looking, in every respect, like a young gentleman; in an hour after having dropped her male attire and assumed the habiliments of her sex, the feminine was only visible in every line and feature of her structure.

Her husband, William, was thoroughly colored, but was a man of marked natural abilities, of good manners, and full of pluck, and possessed of perceptive faculties very large.

It was necessary, however, in those days, that they should seek a permanent residence, where their freedom would be more secure than in Philadelphia; therefore they were advised to go to headquarters, directly to Boston. There they would be safe, it was supposed, as it had then been about a generation since a fugitive had been taken back from the old Bay State, and through the incessant labors of William Lloyd


Page 154Garrison, the great pioneer, and his faithful coadjutors, it was conceded that another fugitive slave case would never be tolerated on the free soil of Massachusetts. So they went to Boston.

On arriving, the warm hearts of Abolitionists welcomed them heartily, and greeted and cheered them without let or hinderance. They did not pretend to keep their coming a secret or hide it under a bushel; the story of their escape was heralded broadcast over the country–North and South, and indeed over the civilized world. For two years or more not the slightest fear was entertained that they were not just as safe in Boston as if they had gone to Canada. But the day the Fugitive Bill passed, even the bravest Abolitionist began to fear that a fugitive slave was no longer safe any where under the stars and stripes, North or South, and that William and Ellen Craft were liable to be captured at any moment by Georgia slave hunters. Many Abolitionists counseled resistance to the death at all hazards. Instead of running to Canada, fugitives generally armed themselves and thus said: “Give me liberty or give me death.”

William and Ellen Craft believed that it was their duty as citizens of Massachusetts to observe a more legal and civilized mode of conforming to the marriage rite than had been permitted them in slavery, and as Theodore Parker had shown himself a very warm friend of theirs, they agreed to have their wedding over again according to the laws of a free State. After performing the ceremony, the renowned and fearless advocate of equal rights (Theodore Parker), presented William with a revolver and dirk knife, counseling him to use them manfully in the defense of his wife and himself, if ever an attempt should be made by his owners, or anybody else, to re-enslave them.

But, notwithstanding all the published declarations made by the Abolitionists and fugitives, to the effect that slaveholders and slave catchers in visiting Massachusetts in pursuit of their runaway property would be met by just such weapons as Theodore Parker presented William with, to the surprise of all Boston, the owners of William and Ellen actually had the effrontery to attempt their recapture under the Fugitive Slave laws.


        His reasons for writing this book are given in the preface of the edition of 1886, and I cannot but give his own


Page 155words as his apology for placing such a book before the reading people. There are many of our people who are so foolish as to desire to rub out all the traces of our past history, and would do away with all emancipation celebrations and everything that reminds us of a past, which though painful and full of bitterness, cannot yet but be remembered with praise to God that he has permitted us to pass through these trials and come out more than conqueror. He very happily refers to the fact in this preface that the bondage and deliverance of the children of Israel will never be allowed to sink into oblivion. The world stands, and the Jews do not hang their heads in shame because of their bondage, but tell it with some pride, that God, though they were in bondage, did not forget them, but finally brought them forth and made a people of them. Quotations are here given because it is in the line of instruction that is badly needed and which should be heeded by our people, and he does well to send these thoughts through the country in each of his books, that they might influence at least the readers of that section in which he says:

Well conducted shops, stores, lands acquired, good farms managed in a manner to compete with any other, valuable books produced and published on interesting subjects–these are some of the fruits which the race are expected to exhibit from their newly gained privileges.


        This gains our highest approval. It is the very thing for our people to consider. But let me without further elaboration give a passage in this preface, which one, in the reading, will find full of truth and instruction.


Page 156

And in looking back now over these strange and eventful providences, in the light of the wonderful changes wrought by emancipation, I am more and more constrained to believe that the reasons which years ago led me to aid the bondmen and preserve the record of his sufferings, are to-day quite as potent in convincing me that the necessity of the times requires this testimony.

And since the first advent of my book, wherever reviewed or read by leading friends of freedom, the press, or the race more deeply represented by it, the expressions of approval and encouragement have been hearty and unanimous, and the thousands of volumes which have been sold by me on the subscription plan, with hardly any facilities for the work, makes it obvious that it would, in the hands of a competent publisher, have a wide circulation.

And here I may frankly state that but for the hope I have always cherished, that this work would encourage the race in efforts for self-elevation, its publication would never have been undertaken by me.

The race must not forget the rock from whence they were hewn, nor the pit from whence they were digged.

Like other races, this newly emancipated people will need all the knowledge of their past condition which they can get.

Those scenes of suffering and martyrdom, millions of Christians were called upon to pass through in the days of the Inquisition, are still subjects of study and have unabated interest for all enlightened minds.

The same is true of the history of this country. The struggles of the pioneer fathers are preserved, produced and reproduced, and cherished with undying interest by all Americans, and the day will not arrive while the Republic exists when these histories will not be found in every library.

While the grand little army of Abolitionists was waging its untiring warfare for freedom prior to the rebellion, no agency encouraged them like the heroism of the fugitives. The pulse of the four million of slaves and their desire for freedom was better felt through “The Underground Railroad” than through any other channel.

Frederick Douglass, Henry Bibb, William Wells Brown, Rev. J. W. Logan and others, gave unmistakable evidence that the race had no more eloquent advocates than its own self-emancipated champions.

Every step they took to rid themselves of their fetters, or to gain education,


Page 157or in pleading the cause of their fellow-bondsmen in the lecture room, or with their pens, met with applause on every hand, and the very argument needed was thus furnished in a large measure. In those dark days previous to emancipation, such testimony was indispensable.

The free colored men are as imperatively required now to furnish the same manly testimony in the support of the ability of the race to surmount the remaining obstacles growing out of oppression, ignorance and poverty.


        The angels have recorded the deeds of this noble-hearted man, and God will reward him. It is impossible to do justice to those men and women who held their lives as nothing when the cries of the slaves reached their ears. There was never greater heroism than that shown by William Still. Think, reader, of the pain his heart has undergone. Think of the moments of intense agony he bore. Think of a life of care, suffering and prayer; then tell me we are destitute of the finest feelings held by any other race.

They said we were not men, but if not men then we have been angels. For indeed the history of our sufferings and the manner in which we have borne them without revolution and bloodshed, without falling to the depths of infidelity, but still holding to a trust in God, mark our career as more than marvelous.

Is it not a wonder that in all these dark shadows we did not lose our faith in God and cry out, “There is no God”? Is it not a wonder that in all these years there was not stamped out of us every feeling of mercy, generosity and manhood?

What could have been expected of a race that was deep in the well of ignorance, hidden from the light of day? What could have been expected of us and our children, except


Page 158that we would be brutalized and destitute of all the finer feelings of our nature.

It does seem as if we were made of finer material than others, that even so many good men, philanthropists, strong Christian men, preachers and faithful workers in every missionary department of life, could have been gotten out of this race so cruelly treated, so badly despised. Here is an example in the life of Mr. Still worthy of record. In the ‘Book of Ages’ how many look back and thank him for succor, for comfort, for food, for clothing, for money, and for liberty? This is a wonderful record. The deeds which were done in his office, the acts of charity, would almost form, as it would seem, a special volume among the records of Heaven.

O God! We thank Thee for such a man as William Still. Men who, like their Master, went about doing good. Men who fulfilled the teachings of the Scriptures and who shall be on the right hand and hear these words: “Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger and ye took me in: naked and ye clothed me: I was sick and ye visited me: I was in prison and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer him saying, Lord when saw we Thee an hungred and fed Thee? or thirsty and gave Thee drink? when saw we Thee a stranger and took Thee in? or naked and clothed Thee? or when saw we Thee sick or in prison and came unto Thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them: Verily I say unto you, inasmuch as ye have done it unto


Page 159one of the least of these, my brethren, ye have done it unto me.”

Mr. Still’s name should be in the mouths of all lovers of philanthropic deeds, and his name is fittingly placed here that he might be known by the rising generation. His work is no less eminent than those who were partners in the labor of love, and yet extreme danger, namely, Abagail Goodwin, Thomas Garrett, Daniel Gibbons, Lucretia Mott, J. Miller McKim, H. Furness, William Lloyd Garrison, Lewis Tappan, William Wright, Elijah F. Pennypacker, Dr. Bartholomew Fussell; Robert Purvis, John Hunn, Samuel Rhoades, William Whipper, Samuel D. Burris, Charles D. Cleveland, Grace Anne Lewis, Frances Ellen W. Harper and John Needles.

In 1859, when old John Brown with one bold dash opened fire for freedom at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, several of his officers who were with him in the hottest battle at the Ferry, escaped with heavy rewards hanging over their heads, and sought shelter under the roof of William Still, who kindly received them. He also comforted and ministered unto the wife, daughter and sons of Brown who had come, utter strangers, to Philadelphia while the old hero was in prison waiting his execution. All this was cheerfully done while conscious of the fact that his deeds of charity were imperiling his own life. In 1850 he recognized one of his brothers who had been separated by slavery from his mother, when a child of only six years. In 1860 he left the antislavery office with the most hearty sympathy and confidence of his antislavery friends and at once turned his attention to


Page 160business of his own. Having some knowledge of the stove business, he opened a new and second hand stove store. In less than three years he was well established and quite successful. In the meantime, the civil war broke out and the curse of slavery ended unexpectedly. The secretary of war furnished him with a post sutler’s commission at Camp William Penn, at which point colored soldiers were stationed for Pennsylvania. In 1865 he purchased a large lot, built an office and entered the coal business, and for over twenty years he has successfully conducted this branch of business, amassing quite a fortune. He is the owner of Liberty Hall, the largest public hall in the country owned by a colored man; and to the credit of the race, be it said, that it is well patronized.

He still keeps up his philanthropic work; always ready to help the needy and to contribute of the world’s goods which God has given him in order that others might have their suffering lessened. He was a member of the Freedmen’s Aid Union and Commission, organized at the close of the war by the leading philanthropists of the country to prosecute educational work and aid the newly emancipated generally.

For many years he has been vice-president and chairman of the board of managers of the “Home for the Aged and Infirm Colored Persons” in Philadelphia; also for many years he has served as a member on the board of trustees for the “Soldiers and Sailors Orphan Home” and “Home for the Destitute Colored Children.” His interest in the educational work has been so manifest that he has been


Page 161selected, and has served for many years, as member of the board of trustees of Storer College. He has served as an elder of the Presbyterian church, which position he has held for quite a while, and was sent by the Presbytery of Philadelphia as commissioner to the General Assembly at Cincinnati, Ohio, which convened in 1885. He was one of the original stockholders to the amount of one thousand dollars in the stock company of the Nation, a member of the board of trade of the city of Philadelphia, and the corresponding secretary to the “Social and Civil Statistical Association” of Philadelphia. His literary labors have not been confined to the underground railroad. He has also published a pamphlet entitled “Voting and Laboring,” and another “The Struggles for the Rights of the Colored People” of Philadelphia. In 1884 the centennial and general conference of the M. E. church which convened in his city, honored him with a vote of thanks for entertaining the colored delegates from the South.

He still lives in Philadelphia, a quiet and honored citizen, an upright business man and a devoted friend of his race. May his last years be crowned with honor, and may he go down to his grave with the best wishes of the nation on account of the manner in which he has lived and served his God and his people.


Page 162

XI.

PROFESSOR J. W. MORRIS, A. B., A. M., LL. B.

        President of Allen University, Columbia, South Carolina–Professor of Languages.

        THE subject of this sketch was born in Charleston, South Carolina, August 26, 1850. His parents were John B. Morris and Grace Morris. He was born of free parents and enjoyed early advantages for education. In early childhood he was sent to a private school taught by Simeon Beard, then a distinguished teacher in the city of Charleston. After the close of the late war he entered the public schools of his native city, passing through the various grades of the same, until he left the high school, to take a collegiate course at Howard University. While attending the public schools he was sent in the afternoons to learn the printing trade, which he completed under that celebrated scholar and printer, the late Hon. R. B. Elliott, who was at that time editor of the Charleston Leader. Afterwards this paper was merged into the Missionary Record, edited by the late Bishop R. H. Cain. He was elected principal of a parochial school, and while in this capacity he worked as a compositor on the Missionary Record, which was a weekly paper.


Page 163

While a pupil of the Normal school of Charleston he was twice awarded a prize for proficiency in Latin by that eminent scholar and instructor, Professor F. L. Cardoza, now of Washington, District of Columbia. Young Morris evincing, in early life, so great a tact and aptitude for learning, was sent to Howard University, which institution he entered in the fall of 1868. After spending six years at the university, he graduated in June, 1875. While at the famous seat of learning he was regarded as an excellent student. At the Junior exhibition of 1874, he took the first prize awarded his class for oratory.

After graduation he returned to his home in Charleston, South Carolina. In the fall of 1875 he entered the law department of the South Carolina University, Columbia, South Carolina, under the tuition of that celebrated judge and jurist, Chief-Justice F. J. Moses. He graduated with distinction from this department, December, 1876. He applied for admission to the Supreme Court of his native State, and, after passing a most critical and searching examination, was admitted to practice in all the courts of the State. His first case was an interesting and prominent one; he won it. He was elected in 1876 one of the commissioners of public schools for the city of Charleston, but as this office would interfere with his law studies, he refused to accept the position. He also received in the county convention of Charleston, the nomination for the legislature, but, again for the same reasons, refused to accept.

After much persuasion and the earnest solicitation of personal friends, he was induced to abandon what promised


Page 164to be to him a very lucrative practice, to accept the principalship of Payne Institute, the educational work of the A. M. E. church in the State. He served for four years as principal of this institution, until it was merged into Allen University, a demand being made for a more central location for the work. While principal of Payne Institute, he was a lay delegate to the Ecumenical Council, which met in London, England. While in Europe he visited Paris and Geneva, Switzerland.

He was now elected professor of mathematics and ancient languages, principal of Normal and Preparatory departments, also secretary and instructor of the law department of the Allen University, which positions he held until elected president–the position he now holds. The writer was impressed with the quiet unassuming manners of President Morris while in college at Howard University. His position is only the reward of faithful toil and well directed effort. He was always in earnest; he enjoys fun as well as any man, but his “Life is real; life is earnest.” He is a fine student, a gifted writer and a man of high standing.


Illustration

ROBERT SMALLS.


Page 165

XII.

HON. ROBERT SMALLS.

        Congressman-Pilot and Captain of the Steamer Planter.

        This daring and cool headed man was born in Beaufort, South Carolina, April 5, 1839; and being a slave was of course limited in the opportunities for gaining book knowledge; but some men can no more be bound than the waves of the ocean, and despite all opposition he learned to read and write. “Where there’s a will there’s a way.” In 1851 he moved to Charleston, where he worked as a “rigger” and thus became familiar with ships and the life of a sailor by actual experience. He first became connected with the Planter, a steamer plying in the harbor of Charleston as a transport in 1861. His further connection with the steamer is given in the following, taken from the record of the House of Representatives, Forty-seventh Congress, second session, Report No. 1887. The document was a “Bill authorizing the President to place Robert Smalls on the Retired List of the Navy:”


Page 166

JANUARY 23, 1883.–RECOMMITTED TO THE COMMITTEE ON NAVAL AFFAIRS
AND ORDERED TO BE PRINTED.

MR. DEZENDORF, FROM THE COMMITTEE ON NAVAL AFFAIRS, SUBMITTED
THE FOLLOWING
REPORT:


        [To accompany bill, H. R. 7059.]


        The Committee on Naval Affairs, to whom was referred the bill to retire Robert Smalls as captain of the Navy, beg leave to report as follows:

This claim is rested upon the very valuable services rendered by Robert Smalls to the country during the late war. The record of these has been very carefully investigated, and portions of it are appended, as exhibits, to this report. They show a degree of courage, well directed by intelligence and patriotism, of which the nation may well be proud, but which for twenty years has been wholly unrecognized by it. The following is a succinct statement and outline of them:

On May 13, 1862, the Confederate steamboat Planter, the special dispatch boat of General Ripley, the Confederate post commander at Charleston, South Carolina, was taken by Robert Smalls under the following circumstances from the wharf at which she was lying, carried safely out of Charleston Harbor, and delivered to one of the vessels of the Federal fleet then blockading that port:

On the day previous, May 12, the Planter, which had for two weeks been engaged in removing guns from Cole’s Island to James Island, returned to Charleston. That night all the officers went ashore and slept in the city, leaving on board a crew of eight men, all colored. Among them was Robert Smalls, who was virtually the pilot of the boat, although he was only called a wheelman, because at that time no colored man could have, in fact, been made a pilot. For some time previous he had been watching for an opportunity to carry into execution a plan he had conceived to take the Planter to the Federal fleet. This, he saw, was about as good a chance as he would ever have to do so, and therefore he determined not to lose it. Consulting with the balance of the crew, Smalls found that they were willing to co-operate with him, although two of them afterwards concluded to remain behind. The design was hazardous in the extreme. The boat would have to pass beneath the guns of the forts in the harbor. Failure and detection would have been


Page 167certain death. Fearful was the venture, but it was made. The daring resolution had been formed, and under command of Robert Smalls, wood was taken aboard, steam was put on, and with her valuable cargo of guns and ammunition, intended for Fort Ripley, a new fortification just constructed in the harbor, about two o’clock in the morning the Planter silently moved off from her dock, steamed up to North Atlantic wharf, where Smalls’ wife and two children, together with four other women and one other child, and also three men, were waiting to embark. All these were taken on board, and then, at 3:25 A. M., May 13, the Planter started on her perilous adventure, carrying nine men, five women and three children. Passing Fort Johnson the Planter’s steam-whistle blew the usual salute and she proceeded down the bay. Approaching Fort Sumter, Smalls stood in the pilot-house leaning out of the window with his arms folded across his breast, after the manner of Captain Relay, the commander of the boat, and his head covered with the huge straw hat which Captain Relay commonly wore on such occasions.

The signal required to be given by all steamers passing out, was blown as coolly as if General Ripley was on board, going out on a tour of inspection. Sumter answered by signal, “all right,” and the Planter headed toward Morris Island, then occupied by Hatch’s light artillery, and passed beyond the range of Sumter’s guns before anybody suspected anything was wrong. When at last the Planter was obviously going toward the Federal fleet off the bar, Sumter signaled toward Morris Island to stop her. But it was too late. As the Planter approached the Federal fleet, a white flag was displayed, but this was not at first discovered, and the Federal steamers, supposing the Confederate rams were coming to attack them, stood out to deep water. But the ship Onward, Captain Nichols, which was not a steamer, remained, opened her ports, and was about to fire into the Planter, when she noticed the flag of truce. As soon as the vessels came within hailing distance of each other, the Planter’s errand was explained. Captain Nichols then boarded her, and Smalls delivered the Planter to him. From the Planter, Smalls was transferred to the Augusta, the flagship off the bar, under the command of Captain Parrott, by whom the Planter with Smalls and her crew were sent to Port Royal to Rear Admiral DuPont, then in command of the Southern squadron.


Page 168

Captain Parrott’s official letter to Flag Officer DuPont, and Admiral DuPont’s letter to the secretary of the navy are appended hereto.

Captain Smalls was soon afterwards ordered to Edisto to join the gunboat Crusader, Captain Rhind. He then proceeded in the Crusader, piloting her and followed by the Planter to Simmons’ Bluff, on Wadmalaw Sound, where a sharp battle was fought between these boats and a Confederate light battery and some infantry. The Confederates were driven out of their works, and the troops on the Planter landed and captured all the tents and provisions of the enemy. This occurred some time in June, 1862.

Captain Smalls continued to act as pilot on board the Planter and the Crusades, and as blockading pilot between Charleston and Beaufort. He made repeated trips up and along the rivers near the coast, pointing out and removing the torpedoes which he himself had assisted in sinking and putting in position. During these trips he was present in several fights at Adams’ Rum on the Dawho river, where the Planter was hotly and severely fired upon; also at Rockville, John’s Island, and other places. Afterwards he was ordered back to Port Royal, whence he piloted the fleet up Broad river to Pocotaligo, where a very severe battle ensued. Captain Smalls was the pilot of the monitor Keokuk, Captain Ryan, in the memorable attack on Fort Sumter, on the afternoon of the seventh of April, 1863. In this attack the Keokuk was struck ninety-six times, nineteen shots passing through her. She retired from the engagement only to sink on the next morning, near Light House Inlet. Captain Smalls left her just before she went down, and was taken with the remainder of the crew on board of the Ironside. The next day the fleet returned to Hilton Head.

When General Gillmore took command, Smalls became pilot in the quartermaster’s department in the expedition on Morris Island. He was then stationed as pilot of the Stono, where he remained until the United States troops took possession of the south end of Morris Island, when he was put in charge of Light House Inlet as pilot.

Upon one occasion, in December, 1863, while the Planter, then under command of Captain Nickerson, was sailing through Folly Island Creek, the Confederate batteries at Secessionville opened a very hot fire upon her. Captain Nickerson became demoralized, and left the pilot-house and secured himself in the coal-bunker. Smalls was on the deck, and finding


Page 169out that the captain had deserted his post, entered the pilot-house, took command of the boat, and carried her safely out of the reach of the guns. For this conduct he was promoted by order of General Gillmore, commanding the Department of the South, to the rank of captain, and was ordered to act as captain of the Planter, which was used as a supply-boat along the coast until the end of the war. In September, 1866, he carried his boat to Baltimore, where she was put out of commission and sold.

Besides the daring enterprise of Captain Smalls, in bringing out the Planter, his gallant conduct in rescuing her a second time, for which he was made captain of her, and his invaluable services to the army and navy as a pilot in waters where he perfectly knew not only every bank and bar but also where every torpedo was situated, there are still other elements to be considered in estimating the value of Captain Smalls’ services to the country. The Planter, on the thirteenth of May, 1862, was a most useful and important vessel to the enemy. The loss of her was a severe blow to the enemy’s service in carrying supplies and troops to different points of the harbor and river fortifications. At the very time of the seizure she had on board the armament for Fort Ripley. The Planter was taken by the government at a valuation of $9,000, one-half of which was paid to the captain and crew, the captain receiving one-third of one-half, or $1,500. Upon what principle the government claimed one-half of this capture cannot be divined, nor yet how this disposition could have been made of her without any judicial proceeding. That $9,000 was an absurdly low valuation for the Planter is abundantly shown by facts stated in the affidavits of Charles H. Campbell and E. M. Baldwin, which are appended. In addition thereto their sworn average valuation of the Planter was $67,500. The report of Montgomery Sicard, commander and inspector of ordinance, to Commodore Patterson, navy-yard commandant, shows that the cargo of the Planter, as raw material, was worth $3,043.05; that at anti-bellum prices it was worth $7,163.35, and at war prices $10,290.60. For this cargo the government has never paid one dollar. It is a severe comment on the justice as well as the boasted generosity of the government, that, whilst it had received $60,000 to $70,000 worth of property at the hands of Captain Smalls, it has paid him the trifling amount of $1,500, and for twenty years his gallant daring and distinguished and valuable services which he has rendered to the country have been wholly unrecognized.



Page 170

The following is the testimony in proof of the facts alleged in the bill:

REPORT OF FLAG OFFICER DUPONT.

FLAG-SHIP Wabash,
PORT ROYAL HARBOR, SOUTH CAROLINA, May 14, 1862.

        SIR: I inclose a copy of a report from Commander E. G. Parrott, brought here last night by the late rebel steam-tug Planter, in charge of an officer and crew from the Augusta. She was the armed dispatch and transportation steamer attached to the engineer department at Charleston, under Brigadier-General Ripley, whose barge, a short time since, was brought out to the blockading fleet by several contrabands.

The bringing out of this steamer, under all the circumstances, would have done credit to any one. At four o’clock in the morning, in the absence of the captain, who was on shore, she left her wharf close to the government office and headquarters, with Palmetto and Confederate flags flying, passed the successive forts, saluting as usual by blowing her steam-whistle. After getting beyond the range of the last gun, she quickly hauled down the rebel flags and hoisted a white one.

The Onward was the inside ship of the blockading fleet in the main channel, and was preparing to fire when her commander made out the white flag. The armament of the steamer is a 32-pounder, or pivot, and a fine 24-pounder howitzer. She has, besides, on her deck, four other guns, one 7-inch rifled, which were to have been taken the morning of the escape to the new fort on the middle ground. One of the four belonged to Fort Sumter, and had been struck in the rebel attack on the fort on the muzzle. Robert, the intelligent slave and pilot of the boat, who performed this bold feat so skillfully, informed me of this fact, presuming it would be a matter of interest to us to have possession of this gun. This man, Robert Smalls, is superior to any who have come into our lines–intelligent as many of them have been. His information has been most interesting, and portions of it of the utmost importance.

The steamer is quite an acquisition to the squadron by her good machinery and very light draught. The officer in charge brought her through Saint Helena Sound, and by the inland passage down Beaufort river, arriving here at ten o’clock last night.


Page 171

On board the steamer when she left Charleston were eight men, five women and three children.

I shall continue to employ Robert as a pilot on board the Planter for the inland waters, with which he appears to be very familiar. I do not know whether, in the views of the government, the vessel will be considered a prize; but, if so, I respectfully submit to the department the claims of this man Robert and his associates.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant.

S. F. DUPONT,
Flag Officer, Commanding, &c.

HON. GIDEON WELLES,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

UNITED STATES STEAMSHIP Augusta,
OFF CHARLESTON, May 13, 1862.

        SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the rebel armed steamer Planter was brought out to us this morning from Charleston, by eight contrabands, and delivered up to the squadron. Five colored women and three children are also on board. She carried one 32-pounder, and one 24-pounder howitzer, and has also on board four large guns, which she was engaged in transporting.

I send her to Port Royal at once, in order to take advantage of the present good weather. I send Charleston papers of the 12th, and the very intelligent contraband who was in charge will give you the information which he has brought off.

I have the honor to request that you will send back, as soon as convenient, the officer and crew sent on board.

I am respectfully, &c., your obedient servant,

E. G. PARROTT,
Commander, and Senior Officer present.

Flag Officer S. F. DUPONT,
Commanding South Atlantic Blockading Squadron.

WAR DEPARTMENT,

QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL’S OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C., January 3, 1883.

        SIR: Your communication of the twenty-sixth ultimo, in relation to your


Page 172services on the steamer Planter during the rebellion, and requesting copies of any letters from General Gillmore and other officers on the subject, has been received.

The records of this office show that the name of Robert Smalls is reported by Lieutenant-Colonel J. J. Elwell, Hilton Head, South Carolina, as a pilot, at $50 per month, from March 1, 1863, to September 30, 1863; and from October 1, 1863, to November 20, 1863, at $75 per month.

He was then transferred to Captain J. L. Kelly, assistant quartermaster, November 20, 1863, by whom he was reported as pilot from November 21 to November 30, 1863. He is reported by that officer in same capacity from December 1, 1863, until February 29, 1864, at $150 per month.

The name of Robert Smalls is then reported by Captain Kelly as captain of the steamer Planter, at $150 per month, from March 1, 1864, until May 15, 1864, when transferred to the quartermaster in Philadelphia.

He is reported by Captains C. D. Schmidt, G. R. Orme, W. W. VanNess, and John R. Jennings, assistant quartermasters at Philadelphia, as captain of the Planter, at $150 per month, from June 20, 1864, to December 16, 1864, when transferred to Captain J. L. Kelly, assistant quartermaster, Hilton Head, South Carolina, by whom he is reported to January 31, 1865.

From February 1, 1865, he is reported as a “contractor, victualing and manning the steamer Planter.

I respectfully inclose here with a copy of a letter, dated September 10, 1862, from Captain J. J. Elwell, chief quartermaster, Department of the South, in relation to the capture of the steamer Planter, which is the only one found on file in this office on the subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ALEX. J. PERRY.
Deputy Quartermaster-General, U. S. A.,
Acting Quartermaster-General.

HON. ROBERT SMALLS,
Member of Congress, Washington, D. C.

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF QUARTERMASTER,
HILTON HEAD, SOUTH CAROLINA, September 10, 1862.

        GENERAL: I have this day taken a transfer of the small steamer


Page 173Planter, of the navy. This is the Confederate steamer which Robert Smalls, a contraband, brought out of Charleston on the thirteenth of May last. The Navy Department, through Rear-Admiral DuPont, transfers her, and I receipt for her just as she was received from Charleston. Her machinery is not in very good order, and will require some repairs, etc.; but this I can have done here. She will be of much service to us, as we have comparatively no vessels of light draft. I shall have her employed at Fort Pulaski, where I am obliged to keep a steamer.

Please find enclosed a copy of the letter of Rear-Admiral DuPont to General Brannan in regard to the matter.

I am, general, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

J. J. ELWELL.
Captain and Assistant Quartermaster.

J. G. CHANDLER,
Deputy Quartermaster-General, U. S. A.

Personally appeared before me Charles H. Campbell, of the city, county, and State of New York, who, being by me duly sworn according to law, deposes and says as follows:

That during the year 1862, and from that time up to and including the year 1866, he was doing service in the department of the South, headquarters at Hilton Head, South Carolina; that he knows Hon. Robert Smalls, of Beaufort, South Carolina; that he was present when the steamer Planter, of the city of Charleston, came into Hilton Head on or about the thirteenth of May, 1862; that he went on board the Planter and made a personal examination of her condition, and found she was built of live oak and red cedar, and a first-class coastwise steamer, well furnished and complete in every respect; that he was, and is, well acquainted with the value of steamers, and has been engaged in the business of steamboating, both as captain and owner, for the last fifteen years; that the steamer Planter was fully worth, at the time she came into Hilton Head, the sum of $60,000 in cash for the boat alone; that the United States government was paying at that time for steamers of her class $400 per day under a charter-party agreement with the chief quartermaster at that place, the government finding both wood and coal; that he chartered to the United States government at or about


Page 174that time the steamer George Washington for $350 per day, which was only about half the size of the Planter, and not more than half her value; that he executed seven charters for steamers with the government, and also had a valuation set on them in case of loss, and the above statement is made in accordance with the prices paid by the government at Hilton Head and elsewhere during the time the Planter was in the service; that, at the close of the war, and while the Planter was laying up in Charleston and in a very bad condition from the nature of her past services, I was commissioned by her former owner, Captain Ferguson, to purchase the Planter from the government for the sum of $25,000, which sum I did offer, and the same was refused on the part of the government of the United States; that the steamer Planter was an extra strong built boat, her frame was live oak and red cedar, and built as strong as possible; she was built expressly for the coastwise trade, and she is running out of the city of Charleston to-day, and is considered by steamboat men one of the strongest and best built steamboats in the South.

CHARLES H. CAMPBELL.

Subscribed and sworn to before me the twenty-third day of March, 1876.
[OFFICIAL SEAL.]

JAMES A. TAIT,
Notary Public.

        Personally appeared before me, a notary public, E. M. Baldwin, of the city of Washington, District of Columbia, who was by me duly sworn according to law, deposes and says:

That during the year A. D., 1862, and afterwards was doing service for the Navy Department at Hilton Head, South Carolina, in the South Atlantic blockading squadron; that he was captain of the steam-tug Mercury, and was one of the first persons that boarded the Planter at Hilton Head on the thirteenth day of May, A. D., 1862.

That he has been for years, and is now, engaged in the steamboat business as an officer and owner, and is familiar with the prices paid for charters by the quartermaster at Hilton Head, and the value of steam boats generally at that time and since; that he examined the Planter when she came into said harbor at Hilton Head, and found her a first-class steamboat, built of live oak and red cedar, and her outfit and


Page 175findings complete in every particular; that she could have been readily sold at the time she arrived at Hilton Head for $75,000 in cash for the steamboat alone, or could have been chartered to the government for $400 per day, which at that rate would have paid the purchase money at the price aforesaid in less than one year, and would have left a large surplus to the purchaser; that she was considered by both the officers of the Army and Navy, on account of her light draft and great strength, by far the best steamer for that coast service in the Department of the South.

E. M. BALDWIN.

Sworn to before me and subscribed by him in my presence this twenty-fifth day of March, A. D., 1876.
[OFFICIAL SEAL.]

JAMES A. TAIT,
Notary Public.



Page 176

Illustration

Exhibit of the estimated values of certain ordnance and ordnance stores on board the Rebel steamer Planter, which came out of Charleston, South Carolina, to the United States blockading fleet on the fifteenth day of May, 1862. [Tabular Data]


Page 177

For the services Mr. Smalls ought to have been rewarded. The bill did not pass on the ground that there was no precedent for placing a civilian on the retired list of the navy, but some other reward should be granted. This record is preserved in full for the benefit of history.

After the Planter was put out of commission in 1866, Captain Smalls was elected a member of the State Constitutional convention. He was of course the hero of an important act in the drama of the late war, and his people always delighted to hear him tell, in his own style, the story of the capture. His zeal, good sense and pure disinterestedness, easily made him the idol of his people, whose faith in him was unbounded. Indeed, even to this day he is very popular. It was recently reported in the papers that two colored men, partisans of his, were talking on the corners. Said one to the other “I tell you, Smalls is the greatest man in the world.” The other said, “Y-e-s, he’s great, but not the greatest man.” “Pshaw, man,” replied the first speaker, “Who is greater than Smalls?” Said No. 2, “Why, Jesus Christ.” “O,” said No. 1, “Smalls is young yet.”

This, though it may be only a joke on the general, illustrates his popularity with the masses. At the general election in 1868, he was elected to a seat in the House of Representatives of the State and signalized his efforts by the introduction of the Homestead Act, and introduced and secured the passage of the Civil Rights bill. He continued in this capacity until Judge Wright was elected as associate judge of the Supreme Court of the State, when he was elected to fill his unexpired time in the Senate in 1870, and,


Page 178at the election in 1872 he was elected Senator, defeating General W. J. Whipper. His record here was brilliant, consistent, and indeed he led in all the most prominent measures. His debating qualities were tested, and he was acknowledged a superior and powerful talker. He was on the “Committee on Finance,” chairman of the “Committee on Public Printing,” and a member of many other leading committees. An old sketch says of him:

His character is made up of some of the best traits of human nature. He is generous, daring and true. His mental faculties are acute, sensitive and progressive. He is, in fine, one of the most distinguished of his race, and may justly be deemed one of its representative men.
        Taking much interest in the military affairs of his State, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Third regiment, South Carolina State militia, in 1873. Afterwards he was promoted to brigadier-general of the Second brigade, South Carolina militia, and later major-general of the Second division, South Carolina State militia, which position he held until the Democrats came into power, in 1877.

He was a delegate to the National Republican convention at Philadelphia, in 1872, which nominated Grant and Wilson, and also to the National Republican convention, which met at Cincinnati, in 1876, and nominated Hayes and Wheeler; also delegate to the National Republican convention which met at Chicago and nominated Blaine and Logan; was elected to the Forty-seventh and Forty-eighth Congresses, and was re-elected to the Forty-ninth Congress as a Republican, receiving 8,419 votes against 4,584 votes for Elliott, Democrat, and 235 votes scattering.


Page 179He was also a candidate at the last election but was counted out, not beaten, by the Democracy. He will contest the seat of the man holding the certificate. The general affiliates with the Baptist church, and is of a high spiritual tendency, and can be seen attending the Berean Baptist church, Washington, D. C., every Sabbath morning. His mother, wife and daughters are all members of the same faith.


Page 180

XIII.

HENRY OSSAWA TANNER, ESQ.

        A Rising Artist–Exhibitor of Paintings in the Art Galleries-Illustrator of Magazines.

        The story goes that many artists die in garrets, poor, desolate and friendless; that unborn generations do justice to their works and pay high prices for their master-pieces; the merest daubs become highest specimens of art, and people go into rhapsodies over those pictures which are no better in after days than they were in the days they were made. The poor artist, perhaps, died for want of a meal, and was unable to get the necessary comforts for the sustenance of life. But in these days of activity, enterprise and speculation, meritorious work of every character secures good prices, and the man who has lived to make a good thing need not go far to find a market.

Says a distinguished writer:

The true artist does not begin his picture or statue as one does the brick wall of a house, laying it out by metes and bounds and erecting it with line and plummet, according to fixed mathematical rules; but, in the dream of the artist or artisan, a beautiful dome with all its elegant finish, is instantly brought into being and spanned above his head. A statue or picture comes to him like a dream, and the secret of art power


Page 181is to hold those models in the memory until the faculties of constructiveness, form, size and order have wrought out and fixed the image in material form.


        This is very largely true of this young man. His whole nature and temperament bespeak the artist. While by no means he is affected in his manner, yet his thoughts are of the finest character, and are delicately expressed on the canvas before him. His taste is somewhat on the order of that of Landseer and Bonheur, who love animals. These artists did not look upon them simply as so many bones, with hide, horns and other necessary parts thrown in, but they delighted to portray their nature, habits, affections, symmetry and beauty. This is indeed an exaltation of their Maker and the dignifying of God on canvas, by employing their genius in portraying the characteristics mentioned.

These and other thoughts engage the mind of the true artist. Pictures are to them the solidifying of the imagination, an embellishment of an idea, a thought made tangible. Indeed a picture is the impression of one’s thoughts upon canvas in such a way that it leaves the thought fixed thereon and becomes a means of communication to others. Often so delicately expressed, and so very carefully presented, that pictures are sometimes said to almost speak, so faithfully do they convey the idea of the painter. It can be readily seen how, in ancient times, hieroglyphics were used for writing, and surely they were nothing more than pictures. Pictures are to the eyes, then, what the type is in the book to the same organ-a vehicle of thought, though of a much higher grade than writing.


Page 182

“Boss Tweed” used to say, “Print what you please about me but spare me from the pictures of Tom Nast.” So powerfully did his pictures portray the stealings and villanies of that New York alderman.

Abraham Lincoln told Nast, “transfer your talents to me and you can take my place.” It can readily be seen what power is in the hands of the man who controls the pen, pencil or brush.

This young man, then, will gain a widespread influence if he continues to supply illustrations to Harper Brothers, for the Harper’s Young People and for Judge Tourgee’s paper Our Continent as he has done. The firm of Harper & Brother does much to encourage colored men, and in employing Mr. Tanner, deserves here to be mentioned.

His services rendered in this capacity for so old and well established a firm, show that he is a talented young man and that brains will win every time. Young men need not mope around, smoking cigars, carousing, and whining about prejudice and proscription. Let them go to work; let them do something.

Mr. Tanner is the son of the well known Rev. B. T. Tanner, D. D., and has his father’s talent and progressiveness. He was born June 21, 1859, at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. His school advantages have been good, and he is fairly fitted for life’s work. He studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he has lived for many years. His pictures take high rank. No favoritism is shown in the selection to enter the academies and galleries of this country. Each


Page 183specimen must pass the committee of eminent men, who are art critics of long standing. This is stated lest many might think he is patronized by rich men or through the influence of his father, or because some one takes pity on him, trying to help a colored man to rise. No! It is merit; let that be understood at once. Perseverance, pluck and brains is any young man’s capital. Let him use them.

He has exhibited pictures, as has been said, at several galleries. He exhibited “The Lions at Home” in 1885, and “Back from the Beach” in 1886, at the National Academy of Design and at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. This first named picture was sold at the National Academy of Design, New York City. He also exhibited “Dusty Road” at the Lydia Art gallery, at Chicago, where it was sold. Exhibited picture “The Elk Attacked by Wolves” at the International Exposition at New Orleans, in the department for the colored people. Being commissioner from Kentucky, I remember this picture very well. It attracted my attention at the time on account of its size and naturalness. He has also exhibited pictures at Washington and Louisville. At the last named place he exhibited “Point Judith.” This picture I also remember and was very much pleased with it, though I did not know at the time that it was the work of a colored artist.

He is constantly engaged in furnishing work upon special orders. I visited his gallery and was shown quite a number of his pictures; especially was I pleased with one of a lion in his den, where it was shown that he was eating


Page 184bloody meat. It was truly life-like and the lion’s head with all its fierceness, seemed so natural that one would almost feel like looking toward the door for egress. The bloody meat, as it lay before him, seemed as if it lay upon the floor. Let me explain here that the picture was out of its frame and was standing upon its edge upon the floor, leaning against the easel. The lion’s massive paw, seemed as if he were about to lift it and reach out for the meat, just before him.

Indeed, it was true and life-like as I have said. This artist has been encouraged by many of the leading men of his profession in the city, and his future seems brilliant.

I earnestly hope that those of our race who deal in pictures will not forget to encourage such men as Mr. Tanner. Mention is made of him not simply that the book might be filled and space employed, but that knowledge of him may extend throughout the country and he be encouraged by those who read of his ability. Be satisfied that the statements here made are true and his work as described.


Page 185

XIV.

REV. ANDREW HEATH.

        A Minister of the Gospel, Eminent for his Piety.

        REV. ANDREW HEATH, after a long illness, has gone where there is neither sorrow, pain nor death. He was born in Henderson county, Kentucky, February 20, 1832, and died February 19, 1887, at the age of fifty-five years. At an early period in life he became a Christian, and spent forty of the best years of his life in working for the Master. In 1851 he was married to Miss Lucy Hamilton, who has worked bravely by his side. In 1867 a council, composed of Revs. Henry Adams, William Troy, R. DeBaptiste, R. T. W. James and Professor Green, ordained him to the Gospel ministry. In 1868 he became assistant pastor of Fifth Street Baptist church, Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1872, on the death of Rev. Henry Adams, became its pastor. The first Baptist convention ever held in the State, in 1863, enrolled him as a member, and in all the years since he has never withheld his hand from any work that would advance the interest of the race and the denomination. He has served the General Association in being a member of the Executive board and chairman of the same about sixteen years. During his pastorate


Page 186about fifteen hundred persons have been baptized by him. We may safely say that no minister in the State held a higher place in the estimation of the people who knew him. Every charitable cause found a ready helper in him, the orphans a father and the Christian church a true leader. His character was pure; his reputation never received a blur in all the years of his ministry.

His death, though he had been ill a long time, was unexpected and created general and profound regret. The church appointed the assistant pastor, Rev. J. H. Frank, Deacons Thomas Parker, Shelton Guest, Q. B. Jones, Moses Lawson, Horace Crutcher, R. M. Hightower, R. Hamilton, and Messrs. William H. Steward, W. L. Gibson and George W. Talbott a committee to arrange for the funeral, and Mt. Moriah Lodge, F. and A. Masons, appointed Messrs. E. W. Marshall, Felix Sweeney, Edward Caldwell, Matthew Goodall and Enoch Maney. During Saturday, Sunday and Monday, thousands of people who had admired this noble man in life called at his late residence to view his remains and tender sympathy to the bereaved family. Sunday at the church was a sad day. The heavily draped building was a silent reminder of the mournful event. Monday morning the several meetings of the city pastors and the students of the State University passed suitable resolutions and agreed to attend the funeral services in a body.

Tuesday morning, long before the hour for the opening of the church, the street was literally packed with a mass of humanity, and when the doors were opened the church was instantly filled. So eager were the people to witness


Page 187the ceremony that hundreds stood patiently for hours. While this interest was being shown at the church, sad and heartrending scenes were occurring in the home of sorrow, from which his body was soon to be borne. A few minutes before eleven o’clock the funeral cortege started for the church. So dense was the crowd that it was almost impossible to force an entrance. The funeral requiem on the great organ, in deep and solemn tones, announced the procession. No evidence more convincing of the love and esteem of this people for their lamented pastor could have been given than the spontaneous and unfeigned expressions of grief when the body entered the church in charge of the following pall-bearers: Revs. E. P. Marrs, A. Stratton and W. P. Churchill, Messrs. Q. B. Jones, Wm. Morton, Shelton Guest, Isaac Morton and Willis Adams. About two hundred ministers, representing the several ministers’ meetings and associations, were present. The white Baptist clergy being represented by Rev. J. A. Broadus, J. P. Boyce and W. H. Whitsitt of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, and Revs. T. T. Eaton, H. Allen Tupper, C. M. Thompson and A. C. Caperton; also the presence of a large number of ministers from abroad, including Revs. G. W. Bowling of Elizabethtown; E. J. Anderson of Georgtown; S. P. Young of Lexington; E. Evans of Bowling Green; M. Allen of Shelbyville; R. Reynolds of Pee Wee Valley; M. Bassett of New Albany, Indiana; Willis Johnson of Bloomfield; J. Jacobs of Harrodscreek; J. W. Carr of San Antonio, Texas; Wm. Miller of Jacksonville, Indiana; J. M. Washington of Indianapolis, Indiana; and B. T. Thomas of Clarksville, Tennessee. The large audience,


Page 188despite the uncomfortable surroundings, listened attentively and eagerly. Rev. J. H. Frank opened the services with a short introductory address, paying a deserved tribute to the deceased. Rev. H. Allen Tupper, pastor of Broadway Baptist church, read the favored hymn: “Is my name written there?” which was sung with much feeling by the choir of the church; Professor J. M. Maxwell read an appropriate scripture lesson and Rev. Lee Y. Evans, pastor of Quinn chapel, offered a fervent prayer.

The old familiar hymn–”Why Should We Start and Fear to Die?”–was lined by Rev. G. E. Scott, pastor of Zion Baptist church.

Resolutions of different organizations and telegrams of regret from friends and fellow ministers were read by Revs. C. H. Parrish, S. P. Young, R. Harper and Mr. William H. Nelson.

Mr. M. Lawson made a statement expressing the views of the deceased as related to him a few weeks prior to his death, bearing expressly upon the relative importance of masonry and the church.

Rev. William J. Simmons, D. D., then preached the funeral sermon from Acts, 20: 24-27. “But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God. And now behold, I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more. Wherefore I take you to record this day, that I am pure from


Page 189the blood of all men. For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God.”

The sermon was a warm tribute to the memory of a good minister of Jesus Christ and found a response in the heart of every person present.

At the close of the sermon, remarks were made by Revs. G. W. Ward and A. Barry by request of the family, and by Revs. A. C. Caperton repesenting the Baptist Ministers’ meeting (white), by Rev. C. C. Bates, representing the Executive Board, and Rev. D. A. Gaddie representing the General Association.

Rev. T. T. Eaton, pastor of the Walnut Street Baptist church, gave out the hymn “Asleep in Jesus.”

When the hymn was concluded the benediction was announced by Rev. Spencer Snell, pastor of the Plymouth Congregational church.

The floral offerings, which were profuse and beautiful, were removed from the casket and the march for the cemetery begun.

The streets were lined with people who, being unable to get into the church, waited patiently to pay the last tribute of respect to a faithful minister.

The procession, which was as large as ever followed a man to his last resting place in this city, reached the cemetery about four o’clock. The funeral service of the Masonic fraternity was rendered by William H. Steward, the Grand Master of the State, in the presence of an immense number of people, when the body was placed in the vault.

The following resolutions were passed by the church of


Page 190which he had been pastor and by the Ministers’ and Deacons’ conference of this city.

CHURCH RESOLUTIONS.

WHEREAS, It has pleased the Ruler of the universe, the great Head of the church, the Disposer of all things, to call, February 19, in the year of our Lord, 1887, at 7:53 A. M., our dearly beloved and worthy pastor, the most faithful and wonderfully wrought workman of the gospel ministry of our community, and

WHEREAS, But a few have, with such exemplary fidelity, exerted an influence for good in the Master’s vineyard. A man of fair literary attainments, acquired under many disadvantages, strong, spiritual inclinations, sound and conservative doctrine, ardent and unostentatious in piety, spotless in character, unblemished in reputation, dignified in appearance and “faithful in his house;” therefore be it

Resolved, That we, the members of the Fifth Street Baptist church, believe he was truly a bishop of the description of 1st Timothy 3, “blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach; not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre, but patient, not a brawler, not covetous; one that ruled well his own house, not lifted up with pride and having a good report of them which are without.” The church has indeed lost a good pastor, the Sunday school a strong support, his wife a kind husband, the children a devoted father, the widows and orphans a friend, the poor and needy a comforter, and missions an advocate. We mourn his death yet it is a consolation to know that our great loss is his eternal gain. We extend our sympathy to the bereaved family and a helping hand in time of need.

Resolved, That in token of our respect and esteem, the church be draped in mourning for thirty days, and a copy of these resolutions be presented to the stricken family, spread upon the records of the church and published in the city papers.

JOHN H. FRANK,

GEORGE W. TALBOTT,

Q. B. JONES,

MOSES LAWSON,

WILLIAM H. STEWARD.
Committee.



Page 191

MINISTERS’ AND DEACONS’ CONFERENCE.

The Fifth Street church and the Baptist denomination of this vicinity and State have met with a great loss in the death of Rev. Andrew Heath, which occurred in this city the nineteenth inst. We feel desirous of expressing ourselves as follows:

He was a devout Christian for nearly forty years, connected with the General Association since its origin, for fourteen years pastor of the Fifth Street Baptist church of this city and also a former member and ex-chairman of the Executive Board of the General Association. He has long resided in our midst, and here in this city achieved his honorable and noble success as a Christian pastor. With comparatively limited means and opportunity, he has woven his name into the inmost soul of this community. With a liberal heart he has promoted all the true interest of society and religion. A noble, honest and true man, an humble and consistent Christian has fallen. His counsel, kind and fair; integrity, clear; and fidelity, beyond reproach. In his home he was the model Christian, husband and father. Therefore be it

Resolved, That we sincerely deplore his death, for in it we have lost a true minister and exemplary Christian.

That in honor of his great worth, a memorial meeting be held at Fifth Street church next Sunday afternoon at three o’clock; that said meeting include all the ministers of the city, and such visiting ministers as may be present, of all denominations.

That our fullest and tenderest sympathies are hereby extended to his afflicted family and church.

That we attend his funeral in a body.

That we wear a memorial badge for thirty days.

That these resolutions be sent to the family, spread upon our minutes and published in the city papers.

D. A. GADDIE,

T. M. FALKNER,

W. JOHNSON,

G. W. WARD,

G. E. SCOTT,

J. W. LEWIS,

C. H. PARRISH, Secretary.
Committee.



Page 192

Resolutions were also passed by the choir of the Fifth Street Baptist church, and by the State University, of which he was a former pupil, by the Lexington ministers and deacons in assembled meeting, by the Junior class of the State University, of which a daughter is a member, and by the Louisville Ministerial Association, composed of brethren of other denominations.

Telegrams were received from the following persons expressing grief and sympathy: E. W. Green, Maysville, Kentucky; G. W. Dupee, Paducah, Kentucky; R. Bassett, Indianapolis, Indiana; J. K. Polk, Versailles, Kentucky; O. Durrett, Clinton, Kentucky; Mrs. A. V. Nelson, Lexington, Kentucky; R. H. L. Mitchem, Springfield, Kentucky; James Allensworth, Hopkinsville, Kentucky; Peter Lewis, Louisville, Kentucky; M. Harding, Owensboro, Kentucky. All of these testified to his high standing as a Christian gentleman, a man of many virtues, of varied graces, and who seemed to have no enemies. Sunday, February 27, the memorial services, in honor of Rev. A. Heath, at Fifth street, were held and largely attended.

Rev. D. A. Gaddie presided and made the introductory address. The choir sang several appropriate anthems and hymns. Rev. W. J. Simmons, D. D., read the Scripture lessons. Revs. B. Taylor and J. Mitchell offered prayer; Rev. G. W. Ward portrayed him “as a preacher,” and Rev. E. P. Marrs, “as a pastor.”

Remarks were made by Revs. B. Taylor, M. F. Robinson, R. Hatchett, J. W. Lewis, and Messrs. Thomas Parker, Q. B. Jones, Albert Mack and Albert White. At the conclusion of the addresses, a committee, which had been previously


Page 193appointed, submitted a tribute of respect which was approved as the sentiment of the meeting.

A touching tribute to this truly good man is given by J. C. Corbin, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, who was an associate with Elder Heath in his early life. He writes: “Elder Heath was modest, teachable and unassuming; that he succeeded was not due to extraordinary gifts of eloquence, scholarship or other talents. It must have been the result of his earnest piety, pure character and entire consecration to the work of his ministry. These secured for him the favor of Almighty God.”

He was the “architect of his own fortune,” and now he rests from his labors and his works do follow him.

“Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.”

I might have said more in way of eulogy from my own standpoint, but I felt that his death brought forth the testimony sufficient to show how he lived, and this chorus of praise is far more telling than my own feeble utterances.


Page 194

XV.

H. C. SMITH, ESQ.

        Prominent Editor–First-class Musician–Deputy Oil Inspector of Ohio–Song Writer–Leader of Bands–Cornetist.

        MR. SMITH is what we might call a self-made man, as it is largely through his own energies that he has reached his present station in life; but he says he owes his education and training to the devotion of a faithful mother, assisted by his sister. He was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia, January 20, 1863. His parents were named John and Sarah Smith. It was twenty-eight days after the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation by “Old Abe.” He went to Cleveland with his widowed mother in 1865 or 1866, and there his mother and sister toiled very hard to educate him. After leaving the grammar schools of Cleveland, with the aid of his cornet, which he had learned to play without a teacher, having secured the rudiments of his musical education in the schools of Cleveland, he made much of the money so earned, by which he secured advantages. He was constantly employed in playing in orchestras and brass bands; by this means also he was able to assist in the support of his mother and sister. He attended the Cleveland Central


Illustration

H. C. SMITH.


Page 195High School, entering in 1878, and finished a four years course of what was known as the Latin and English course. In 1882, while at the high school, he corresponded for papers in Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Springfield; and at different times during the last year and a half he wrote for a weekly paper called the Cleveland Sun–a white journal. After leaving school he followed music as a profession for about a year and a half, directing a colored band and orchestral and vocal organization, at different times. The summers of 1881 and 1882, he spent at Lakewood, Chautauqua Lake, New York, playing the cornet in the orchestra. He was director of the Amphion male quartet; director of Freeman and Boston’s orchestra, a well known organization in the northern part of Ohio, for two or three years; was president and director of the First M. E. and Central High School orchestras–white organizations, and leader of the famous Excelsior reed band of the city of Cleveland, and captain of several athletic organizations, the members of which were white persons, with the exception of himself. While at High School, in August, 1883, he was one of a company of four that started the Cleveland Gazette. He was general manager and editor, having a one-fourth interest in the venture. He soon bought out each of his partners and is now sole proprietor. His views, as expressed in the Gazette, are clear, concise and easily comprehended. He never fails to speak most earnestly for the race and its representatives.

Having been brought up in the mixed schools of the city, he has always antagonized the color line in the most fearless manner. Says Professor W. S. Scarborough:


Page 196Mr. Smith has always wielded a fearless and able pen for right and truth. He has fought squarely in behalf of his race, demanding recognition wherever denied. No other proof of this is needed than the Gazette itself; though at times he has been severely criticised, he has never wavered from what he considered his duty. He believes that the Republican party can serve best the interests of the Negro, and thereupon he becomes its able and active defender. He also believes that mixed schools are best for all concerned, and especially for the Negro, as separate schools simply imply race prejudice and race inferiority, and, therefore, he becomes a relentless antagonist to the color line in the schools.

Read what that eminent colored divine, Rev. J. W. Gazaway of Ohio and Indiana, has to say of

THE CLEVELAND GAZETTE.

The most healthful signs of life and a highly useful career are indicated in the existence of the above named paper. That it is a paper of brain and culture cannot be doubted when the fact is remembered that in its columns are found communications from the wisest and best minds of our race. It is a paper for the people it represents, and it can be relied on as a friend of every colored man, though his face may be of ebony hue. The Gazette is a practical demonstration of what can be done by the young men of our race. The editor is a young man, who, by dint of industry and economy and fair dealing, has succeeded in giving to the colored people of Ohio and the country a paper worthy the patronage of all. Having been a reader of the Gazette since its first appearance, and having watched its course, I feel that, in justice to the paper, the editor and the race, I should urge upon the people generally to support the paper that is practically identified with the colored people, and is in harmony with the interests and success of all without regard to complexion.


        His paper is now in its fourth year, and is one of the newsiest and most successful in the United States. He claims that it is not only paying its way but is actually making money; this can be said of but few colored journals


Page 197in the United States, and marks his paper as popular and in demand. He has given constant attention to the questions which have arisen in Ohio. Besides being editor of this prominent journal, which has steadily assumed a powerful interest and influence, he is one of the two colored clerks who secured appointments in the city, having been appointed by a non-partisan board of electors; his appointment in the Thirteenth ward was a compliment to his journal, to himself and a recognition of his worth. Through the agency of Governor Foraker he was also appointed Deputy State Oil Inspector at a handsome salary. He not only is fitted to fill this position but he is thereby recognized as one of the factors in holding the party together, and he is especially deserving of it because of the noble manner in which he championed Governor Foraker’s cause in the canvass. No other colored man holds a similar position in the State, and never has held such.

It should be mentioned here that as a musician he has taken very high rank, as has been shown by what has been written above. He has written several songs which are deservedly popular and can be found upon the pianos of thousands of homes. Among the most popular is the song, “Be true, bright eyes.”

He is one of whom the race is justly proud and from whom we shall hear much in the future. Already he has been mentioned as a possible candidate for legislative honors, and he will be deserving of all the honors that might be thrust upon him. He is by no means one of those who seek to reap that which he has not sown, but is modest and retiring. His intellectual qualities, his goodness


Page 198of heart and generous nature always bring him to the front among his friends, who are loyal and true to him. He is manly and in every way shows his superiority over the common man. May he continue to prosper in worldly goods and honors as he is now prospering. He has attained some wealth and delights to use it as a slight contribution to the loved ones at home, his mother and sister, who labored so hard to give him the opportunities to make the most of himself.


Page 199

XVI.

REV. JOHN BUNYAN REEVE, A. B., D. D.

        Distinguished Presbyterian Divine–Professor of Howard University, Theological Department.

        IN Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, lives one of the oldest and most respected Presbyterian preachers in America. One whose virtues and long life of devotion to the precious Gospel are known far and wide. A worthy nobleman of feeling so tender and sympathetic, that while he ever listens to you with deep and lasting interest, it pains you to see how keenly a tale of sorrow affects him. He is a man of large physique, commanding stature, and impresses one as a gentleman of strong convictions and earnest purpose.

He was born October 29, 1831, at Mattatuck, Suffolk county, New York. His parents and grandparents had long lived in that neighborhood, and in this place he had his home until he was seventeen years of age. He attended district schools while young, and worked on a farm. From 1848 till 1852 or 1853, he lived and worked in the State of New York, during which time he became a member of the Shiloh Presbyterian church, during the pastorate of the Rev. J. W. C. Pennington, D. D. His parents were


Page 200Presbyterians, and his mother had early dedicated him to the ministry. A mother’s prayers, personal conviction, and the pastor’s counsel prevailed over him, and in 1853, after having taught school for a few months at New Tower, Long Island, and having been received under the care of the Third Presbytery of New York city, as a candidate for the Gospel ministry, he entered the preparatory department of the New York Central College, then at McGawsville, New York, where he spent one year in the preparatory and graduated from the college department in June, 1858. He then entered in September, 1858, the Union Theological Seminary of New York city, from which he was graduated in April, 1861, and the same month was licensed to preach the Gospel by the Third Presbytery of New York city, and was then dismissed to the Fourth Presbytery of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. June 14, 1861, he was ordained by the latter body and installed pastor of the Lombard Street Central Presbyterian church, Philadelphia, where he remained until September, 1871. Then he resigned his pastorate to accept the invitation of General O. O. Howard, and the appointment of the American Missionary Association, to organize a theological department in Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia and teach therein.

He remained in this work, faithfully serving the institution until June, 1875, when he resigned to accept a recall to the pastorate in Philadelphia. He was reinstalled pastor of this church in September, 1875, where a kind Providence still permits him to serve.

He has never sought any high honors, and with extreme


Page 201modesty and dignified deportment, he has gone through life thinking that his “highest honor was that of having had Godly parents; the Rev. Dr. Pennington, when in his prime, as the pastor and guide of his youth, and the late Hon. William E. Dodge and the Rev. Asa D. Smith, D. D., then his pastor, and later president of Dartmouth College, for his patrons when a poor student.” He was made moderator of the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1865, and a commissioner to several assemblies the same year.

His talents being of such a high order, his personal popularity so well known, and the purity of his life so marked, that Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania, in 1870, honored herself in conferring upon him the degree of D. D. He is beloved by his congregation, which he has served for many years, and with whom it is presumed he will end his labors and go to the haven of rest prepared for the people of God; and his lasting influeuce over the lives of those to whom he has ministered will be as a grateful incense ascending to God.


Page 202

XVII.

THOMAS J. BOWERS.

        The American “Mario,” Tenor Vocalist.

        THE American “Mario” was born in Philadelphia in 1836. In childhood he was very fond of music, and exhibited rare talent in that direction. His father, a man of considerable intelligence, and filled with anxiety to have his children learn this fine accomplishment procured a piano and a competent instructor for his oldest son, John C. Bowers, thinking if he became proficient he should teach the others. This purpose was accomplished, and our subject was instructed by his brother to perform upon the piano forte and on the organ. In a short time he became a master of the art and succeeded his brother as organist of St. Thomas church, in Philadelphia. He was restricted from becoming a public performer for a long time because of his parents. As a tenor vocalist he attracted the attention and excited the admiration of many persons. His voice was extraordinary in its power, mellowness and sweetness. At Samson Street Hall, in Philadelphia, in 1854, he was induced to appear with the Black Swan as her pupil. It was not on this occasion that he made his fame, yet the Press of Philadelphia spoke of his


Page 203performance in flattering terms and called for a repetition of the concert. After this repetition, a critic, commenting upon the voice of Mr. Bowers, styled him the “Colored Mario.” Colonel Woods, once manager of the Cincinnati museum, hearing of the remarkable singing qualities of Mr. Bowers, came to Philadelphia to hear him. He was delighted and entered into an engagement with him to make a concert tour of New York and the Canadas. Mr. Bowers was accompanied by Miss Sarah Taylor Greenfield, the famous songstress. They were highly applauded, and met with great success wherever they appeared. During this tour, Colonel Wood urged that he should appear under the name of “Indian Mario,” and again under that of “African Mario.” He hesitated for quite a while before he would accept either, but at last he consented to that of “Mario.” As a lover of his race, Mr. Bowers engaged in public performances more for the purpose of encouraging colored persons to take rank in music with the more highly cultured of the fairer race, than for that of making a display of his rare abilities, also for the enjoyment which he derived from it. Writing to a friend, he says:

What induced me more than anything else to appear in public was to give the lie to Negro serenaders (minstrels), and to show to the world that colored men and women could sing classical music as well as members of the other race, by whom they had been so terribly villified.


        A love of filthy lucre nor his care for fame ever caused him to yield to that vulgar prejudice that compelled the colored persons to take back seats or go to the galleries.


Page 204If they did not receive the same treatment as the whites he refused so sing, which was manly to say the least. He had an occasion to take this step and stood firm, and thereby broke down the prejudice that many encourage.

Mr. Bowers sang in many of the States, and even invaded the slavery cursed regions of Maryland. Many very favorable comments had he from different papers. He was ranked among the most cultured of his day, and as a tenor vocalist surpassed all of his contemporaries. As Mr. Bowers is dead, and we were unable to secure material for this sketch, we are largely indebted to ‘Music and Some Highly Musical People’ for much of the above, and also for permission from the author to use the same.


Page 205

XVIII.

REV. NICHOLAS FRANKLIN ROBERTS, A. B., A. M.

        Professor of Mathematics–President of the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina–Moderator of 100,000 Colored Baptists.

        AMONG the rising young men of the old “Tar Heel State” is the one whose name is at the head of this article. He has reflected honor upon the State that gave him birth; he is a young man who has risen from the drudgery of farm life to the prominence of a professor in a university, and is therefore a representative of his people. There are many older persons, of course, who might be selected, and some may bring the charge of “young men” against some of the characters in this book, but if in early life they have placed themselves at the head of great enterprises, it seems fitting that they should be noticed for the encouragement of others who come behind them. Then the depths from which some people rise, and the heights to which they climb, is worthy of notice. Now is there reason for the farmer boy who reads this sketch to be discouraged because he has hard work, plowing, cutting and hauling wood, caring for the pigs, feeding the cows, and other laborious work? It seems not to me. The advantages of a farm life are many, though there may be rough spots and


Page 206difficult passages. Indeed, the days of a farmer are well spent in being influenced by nature and thus being led up to nature’s God. Boys in the country have their minds measurably kept pure and untainted by the things that destroy the purity of the mind, and many of these “young men” referred to are mentioned as a means of encouragement to those who still are behind in the race of life.

He was born near Seaboard, North Hampton county, North Carolina, October 13, 1849. At the age of twelve years he relates that he had a thirst for learning, which made him apply himself to his books very diligently. He would study very late at night, often all night. The young man was especially apt with figures, easily leading the other boys, with whom he was associated, in all efforts at mathematical calculation. With ease every problem was solved by him in common school mathematics before he ever attended school. His mathematical mind was the subject of much comment, and he has only accomplished in that sphere what was prophesied for him. October 10, 1871, he entered Shaw University, then known as the Shaw Collegiate Institute. Here he pursued an eminently satisfactory life, entering the lowest grade and passing up the line through a college course, eliciting the praise and commendation of the president and faculty. May, 1878, he graduated with much honor and received the applause of his fellow-students and the congratulations of his friends.

Having been converted March, 1872, and feeling a call to the ministry, he was ordained to the work of a gospel minister May 20, 1877. Rev. Roberts’ ability as a mathematician


Page 207has steadily promoted him in this department of educational work, and the professorship of mathematics has been held by him in his alma mater ever since graduation, except one year when he labored as general missionary for North Carolina, under the auspices of the American Baptist Home Mission Society of New York, and the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina. God has thus given him an extended field of usefulness where he might develop into a powerful man. Blount Street Baptist church, Raleigh, North Carolina, called for him to serve them as their pastor on July 2, 1882. This pastoral work has been done in connection with his work as professor, and they have been of mutual help to each other. There is great love existing between the pastor and the people, and the church has prospered, adding year by year to their numbers “such as shall be saved.” As a Sabboth-school worker, earnestness and love to God has characterized his life. From 1873 to 1883, a period of ten consecutive years, he has held the position of president of the State Sunday School convention, and in October, 1885, he was unanimously elected president of the State Baptist convention, which position he now holds, esteemed by all the brethren of the State. His position makes him the representative of 100,000 colored Baptists, and as such he is recognized and respected. His position in the university gives him prestige among the educated, and his indorsement by the convention shows the people are in favor of education.


Page 208

XIX.

HON. THEOPHILE T. ALLAIN.

        State Senator of Louisiana–Agitator of Educational Measures and Internal Improvements–Contractor for Repairing Levees.

        AFTER the battle at Salamis, the generals of the different Greek states met in council to vote to each other prizes for distinguished individual merit. Were the task mine to pick from the ranks of Louisiana’s sons those who have in the face of opposition towered head and shoulders above their fellow men, shedding lustre on the name of the sons of Ham, the subject of my sketch would take front rank. Having passed through forty-one years of the most eventful period of the Nation’s history, it is but natural that he should have from boyhood thought on and traced the struggles to which the race has been subject, and that his heart would be stirred with that patriotic devotion which sacrifices luxurious idleness on the shrine of duty. Opposition calls forth resistance, and it may be well that the Africo-American has prejudice to fight, otherwise Mr. Allain, with scores of other noble men, would be quietly performing personal duties, letting the world surge in at their windows, but never going out to meet it. October 1, 1846, on the Australian Plantation


Illustration

T. T. ALLAIN


Page 209Parish of West Baton Rouge, was born Theophile, a boy who evinced at an early age those signs which point to future usefulness. His mother, “a pretty brown woman,” possessing all the taste and attractions found among those of more fortunate circumstances than falls to the lot of a slave, attracted the attention and affection of her master, a millionaire of culture, who was the father of this son. Mr. Sosthene Allain, in the prime of life, was surrounded by all the comforts which taste and a princely income can give. Setting at naught the sentiments of the land, he shared these comforts with the mother and his dear “Soulouque,” often refusing to take his meals unless the boy ate with him. Mr. Allain always spent his summers North or in Europe, but not without taking Theophile, who received the same accommodations. When he was ten years old his father, who was in Paris, sent for him, and he was sent in charge of Madam Boudousquie, an accomplished actress, who treated him with love and kindness. When the ship landed at Havre, ten thousand people were there to welcome the Emperor Soulouque of Hayti, but instead it was the “Soulouque” of our sketch. These yearly visits, the contact with other customs, was a more liberal education to the observing boy than could have been acquired by years of application to books. He was present at the christening of the Prince Imperial at the church of Notre Dame de Paris, attended bathing school and accompanied his father everywhere he went. Returning to America he entered school in 1859 under Professor Abadie, New Orleans, Louisiana, and in 1868 entered a private school in New Brunswick, New Jersey. In 1869


Page 210he returned home and went into the grocery business in West Baton Rouge and Iberville and remained until 1873, when he invested largely in sugar and rice cultivation. Genius in one man may run in the line of literature, in another, art, but in this man business seems to be the ruling passion. For twenty years he has been a successful shipper of sugar, syrup, molasses and rice, and every day brings him in business contact with the leading commercial men of the South. Every Exchange in the city of New Orleans is open to him. In 1883 the total crop on his plantation was estimated at four hundred barrels of syrup. Although living in competency, his sympathies are all with the laboring class. At the Sugar Planters’ convention which met in New Orleans, August 20, 1884, a resolution was offered for the appointment of a committee to collect “data as to the cost of land, labor, food, stock, fuel, etc., with the idea of producing cheaper sugar. Hon. Allain opposed it on the ground that it meant simply the cutting down of wages for the laborer.” At another time in the Legislature, he said: “I tell you, gentlemen, that when you cultivate any spirit of animosity between the tillers of the soil on one hand and the proprietors on the other, you cut your own throats. Nature and nature’s God have so arranged it, that labor and capital are mutually dependent upon each other.” Besides this business he is giving work to more laborers than any colored man in the “public works of the country,” being under bond and contract with the State of Louisiana to put up within three years one hundred and fifty thousand yards of levee. When the levees of the Mississippi were in a deplorable


Page 211condition, the Republican Executive and Financial committee of the Third Congressional District of Louisiana, of which Hon. L. A. Martinet was secretary, met April 8, 1882, and adopted the following resolutions. We give the full statement and all the immediate outgrowth thereof. Mr. Allain counts the following as the champion record of his life. He desires this record handed down to his children.

RECORD.

The credentials below were furnished him in Louisiana, and he went to Washington, District of Columbia, and appeared before the committee on commerce:

Mr. Allain, upon being introduced by the Hon. R. L. Gibson of Louisiana, presented to the committee the following credentials:

Resolved, That Hons. T. T. Allain and George Drury be appointed a committee to proceed to Washington to lay before the President and those in authority, the deplorable condition of the Mississippi levees, and urge the necessity on the part of the National Government of taking early action toward building and maintaining the same, and also to ask a continuance of government aid to the sufferers from the present overflow.

Resolved further, That the said committee is hereby authorized to present to the President the condition of political affairs in this State, so far as the Third Congressional district is concerned.


NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, April 8, 1882.

To all whom it may concern:

I hereby certify that the foregoing is a true copy of resolutions adopted at a meeting of the executive and finance committee of the Third Congressional district of this State, held in this city March 27, 1882.

L. A. MARTINET,
Secretary Republican Executive and Finance Committee,
Third Congressional District, Louisiana.



Page 212

NEW ORLEANS, April 5, 1882.

To the honorable Senators and Representatives in Congress from the State of Louisiana:

The undersigned Republicans and Federal officials here regard with great pleasure the selection and appointment of Hon. T. T. Allain, a sugar planter, and representative Republican of the parish of Iberville, by the Republican committee of the Third Congressional district of Louisiana, to proceed to Washington, District of Columbia, and endeavor to enlist the services of our Representatives and Senators and the National administration for the purpose of rebuilding and maintaining of the levees of the Mississippi river by the National Government, and we commend him to the attention of the authorities, and trust his mission may be eminently successful.

Very respectfully,

DON. A. PARDEE.

EDWARD C. BILLINGS.

A. J. DUMONT.

T. B. STAMP.

M. V. DAVIS.

A. S. BADGER.

JACK WHARTON.

P. B. S. PINCHBACK.

SAM’L WAKEFIELD.

JAMES LEWIS.

L. A. MARTINET.

ROBT. F. GUICHARD.


NEW ORLEANS, April 8, 1882.

To the Senate and House Committees on the Improvement of the Mississippi River:

Mr. T. T. Allain having informed me of his intention to visit Washington, and as a sugar-planter interested in the reparation and maintenance of the levees in this State, and as a Representative of the colored people of this State, it gives me pleasure to indorse and recommend his mission as one of much importance.

I regard the colored laborer as well adapted to the cultivation of sugar and to the diseases of this climate, and should consider it as a misfortune


Page 213if it should be discouraged and driven away by the inability of the planter to restore the levees.

Congress, in protecting the great American interest of sugar, may incidentally provide employment for a great number of her colored race, estimated at more than one hundred thousand.

Mr. Allain deserves approval for his public spirit in urging upon Congress the importance of promptly assuming charge of the levees of Louisiana, and will be entitled to the gratitude of the planters and laborers for any influence he may exercise in securing the adoption of a system which will prevent Louisiana from the calamity of an overflow, and the public from the abandonment, and possibly the destruction of the sugar crop, which now retains at home more than $25,000,000, otherwise exported for the purchase of foreign sugar.

Your obedient servant,

R. S. HOWARD,
President Chamber of Commerce.


NEW ORLEANS COTTON EXCHANGE,
NEW ORLEANS, April 6, 1882.

        Hon. T. T. Allain, Louisiana State representative, is entitled to full encouragement and assistance from our Senators and Representatives in Congress, as a delegate from the suffering people of the overflowed section of Louisiana.

We therefore recommend him to their good offices, and earnestly request that he be granted such hearing as the importance of his mission warrants, which mission is to show fully the dire necessities of our people and their claims upon the general government for assistance in protecting themselves from a recurrence of the terrible disasters through which they are now suffering,

Very respectfully,

THOMAS L. AIREY,
President New Orleans Cotton Exchange.


NEW ORLEANS STOCK EXCHANGE,
NEW ORLEANS, April 8, 1882.

        The New Orleans Stock Exchange cordially indorses the mission as represented by Hon. T. T. Allain to succor the distressed sufferers from


Page 214the overflow, and trusts that his efforts to bring influence to rebuild our levees will be successful.

T. S. BARTON,
President.

A. A. BRINSMADE, Secretary.


NEW ORLEANS, April 6, 1882.

To Hon. W. P. Kellogg, U. S. Senator from Louisiana, and Hon. C. B. Darrall, Representative Third Congressional District of Louisiana, Washington. D. C.

GENTLEMEN: The undersigned, members of the Americus Club of this city, beg to commend to your favorable attention Hon. T. T. Allain, representative from Iberville Parish in our present State Legislature, who has been appointed to visit Washington, District of Columbia, by the Third Congressional District Committee of the State of Louisiana, with the view of obtaining National aid in rebuilding and maintaining the levees of the Mississippi river.

We ask that your aid and influence be given him in accomplishing this desirable object, and thanking you for your joint and individual effort in behalf of these interests, subscribe ourselves,

Yours respectfully.

WM. A. HALSTON,
Secretary Executive Committee.

P. LANDRY, Corresponding Secretary.

JAS. E. PORTER,
First Vice, Acting President.

GEO. H. WALKER,
Secretary Americus Club.

FRED. SIMMS,
Treasurer Americus Club.

F. Moss, Vice-President.

F. M. WARD,
Chairman Executive Committee,
Americus Club.

THOMAS J. BOSWELL.

A. P. WILLIAMS.

GEO. G. JOHNSON.

W. SILVERTHORN.

J. E. MARTINEZ.

W. S. WILSON.

JAMES D. MACARY.



Page 215

C. A. PHILIPPI & Co.,
COTTON FACTORS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
No. 48 UNION STREET, NEW ORLEANS, April 6, 1882.

To our Senators and Representatives in Congress:

GENTLEMEN: Hon. T. T. Allain, a prominent representative of the parish of Iberville, is delegated by a large number of planters and business men of Iberville and this city to proceed to Washington, to intercede with our Senators and Representatives in Congress, in asking the National government to build and maintain the levees of the Mississippi river. We desire to state that we furnished him on and for making his sugar crop about $4,000 within the last two years, all of which he has paid.

We therefore take pleasure in recommending Mr. Allain to our delegation in Congress, and ask a favorable consideration for the cause he advocates, and commend his statements.

Very respectfully,

C. A. PHILIPPI & Co.


OFFICE OF RENSHAW, CAMMACK & Co.,
COTTON AND SUGAR FACTORS, No. 32 PERDIDO STREET,
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, March 28, 1882.

To whom it may concern:

We have had business relations with the Hon. T. T. Allain, of Iberville parish during several years, and feel satisfied that any statement he might make concerning the condition of the levees and the consequent needs of the river parishes may be confidently relied on.

Very respectfully,

RENSHAW. CAMMACK & Co.

AR. MITTENBERGER & POLLOCK.

E. B. WHEELOCK.

STAUFFER MACREADY & Co.

HANSELL & WEBSTER

J. W. BURBRIDGE.

        I fully and cheerfully indorse all that is said above, and commend Mr. Allain to the Louisiana delegation in Congress, and respectfully request their thorough co-operation in his patriotic purpose.

I. N. MARKS



Page 216

CITIZENS’ BANK OF LOUISIANA,
BANKING DEPARTMENT,
NEW ORLEANS, April 8, 1882.

To the Hon. Senators and Representatives of the State of Louisiana in Congress, Washington, D. C.:

GENTLEMEN: The bearer, the Hon. T. T. Allain, a sugar planter of excellent repute, from parish Iberville, in our State, and no doubt known to most of you, comes to Washington accredited as a delegate from his parish and district, to intercede with members of Congress for an early and ample appropriation toward rebuilding the Mississippi river levees for the future protection of agricultural interests against a repetition of the disastrous and ruinous flood which has this year desolated so large a portion of our State.

We earnestly solicit from yourselves and associates in both houses a favorable consideration and prompt action toward the desired end, never so indispensable as now.

Very respectfully, your obedient servants,

E. L. CARRIERE,
President,

JAS. J. TARLETON,
Cashier.


OFFICE OF TERTROU & PUGH,
COTTON AND SUGAR FACTORS,
NEW ORLEANS, March 28, 1882.

HON. R. L. GIBSON, Washington:

DEAR SIR: We take pleasure in introducing to your acquaintance Hon. T. T. Allain, a prominent planter of the parish of Iberville, in this State, being a neighbor to a plantation whose owners are in Paris, and of whom we are the agents. Mr. Allain is from a parish in which are many large plantations and wealthy planters, and is personally known to us. He intends visiting Washington for and on account of levee purposes.

We therefore recommend him to your consideration and any aid or information which he may need, and extend to him, will be appreciated by,

Yours respectfully,

TERTROU & PUGH,

        I cordially indorse Hon. T. T. Allain as worthy and intelligent. Any courtesy extended him will be appreciated.

Respectfully,

CYRUS BUSSEY.



Page 217

OFFICE OF THE MANHATTAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY,
156 AND 158 BROADWAY, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, March 28, 1882.

HON. B. F. JONAS, Washington, D. C.:

DEAR SIR: Hon. T. T. Allain, of Iberville parish, visits Washington in the interest of levee protection for the State at large, and has the influence of our best citizens to aid his mission. As Mr. Allain represents the combined political elements of his parish, doubtless his visit will result in great benefit, just at this condition of distress arising from present high water.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, etc.,

H. M. ISAACSON.


THE SPEECH

Mr. Allain said:

MR. CHAIRMAN: The papers and documents which I have had the honor to present to you from the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce, the Cotton Exchange, and a number of prominent, wealthy, and deeply interested merchants and other business men of that city, together with the indorsement and recommendations of the Republican committee of the Third Congressional district of Louisiana, are the sanctions of authority and the credentials on which I venture to appear before you; not, however, without a profound sense of my inability to do full justice to a subject of such vast importance as the preservation of the levees of the Mississippi river by the National government, the advocacy of which I am charged with.

And, cheerfully as I respond to the obligations thus imposed, my diffidence is not at all diminished, and especially, when I remember how frequently, fully, forcibly–and, we had hoped, conclusively–it has been shown by facts, figures, arguments, and demonstrations that it was–and as it now is–the interest and the duty of the National government to build and keep in repair the levees of its mighty river, the Mississippi.

It is mine to-day, sir, to once more tread this beaten path, and if it be true that there is no evil without its corresponding good, it is mine to seize the lamentable opportunity, the moment when millions of acres of cultivable and cultivated cotton, sugar, and rice lands are many feet under water; when thousands of families are flooded out of their homes, are taking refuge everywhere, anywhere from the angry flood; when a


Page 218hundred thousand laborers, driven by the waters, have fled in every direction, to the utter demoralization of labor; when horses, mules, oxen, and innumerable, but valuable lesser animals are destroyed or sacrificed in one way or the other; I say that at this moment of our deepest affliction I am commissioned to come here and appeal to you and to the government to use every exertion, to relax no effort to save our section (as far as human agency and human effort can rescue us) from the periodic recurrence of these calamitous overflows.

I may state, as an absolute fact, that the States whose lands are periodically overflowed by the Mississippi river are utterly unable to build and maintain the levees to meet these occasional emergencies.

This argument in itself would not, I know, constitute any valid basis for our claim that the National government should therefore assume the task of efficiently providing against the disasters.

I have, therefore, been at some pains to prepare my statements to fortify the position I now assume, and that is, that it is the interest and the duty of the United States Government to construct and maintain an efficient system of levees along the banks of the Mississippi river, and that upon it must rest the enormous moral responsibility, at least, of the incalculable suffering and losses which are entailed by the overflows.

It is not necessary for me to labor to show you that the United States possessing and exercising the powers and prerogatives of absolute ownership of this mighty inland sea, is placed thereby under obligation to adopt every necessary precaution to keep it within bounds.

I take it that this branch of the subject having been so well and so frequently set before the government I need not dwell on it here.

I cannot resist the temptation, however, to quote the following forcible language from the speech of Hon. James B. Eustis, late United States Senator from my State:

“We know, Mr. President, that the jurisdictional authority of the United States Government is exclusive over that river throughout its length, and we know how that jurisdictional authority was acquired. It was acquired by the statutes of the United States and by the decisions of the Supreme Court. In the early period of our history there was a conflict going on between the Federal authority and the State governments, with reference to the jurisdiction over navigable streams, a controversy which was as acrimonious upon the bench of the Supreme Court


Page 219as was the slavery question. It was finally determined, after twenty-five years of contest, that the maritime and admiralty jurisdiction over those streams was exclusively vested in the Federal government; and only a short time ago, as high up as Shreveport, on Red river, it was decided that the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction over that stream was exclusively vested in the United States Government. That jurisdiction is an exhaustive jurisdiction. It denies to the States any authority, or any power, or any responsibility, or any obligation whatsoever touching the Mississippi river. The United States Government can bridge it; the United States Government can determine what commerce shall be carried on that river, what shall be the means of transportation on that river, who shall have the privilege of navigating that river; and it is even said in one of the decisions of the Supreme Court that it has the authority to change the channel of that river.

“Now, I ask, Mr. President, why is it, if every individual in this land, every corporation, is obliged to discharge the obligations and the responsibilities and the duties arising from the mere tutorship or control of property–I ask upon what ground can the United States absolve itself from that obligation and from that responsibility, particularly when we consider the immense loss and devastation and ruin which result from omitting to discharge that obligation? And I do not understand that there is any such thing as degree in national duties and national obligations. If I can convince the Senate that it is the duty of the United States Government, that it is an obligation of the United States Government, it then follows that it is as much a question of national faith to discharge that duty, to discharge that obligation, as for the Government of the United States to pay the interest on its public debt.”

Passing from this branch of the subject to the ability of the government, I presume that there is not one well-informed citizen of this great Republic that raises this question.

Then, if all these things be true, the only essential lacking is the willingness of the government to recognize the propriety, the justice, and the obligation to undertake this work.

And I hold that it is as much to the interest as it is the duty of government to undertake the task of protecting the lands on both sides of its river from incursions by its occasionally turbulent stream.


Page 220

It is the interest of the National Government because of the enormous revenue–the support–which it derives from the section of country which suffers from overflows.

I am aware that this is an appeal to the Nation on the lowest plane–the sordid motive of self-interest, but the argument I hold is sound and the conclusions I shall draw most just.

Taking Louisiana as the illustration, look at our production and the revenue which the National Government derives as the necessary direct result of our agricultural products.

Not to be tedious, Mr. Chairman, I will offer the tabulated statement of Hon. R. L. Gibson, one of our congressmen, in his recent specch on the Hawaian treaty and sugar.

I give you our production of sugar from 1870 to 1880, and rice from 1877 to 1880:

Year. Sugar. Molasses. Rice.
Hogsheads. Pounds. Gallons. Pounds.
1869-’70 87,090 99,452,946 5,724,256
1870-’71 144,881 168,878,592 10,281,419
1871-’72 128,461 146,906,125 10,019,958
1872-’73 108,520 125,346,493 8,898,640
1873-’74 89,498 103,241,119 8,203,944
1874-’75 116,867 134,504,691 11,516,828
1875-’76 144,146 163,418,070 10,870,546
1876-’77 169,331 190,672,570 12,024,108
1877-’78 127,753 147,101,941 14,237,280 35,080,520
1878-’79 213,221 239,478,753 13,218,404 36,592,310
1879-’80 169,972 198,962,278 12,189,190 20,728,520

In the matter of cotton it is as important as it is interesting to note a few particulars.

The Southern country produced in 1880 the enormous amount of 2,770,000,000 (two billions seven hundred and seventy millions) of pounds of raw cotton, which is nearly four-fifths of the entire cotton crop of the world.

During the war we had no production to speak of; but after that dreary period, and when we had resumed cultivation under the new and improved order of things, the increase in the production of this staple became marked.


Page 221

Every year since 1866-’67, except in overflow years, we have increased our cotton production until 1880, when we reached the magnificent figures of 6,611,000 bales, as will be more fully seen by the following extract from the report of “Louisiana Products,” by Commissioner W. H. Harris, to the Legislature of 1881:

COTTON CROP OF THE SOUTH.

  • Year. . . . . . Crop.
  • 1872-’73 . . . . . 3,930,508
  • 1873-’74 . . . . . 4,185,534
  • 1874-’75 . . . . . 3,832,991
  • 1875-’76 . . . . . 4,669,283
  • 1876-’77 . . . . . 4,485,423
  • 1877-’78 . . . . . 4,773,765
  • 1878-’79 . . . . . 5,074,155
  • 1879-’80 . . . . . 5,761,252
  • 1880-’81 . . . . . 6,611,000

The value, sir, of these staple productions of our lands, which are largely subject to overflow, make an aggregate value that to me, at least, is perfectly bewildering.

I have heard it declared the conception of a million was an overtax on an ordinary mind. But, sir, when we figure up the annual value of our sugar, cotton, and rice crops, we cannot but be astounded to find that we run up into hundreds of millions of dollars.

This year, sir, unfortunately we shall find no difficulty in computing and comprehending the value of our production.

But when it is taken into account that we pay cheerfully into the National treasury our proportion of the taxes for the support of government, and that from such an exhibit, brief and incomplete as it is, it can be readily seen that in this matter we are not paupers, and that we need feel no hesitancy in coming up here urging and demanding that the National Government, which so generously, but not always wisely, donates millions upon millions to railroads, should return to us a modicum of our contributions in the shape of the preservation of the levees of the great Father of Waters.

The loss in revenue to the United States Government this year will be greater than the few millions we are asking and which we deserve to have.


Page 222

Again, the expenditure of over a million of dollars in rations, which have been hurried to our rescue so promptly and so cheerfully, is an expenditure that might have been better utilized.

Build the levees and keep them in order, and then we shall not need to appeal for bread and meat, and tents and medicines.

Demoralizing as we know these things to be, we earnestly desire to dispense forever with the reliance on charity for food and shelter. But driven by our extremities, we have been compelled to once more tolerate the call for and dependence on “rations.”

It seems to me, Mr. Chairman, that where so many important channels of profit are neglected that there must be some duty in the matter, and hence I say that it is the duty of the National Government to undertake without further delay the construction and keeping in order an efficient system of levees along the Mississippi banks.

For years we have had river committees, and river conventions, and Mississippi Valley conventions, and public meetings, and public speeches, and monster petitions, all in the direction of urging on Congress the duty of undertaking this work, but up to this date all of our appeals have been unavailing.

I say, sir, that we hold it to be the constitutional prerogative and duty of Congress to provide “for the welfare of the United States.”

We form, in the relations we have alluded to, no inconsiderable portion of the United States, and our welfare is materially injured by the tresp